Bess of Hardwick
Elizabeth Cavendish Elizabeth Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury, known as Bess of Hardwick, of Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire, was a notable figure of Elizabethan English society. By a series of well-made marriages, she rose to the highest levels of English nobility and became enormously wealthy. Bess was a shrewd business woman, increasing her assets with business interests including mines and glass-making workshops, she was married four times, firstly to Robert Barlow, who died aged about 14 or 15 on 24 December 1544. An accomplished needlewoman, Bess joined her husband's captive charge at Chatsworth House for extended periods in 1569, 1570, 1571, during which time they worked together on the Oxburgh Hangings. In 1601, Bess ordered an inventory of the household furnishings including textiles at her three properties at Chatsworth and Chelsea, which survives, in her will she bequeathed these items to her heirs to be preserved in perpetuity; the 400-year-old collection, now known as the Hardwick Hall textiles, is the largest collection of tapestry, embroidery and other textiles to have been preserved by a single private family.
Bess is well known for her building projects, the most famous of which are Chatsworth, now the seat of the Dukes of Devonshire, Hardwick Hall. Elizabeth Hardwick was the daughter of John Hardwick of Derbyshire by his wife Elizabeth Leeke, daughter of Thomas Leeke and Margaret Fox, her exact birthdate is unknown, but is most to be in the latter half of 1527 according to her witness statement under oath at a court hearing in October 1546, in which she gives her age at the time of her first marriage in May 1543 as being'of tender years', i.e. less than 16. It cannot be than 1527 because of the date of her father's death, given in his Inquisition Post Mortem; the Hardwicks had arrived in Derbyshire from Sussex by the mid-thirteenth century, farmed land granted by Robert Savage, lord of the manor of Slingsby, on the north-east border of Derbyshire, looking over Nottinghamshire. By the mid-fifteenth century the family had risen to'gentleman-yeoman' stock, with an estate of a few hundred acres located in the parish of Ault Hucknall in the manor of Slingsby.
The Hardwick coat of arms of Hardwick was granted c.1450 to William Hardwick. The blazon is: Argent, a saltier engrailed azure on a chief of the second three cinquefoils of the first; when giving evidence of his right to arms in 1569, Bess's only brother, James Hardwick, provided the heralds with a pedigree of his family which began with this William, who died c. 1453. James was the last surviving legitimate male member of the Hardwick family; the Hardwicks were members of the minor gentry of Scarsdale. Bess was born into this minor gentry family, her fourth marriage to the earl of Shrewsbury in 1567 elevated her to the rank of'countess', following the earl's death in November 1590, Bess became one of the richest women in the kingdom. She set about building her greatest monument, Hardwick New Hall, completed in 1599. John Hardwick died aged about 40 leaving a widow and four daughters, his widow, Elizabeth Leeke remarried to Ralph, the second son of the neighbouring Leche family of Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, by whom she would leave an additional three co-heiresses.
Little is known of Bess's early life. She appears to have been espoused to her first husband during the 1530s,and married for the first time in 1543. Despite the story being repeated, there is no contemporary evidence whatsoever to support Dugdale's claims that she became familiar with city life and the Tudor Court after being sent to live, aged twelve, in the London household of Anne Gainsford, Lady Zouche of Codnor Castle in Derbyshire, where she was influenced by Lady Zouche. Despite a lack of evidence, it is possible – but no more than that – that at some point after the death of her first husband, she entered the service of the Zouches at Codnor Castle in Derbyshire. A close family associate was a man named Henry Marmion whose family held land close to Codnor, may have commended Bess to the Zouches who, along with the Vernons, were the only major Derbyshire family to have taken in such children. However, Anne Gainsford was in service in the households of Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour, despite marrying Sir George Zouche in 1533, spent much of her time at court until after 1536, when she and Sir George made Codnor Castle their main residence.
Not this period coincides with that Dugdale claimed Bess was in service to Anne Gainsford in London and at Codnor. However, there is no evidence to support the story, Dugdale would have known much more about the early life of Lady Zouche than was known of Bess's origins, it is again down to Dugdale that the story came about that from Codnor Bess entered the service of the Greys at Bradgate in Leicestershire, where she met and married her second husband, Sir William Cavendish. She married Sir William at Bradgate, but that in itself does not prove that Bess was in service at Bradgate, it remains possible that she met Sir William elsewhere at Codnor. In 1543, Bess married 13-year-old heir to a neighbouring estate; the exact date of her marriage to Robert is unkn
Coldingham Priory was a house of Benedictine monks. It lies in the village of Coldingham, Berwickshire. Coldingham Priory was founded in the reign of David I of Scotland, although his older brother and predecessor King Edgar of Scotland had granted the land of Coldingham to the Church of Durham in 1098, a church was constructed by him and presented in 1100; the first prior of Coldingham is on record by the year 1147, although it is that the foundation was much earlier. The earlier monastery at Coldingham was founded by St Æbbe sometime c. 640 AD. Although the monastery was destroyed by Oliver Cromwell in 1650, some remains of the priory exist, the choir of which forms the present parish church of Coldingham and is serviced by the Church of Scotland. Æbbe was born c. 615 AD into both royal houses of Northumbria, the daughter of King Æthelfrith of Bernicia, Acha, a daughter of Ælla of Deira. In 616, she and her family were forced to flee with her family to Dál Riata following the death of her father at the Battle of the River Idle, fought against Rædwald of East Anglia.
The defeat led to the succession of Edwin of Northumbria. At the court of Eochaid Buide she and her brothers converted to Christianity. King Eochaid's father, Áedán mac Gabráin had been a contemporary of St Columba, his grandfather, Conall mac Comgaill, had given the saint leave to build his mission on Iona. Following the defeat of Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase in 633 against Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon ap Cadfan, the subsequent despoliation of Northumbria, Æbbe's brother Oswald gained control of the kingdom by 635 AD, enabling the return of his family. In c. 635 King Oswald introduced Columban monks to the island of Lindisfarne, opposite his fortress of Bebbanburg, in order to Christianise his pagan peoples. Under these auspices, Æbbe first founded a monastery at Ebchester at what Bede refers to as Urbs Coludi, it is uncertain when these establishments were founded although Æbbe first appears in records of the Lindisfarne by 642 AD, the date of her brother's death. Oswald was succeeded by Oswiu.
Both brothers were given the title of Bretwalda by Bede. The abbey was sited on what is now called Kirk-Hill, but is called the Brugh, on the headland at present day St Abbs, separated from the world by a deep trench and a high palisade; this religious house lasted for about 40 years and was a double monastery of both monks and nuns governed by Æbbe. Around 660 St Æthelthryth, Queen of Æbbe's nephew, Ecgfrith of Northumbria took the veil as a nun, under the tutelage of St Wilfrid. Æthelthryth was to found Ely Cathedral. Saint Cuthbert arrived at Coldingham in 661 to instruct the community. Æbbe had difficulties maintaining discipline. One of the monks, Adomnán by name, prophesied the house's destruction; the abbey at Coldingham was rebuilt. Æbbe is remembered as a religieuse of great piety who helped to spread Christianity in Northumbria and beyond. Her feast day is on 25 August. All that remains today at the Kirk-hill is the trench, a few grassy mounds and the ruin of a 14th-century church erected by monks of the priory.
There are few references to the house at Coldingham from its destruction until its revival in the 11th century, excepting tales of a superior called Æbbe. It is that the house was reformed as community of nuns at some point in the 8th or 9th centuries, as by the formation of the Benedictine priory in 1100 AD there was a thriving cult of St Æbbe at the site; the house appears to have moved from its original site at St Abb's Head to its present location around this time. St Æbbe the Younger is a semi-mythological abbess of Coldingham. In 870 AD a raiding party of Danes sacked it. Legend has it that faced with the dishonour that St Æbbe and her sisters expected, they mutilated themselves by cutting off their noses and lips; the nuns made themselves as unappealing as possible to the marauders, thereby foregoing rape and accepting martyr's deaths. The story is somewhat unreliable as there are no near contemporary accounts, it is first recorded by Matthew Paris some 250 years later. In 1097, Étgar mac Maíl Choluim had gained control of Scotland from his uncle Domnall Bán.
The son of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, he attacked and deposed King Domnall with the backing of William Rufus of England. According to a charter of 1095, he was given the "land of Lothian" by the English king before securing possession of Scotland-proper. Following his takeover of Lothian and Scotland, in 1098 he confirmed possession of the lands of Coldingham by the monks of Durham, attended the consecration of the new church to St Mary in 1100. In the following years the brethren of Coldingham were to gain many charters of land, so that within fifty years they were able to assume the dignity of a Priory; the Priory became the caput for the Barony of Coldingham. On 2 January 1392 Sir Robert de Lawedre of The Bass was a witness to a Royal Charter to the Priory of Coldingham confirming them in all of their ancient possessions, signed at Linlithgow. Please see main article:Prior of Coldingham After the Reformation the Priory and Barony passed into secular hands. In 1592 the Priory became the possession of Alexander Home, 1st Earl of Home and in November he and his wife Christian Douglas moved in, organising repairs and moving furniture in the hall and chamber.
The barony of Col
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland. It is the northernmost town in England, at the mouth of the River Tweed on the east coast, 2 1⁄2 miles south of the Scottish border. Berwick is 56 miles east-south east of Edinburgh, 65 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles north of London; the United Kingdom census, 2011 recorded Berwick's population as 12,043. A civil parish and town council were created in 2008 comprising the communities of Berwick and Tweedmouth. Berwick was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, annexed by England in the 10th century; the area was for more than 400 years central to historic border wars between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, several times possession of Berwick changed hands between the two kingdoms. The last time it changed hands was when Richard of Gloucester retook it for England in 1482. To this day many Berwickers feel a close affinity to Scotland. Berwick remains a traditional market town and has some notable architectural features, in particular its medieval town walls, its Georgian Town Hall, its Elizabethan ramparts, Britain's earliest barracks buildings, which Nicholas Hawksmoor built for the Board of Ordnance.
The name "Berwick" is of Old English origin, is derived from the term bere-wīc, combining bere, meaning "barley", wīc, referring to a farm or settlement. "Berwick" thus means "barley village" or "barley farm". Alternative etymologies, including ones connecting the name with the Anglo-Saxon kingdom Bernicia, the Brythonic element aber, meaning'estuary, confluence', have been suggested. In the post-Roman period, the area was inhabited by the Brythons of Bryneich; the region became part of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia united with the kingdom of Deira to form Northumbria, which in the mid-10th century entered the Kingdom of England under Eadred. Berwick remained part of the Earldom of Northumbria until control passed to the Scots following the Battle of Carham of 1018; the town itself was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria. Between the late 10th and early 11th centuries, the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed came under Scottish control, either through conquest by Scotland or through cession by England.
Berwick was made a royal burgh in the reign of David I. A mint was present in the town by 1153. In 1276 William de Baddeby was Constable of Berwick, it is unclear if this relates to the castle. While under Scottish control, Berwick was referred to as "South Berwick" in order to differentiate it from the town of North Berwick, East Lothian, near Edinburgh. Berwick had a mediaeval hospital for the sick and poor, administered by the Church. A charter under the Great Seal of Scotland, confirmed by King James I of Scotland, grants the king's chaplain "Thomas Lauder of the House of God or Hospital lying in the burgh of Berwick-upon-Tweed, to be held to him for the whole time of his life with all lands, teinds and profits, etc. belonging to the said hospital, as as is granted to any other hospital in the Kingdom of Scotland. Dated at Edinburgh June 8, in the 20th year of his reign." Berwick's strategic position on the Anglo-Scottish border during centuries of war between the two nations and its great wealth led to a succession of raids and takeovers.
William I of Scotland invaded and attempted to capture northern England in 1173–74. After his defeat, Berwick was ceded to Henry II of England, it was sold back to William by Richard I of England in order to raise funds for his Crusade. Berwick had become a prosperous town by the middle of the 13th century. According to William Edington, a bishop and chancellor of England, Berwick was "so populous and of such commercial importance that it might rightly be called another Alexandria, whose riches were the sea and the water its walls". In 1291–92 Berwick was the site of Edward I of England's arbitration in the contest for the Scottish crown between John Balliol and Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale; the decision in favour of Balliol was pronounced in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292. In 1296 England went to war with which Scotland was in alliance. Balliol invaded England in response. Edward in turn invaded Scotland and captured Berwick, destroying much of the town and massacring some 20,000 of the inhabitants.
Edward I went again to Berwick in August 1296 to receive formal homage from some 2,000 Scottish nobles, after defeating the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar in April and forcing John Balliol to abdicate at Kincardine Castle the following July. It was at this time. An arm of William Wallace was displayed at Berwick after his execution and quartering on 23 August 1305. In 1314 Edward II of England mustered 25,000 men at Berwick, who fought in the Battle of Bannockburn. Between 1315 and 1318 Scottish armies, sometimes with the help of Flemish and German privateers and blockaded the town invading and capturing it in April 1318. England retook Berwick the day after the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. In October 1357 a treaty was signed at Berwick by which the Scottish estates undertook to pay 100,000 marks as a ransom for David II of Scotland, w
Mary Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury
Mary Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury was the wife of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury. Born Mary Cavendish, she was the daughter of Sir William Cavendish, who died when she was about a year old, his wife Bess of Hardwick. By all accounts, Mary inherited colourful character. Bess of Hardwick remarried to Sir William St. Loe, who left his wife everything when he died in 1564/5, making her one of the most eligible women in England. From The Living Age: Lady St. Loe consented to give her hand and heart to the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury in consideration of his settling a large jointure on her, marrying his second son, Gilbert Talbot, to her daughter, Mary Cavendish, his daughter Grace to her son Henry Cavendish; these preliminary alliances were duly effected in 1568, one of the brides, being not quite twelve years old. The parents were married soon after, she married her stepbrother Gilbert Talbot the 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, in 1568. Their children were: George, 1575–1577 Mary Countess of Pembroke Elizabeth Countess of Kent John and died 1583 Alethea Countess of Arundel Although her family was Anglican Protestant, Mary converted to Catholicism as an adult.
This may have been one of the reasons why she gave financial assistance to her niece Arbella Stuart, first cousin to the King, in 1610, with the knowledge that the latter was planning to elope to the Continent with her cousin William Seymour. This marriage was certain to enrage King James I of England, since William, like Arbella, had a respectable claim to the Throne. For this Mary was imprisoned in the Tower of London, she was tried for her role in the elopement, was fined, but not released. Arbella accused Mary of being involved in a Catholic plot. Arbella's biographer remarks that Mary's motives in aiding Arbella are difficult to understand: allowing that Mary was a Catholic, fond of her niece, she was intelligent enough to understand the dire consequences for herself, she relied on her husband's influence to save her from the Tower, like her mother she was one of the few women of the time, used to getting her own way. Mary was distressed by Arbella's death since she had been assured that Arbella was on the road to recovery, remarked that she could think of nothing else.
In 1615, after Arbella's death, Mary was released from the Tower in recognition of her role in detecting the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, because her husband was ill. However, a few years in 1618, she was called to give evidence in the course of an inquiry into the rumors that Arbella had secretly given birth to a child. Mary refused to testify, saying she had sworn a binding oath not to, was returned to the Tower, where she remained until 1623, occupying the best lodgings. Mary was not intimidated: Dorothy L. Sayers in her novel Gaudy Night described her as "uncontrollable by her menfolk, undaunted by the Tower, contempuously silent before the Privy Council". Francis Bacon is said to have remarked that while Lord Shrewsbury was no doubt a great man, there was one greater than he, his wife. There is a brief sketch of her character in the mystery novel Gaudy Night by Dorothy L. Sayers, set in Shrewsbury College, a fictional Oxford college named in her honour; the heroine Harriet Vane studies Lady Shrewsbury's portrait and wonders why the college had chosen "so ominous a patroness... a great intellectual but something of a holy terror"
James V of Scotland
James V was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. His only surviving legitimate child, Queen of Scots, succeeded him when she was just six days old. James was the son of King James IV of Scotland and his wife Margaret Tudor, a daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII, was the only legitimate child of James IV to survive infancy, he was born on 10 April 1512 at Linlithgow Palace and baptized the following day, receiving the titles Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He became king at just seventeen months old when his father was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. James was crowned in the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle on 21 September 1513. During his childhood the country was ruled by regents, first by his mother, until she remarried the following year, by John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, next in line to the Crown after James and his younger brother, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross, who died in infancy.
Other regents included Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell, a member of the Council of Regency, bestowed as Regent of Arran, the largest island in the Firth of Clyde. In February 1517 James came from Stirling to Holyroodhouse, but during an outbreak of plague in the city he was moved to the care of Antoine d'Arces at nearby rural Craigmillar Castle. At Stirling, the 10-year-old James had a guard of 20 footmen dressed in his colours and yellow; when he went to the park below the Castle, "by secret and in right fair and soft wedder," six horsemen would scour the countryside two miles roundabout for intruders. Poets advised him on royal behavior; as a youth, his education was in the care of University of St Andrews poets such as Sir David Lyndsay. William Stewart, in his poem Princelie Majestie, written in Middle Scots, counselled James against ice-skating: To princes als it is ane vyce,To ryd or run over rakleslie, Or aventure to go on yce, Accordis nocht to thy majestie. In the autumn of 1524 James was proclaimed an adult ruler by his mother.
Several new court servants were appointed including Henry Rudeman. Thomas Magnus, the English diplomat, gave an impression of the new Scottish court at Holyroodhouse on All Saints' Day 1524: "trumpets and shamulles did sounde and blewe up mooste pleasauntely." Magnus saw the young king singing, playing with a spear at Leith, with his horses, he was given the impression that the king preferred English manners over French fashions. In 1525 Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, the young king's stepfather, took custody of James and held him as a virtual prisoner for three years, exercising power on his behalf. There were several attempts made to free the young King – one by Walter Scott of Branxholme and Buccleuch, who ambushed the King's forces on 25 July 1526 at the battle of Melrose, was routed off the field. Another attempt that year, on 4 September at the battle of Linlithgow Bridge, failed again to relieve the King from the clutches of Angus; when James and his mother came to Edinburgh on 20 November 1526, she stayed in the chambers at Holyroodhouse, which Albany had used, James using the rooms above.
In February 1527 Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, gave James a huntsman. Magnus thought the Scottish servant sent to Sheriff Hutton Castle for the dogs was intended to note the form and fashion of the Duke's household, for emulation in Scotland. James escaped from Angus's care in 1528 and assumed the reins of government himself; the first action James took. The Douglas family – excluding James's sister, safely in England – were forced into exile and James besieged their castle at Tantallon, he subdued the Border rebels and the chiefs of the Western Isles. As well as taking advice from his nobility and using the services of the Duke of Albany in France and at Rome, James had a team of professional lawyers and diplomats, including Adam Otterburn and Thomas Erskine of Haltoun, his pursemaster and yeoman of the wardrobe, John Tennent of Listonschiels, was sent on an errand to England, though he got a frosty reception. James increased his income by tightening control over royal estates and from the profits of justice and feudal rights.
He gave his illegitimate sons lucrative benefices, diverting substantial church wealth into his coffers. James spent a large amount of his wealth on building work at Stirling Castle, Falkland Palace, Linlithgow Palace and Holyrood, he built up a collection of tapestries from those inherited from his father. James strengthened the royal fleet. In 1540 he sailed to Kirkwall in Orkney Lewis, in his ship the Salamander, first making a will in Leith, knowing this to be "uncertane aventuris." The purpose of this voyage was to show the royal presence and hold regional courts, called "justice ayres." Domestic and international policy was affected by the Reformation after Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church. James V did not tolerate heresy, during his reign a number of outspoken Protestants were persecuted; the most famous of these was Patrick Hamilton, burned at the stake as a heretic at St Andrews in 1528. In the reign, the English ambassador Ralph Sadler tried to encourage James to close the monasteries and take their revenue so that he would not have to keep sheep like a mean subject.
James replied that he had no sheep, he could depend on his god-father the King of France, it was against reason to close the abbeys that "stand these many years, God's service
Francis Knollys (the elder)
Sir Francis Knollys, KG of Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire was an English courtier in the service of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Elizabeth I, was a Member of Parliament for a number of constituencies. Francis Knollys was born 1511, the elder son of Sir Robert Knollys and Lettice Peniston, daughter of Sir Thomas Peniston of Hawridge, henchman to Henry VIII, he appears to have received some education at Oxford. He married Catherine Carey, first cousin of Queen Elizabeth I. Henry VIII extended to him the favour that he had shown to his father, secured to him in fee the estate of Rotherfield Greys in 1538. Acts of Parliament in 1540–41 and in 1545–46 attested this grant, making his wife in the second act joint tenant with him. At the same time Francis became one of the gentlemen-pensioners at court, in 1539 attended Anne of Cleves on her arrival in England. In 1542 he entered the House of Commons for the first time as member for Horsham. At the beginning of Edward VI's reign he accompanied the English army to Scotland, was knighted by the commander-in-chief, the Duke of Somerset, at the camp at Roxburgh on 28 September 1547.
Knollys' strong Protestant convictions recommended him to the young king and to his sister the Princess Elizabeth, he spent much time at court, taking a prominent part not only in tournaments there, but in religious discussion. On 25 November 1551 he was present at Sir William Cecil's house, at a conference between several Catholics and Protestants respecting the corporeal presence in the Sacrament. About the same date he was granted the manors of Caversham in Cholsey in Berkshire. At the end of 1552 he visited Ireland on public business; the accession of Mary in 1553 darkened Knollys' prospects. His religious opinions placed him in opposition to the government, he deemed it prudent to cross to Germany. On his departure the Princess Elizabeth wrote to his wife a sympathetic note, expressing a wish that they would soon be able to return in safety. Knollys first took up his residence in Frankfurt, where he was admitted a church-member on 21 December 1557, but afterwards removed to Strasburg. According to Fuller, he "bountifully communicated to the necessities" of his fellow-exiles in Germany, at Strasburg he seems to have been on intimate terms with John Jewel and Peter Martyr.
Before Mary's death he returned to England, as a man "of assured understanding and truth, well affected to the Protestant religion," he was admitted to Elizabeth's privy council in December 1558. He was soon afterwards made Vice-Chamberlain of the Household and captain of the halberdiers, while his wife – a first cousin of Elizabeth – became a woman of the queen's privy chamber. In 1560 Knollys' wife and son Robert were granted for their lives the manor of Taunton, part of the property of the see of Winchester. In 1559 Knollys was chosen MP in 1562 knight of the shire for Oxfordshire, he was appointed chief steward of Oxford in Feb 1564 until 1592. In 1572 he was re-elected member for Oxfordshire, sat for that constituency until his death. Throughout his parliamentary career he was a frequent spokesman for the government on questions of general politics, but in ecclesiastical matters he preserved as a zealous puritan an independent attitude. Knollys' friendship with the queen and Cecil led to his employment in many state offices.
In 1563 he was governor of Portsmouth, was much harassed in August by the difficulties of supplying the needs in men and money of the Earl of Warwick, engaged on his disastrous expedition to Le Havre. In April 1566 he was sent to Ireland to control the expenditure of Sir Henry Sidney, the lord deputy, trying to repress the rebellion of Shane O'Neill, was much hampered by the interference of court factions at home, it was, he explained, out of the question to conduct the campaign against the Irish rebels on economical lines. In August 1564 he accompanied the queen to Cambridge, was created MA. Two years he went to Oxford with his sovereign, received a like distinction there. In the same year he was appointed treasurer of the queen's chamber and in 1570 promoted to Treasurer of the Household. In May 1568 Mary, Queen of Scots fled to England, flung herself on Elizabeth's protection, she had found refuge in Carlisle Castle, the delicate duty of taking charge of the fugitive was entrusted jointly to Knollys and to Henry Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton.
On 28 May Knollys arrived at the castle, was admitted to Mary's presence. At his first interview he was conscious of Mary's powerful fascination, but to her requests for an interview with Elizabeth, for help to regain her throne, he returned the evasive answers which Elizabeth's advisers had suggested to him, he frankly drew her attention to the suspicions in which Darnley's murder involved her. A month passed, no decision was reached in London respecting Mary's future. On 13 July Knollys contrived to remove her, despite "'her tragical demonstrations", to Bolton Castle, the seat of Lord Scrope, where he tried to amuse her by teaching her to write and speak English. Knollys's position grew more and more distasteful, writing on 16 July to Cecil, whom he kept well informed of Mary's conversation and conduct, he angrily demanded his recall, but while lamenting his occupation, Knollys conscientiously endeavoured to convert his prisoner to his puritanic views, she read the English prayer-book under his guidance.
In his discussions with her he commended so unreservedly the doctrines and forms of Geneva that Elizabeth, on learning his line of