Mary Steinhauser

Mary Steinhauser was a Canadian social worker and prison classification officer, killed during a hostage-taking at the B. C. Penitentiary in 1975. On June 9, 1975, Steinhauser was one of 15 people that were taken hostage by three inmates, Andy Bruce, Dwight Lucas and Claire Wilson, who were attempting a prison breakout. Prior to the hostage-taking and her death, Steinhauser was an outspoken advocate against solitary confinement. A bursary was opened in Steinhauser's name and benefits Simon Fraser University Aboriginal Undergraduate Students in Arts & Social Sciences. Steinhauser was born in Duncan, British Columbia, Canada, on August 25, 1942. Mary was the elder daughter of August Johanna Reisner's two children. Mary Steinhauser's father emigrated to Canada in 1925 from Germany, he began farming in Edmonton and subsequently moved to Lake Cowichan, BC where he worked in the sawmill. Mary Steinhauser's mother immigrated to Canada in 1939 from Austria. Mary's parents married in 1941. Steinhauser grew up in Lake Cowichan until age 5, when she moved with her family to Burton, British Columbia, a small town in the West Kootenays, where her parents had purchased a farm.

Upon graduation from secondary school in Nakusp, BC, Mary began her training as a psychiatric nurse at Essondale, BC. After working at Essondale for 2 years, she moved to Toronto and worked for one year as a nurse at the Queen Street Mental Health Hospital. Following this, she returned to BC, taking up nursing duties at Tranquille School for the mentally handicapped in Kamloops for 2 years. Steinhauser began work as a psychiatric nurse for the Matsqui Institution, a newly opened medium-security prison in Matsqui, BC. From 1967 to 1970, Steinhauser studied psychology and sociology at Simon Fraser University in BC, where she graduated in 1971 with a BA in Psychology and Sociology. After attaining her bachelor's degree, she began graduate studies at the University of British Columbia in social work. On the day in question, inmates Bruce and Wilson made an unsuccessful attempt to escape from prison and took 15 people hostage. Steinhauser, taken hostage at knifepoint, volunteered to be the principal hostage, which meant that she was held in a room outside the vault area where all the other hostages were kept.

The three inmates demanded several things, including medical examinations for Lucas and Bruce, access to hot and cold water in isolation cells, restoration of recreation yard privileges for segregated prisoners. They demanded safe passage out of the country; the hostage stand-off lasted for 41 hours. During this time, the inmates kept their hostages in the penitentiary's vault, with the exception of Mary. At 1 A. M. on June 11, one of the hostages tried to overpower the inmates in an attempt to escape, after which point all of the hostages except Steinhauser retreated to the vault, where they locked themselves inside. Soon after, a tactical squad of prison officers attempted to rescue the hostages and fired upon the hostage-takers, fatally shooting Steinhauser, being held as a human shield in front of Bruce. Police Chief Rod Keary informed reporters that prior to her shooting, Steinhauser had been stabbed by the inmates, per reports from the other hostages; this was proven to be erroneous by the coroner's report, which stated that Steinhauser had received two bullet wounds and had abrasions and recent needle marks in both forearms.

After the shooting an inquest was opened, which alleged that prison guard Albert Hollinger was the officer who shot Steinhauser. The inquest alleged that Hollinger had deliberately switched up the tactical team's guns in an attempt to keep from being identified as the shooter while claiming that he was collecting the guns in order to keep them away from prisoners. In January 1976, Andy Bruce appeared in a New Westminster provincial court where he gave his account of the hostage-taking situation to Judge Philip Govan. Bruce said that after the prison tactical squad arrived all of the hostages except for Mary Steinhauser shut themselves inside a vault in the penitentiary. According to Bruce, the other hostages "acted out of fear. Andy Bruce went on to allege that, after being shot twice in the jaw by a prison guard he identified as Albert Hollinger, Mary Steinhauser crawled in front him, where "she screamed,'Don't shoot him.'" After this, according to Bruce's testimony, Hollinger killed Mary Steinhauser.

In an interview on June 11, 1975, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau commented on the hostage-taking incident. Trudeau stated how "very sorry" he felt about Mary Steinhauser's death and he discussed the federal government's commitment to not letting the inmates escape: "To make sure these guys wouldn't get off with anything...we would hound them wherever they were." In July 1976 a jury ruled that the shooting was not intentional and that the guards, including Hollinger, were acting under the belief that Steinhauser's life was being threatened by the inmates. The jury further recommended that future, similar incidents be handled by outside teams that have been trained in hostage situations; the play One Tiger to a Hill by Sharon Pollock is loosely based on the incident. The incident was fictionalized in its film adaptation Walls; the Steinhauer role in those works was given the name Joan Tremblay, was played by Andrée Pelletier in the film. In 2014 a stage performance entitled Brave: The Mary Steinhauser Legacy was held at the Terry Fox Theatre in Port Coquitlam.

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Ronaldsway is a place in the parish of Malew in the south of the Isle of Man, between the village of Ballasalla and the town of Castletown. It is notable as the location of Isle of Man Airport and of RNAS Ronaldsway, together with the adjoining customs free zone and industrial estate; the place name is derived from the Old Norse personal name Rǫgnvaldr and the Old Norse element vað meaning "ford", or alternatively vágr meaning "large, narrow bay" as in Stornoway. It is possible that the eponym of Ronaldsway is Rǫgnvaldr King of the Isles; the site was once a landing place for Castle Castletown. Ronaldsway first appears on record in the Chronicle of Mann, which documents an instance when Rǫgnvaldr's half-brother, Óláfr, landed on the island in 1224, confronted him for a share of the kingdom. Ronaldsway is the site of the Battle of Ronaldsway, fought in October 1275, in which a Manx revolt led by Guðrøðr Magnússon was crushed by Scottish royal forces. Ronaldsway is one of the 22 coastal weather stations whose conditions are reported in the BBC Shipping Forecast.

There is a request stop on the Isle of Man railway located just west of the Ronaldsway Industrial Estate on the Silverburn river. BA Connect had an engineering base in Ronaldsway. After Flybe acquired BA Connect, Flybe announced. While the airfield runway at Ronaldsway Airport was being extended during the Second World War, a sunken-floored structure was uncovered dating from the third millennium BC in the late Neolithic era; the distinctive nature of the finds, including pots and stone tools, gave rise to the name Ronaldsway culture, similar artefacts have been found elsewhere

Birth of a Family

Birth of a Family is a 2017 First Nations Canadian documentary directed by Tasha Hubbard and co-written by Tasha Hubbard and Betty Ann Adams. Three sisters and a brother, adopted as infants into separate families across North America, meet together for the first time; the reunion emerged from decades of searching by the eldest of the family. Removed from their young Dene mother's care as part of Canada's infamous Sixties Scoop, Betty Ann, Esther and Ben were four of the 20,000 Indigenous children taken from their families between 1955 and 1985, to be either adopted into white families or to live in foster care; the documentary follows the siblings as they reunite in Alberta. As the four siblings piece together their shared history, their connection deepens, bringing laughter with it, their family begins to take shape. In 2014, Betty Ann Adam, a reporter at the StarPhoenix, approached Hubbard about documenting her planned reunion and her intentions to direct the project. Hubbard pitched the idea to the National Film Board and the response was supportive.

However, the NFB made it. Adam agreed in order to be more and physically present for the upcoming reunion. In an article for the StarPhoenix, she emphasised the importance of having a director who had a similar lived experience of forced removal and adoption into a non-Indigenous family during the Sixties Scoop. Adam said, "It was perfect to have a director. We knew that would inform her approach toward the story, that she would understand certain things about what we were going through." This responsibility for holding space and minimal interference was central to the filming. Despite the circumstances of the reunion taking place in a small cabin and it being a two-camera shoot, Adam says Hubbard was able to shoot the film without distracting the family from the connections they were there to make. "For us, things went as smoothly as they could. I think that's because she was taking care of things behind the scenes so they didn't interfere with our experience," Adam says. Reception of the documentary has been positive.

It has featured in many festivals including the 2017 Talking Stick Festival, Edmonton International Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival. Patrick Mullen of Point of View reviews the film as "relevatory" and "a family reunion doc like you've never seen." Gateway Online calls this film a "triumph," writing in their review, "Birth of a Family reminds viewers of a painful past that many First Nations peoples had and continue to trudge through." Canada's documentary films festival described the film as a "raw emotion, a heart-wrenching combination of pain and joy, shown by the siblings throughout the film is as moving as anything I have seen on film. Their willingness to lay bare their experiences and feelings is inspiring, while their story is devastating to watch it acts as a reminder of the resilience of the First Nations people who, against all odds and despite every effort to destroy them, continue to persevere." 2017 Special Jury Prize - Moon Jury at the 18th Annual imagineNATIVE Film + Media Arts Festival October 18–22, 2017 in Toronto, Ontario.

2017 Edmonton International Film Festival Audience Award for Best Documentary Feature Birth of a Family on IMDb