Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 459,300. The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England; the urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, around the beginning of the 11th century the settlement was known as Brycgstow. Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World.
On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas; the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media and aerospace industries, the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture; the city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium.
It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides; the Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, Bristol won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015. The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge, it is most stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor, the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer. Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms; the Old English form Brycgstow is used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.
Utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile; the poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, the Bristolian'L' is what changed the name to Bristol. Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000 years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury. A Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.
Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown; the Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England; the stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became manufacturing centre. By the 14th centur
Black Beauty is an 1877 novel by English author Anna Sewell. It was composed in the last years of her life; the novel became an immediate best-seller, with Sewell dying just five months after its publication, but having lived long enough to see her only novel become a success. With fifty million copies sold, Black Beauty is one of the best-selling books of all time. While forthrightly teaching animal welfare, it teaches how to treat people with kindness and respect. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 58 on the BBC's survey The Big Read, it is seen as a forerunner of the pony book. ".... There is no religion without love, people may talk as much as they like about their religion, but if it does not teach them to be good and kind to man and beast, it is all a sham...." Anna Sewell was born in Great Yarmouth and had a brother named Philip, an engineer in Europe. At the age of 14, Anna fell while injured both ankles. Through mistreatment of the injury, she became unable to walk or stand for any length of time for the rest of her life.
Disabled and unable to walk, she began learning about horses, spending many hours driving her father to and from the station from which he commuted to work. Her dependence on horse-drawn transportation fostered her respect for horses. Sewell's introduction to writing began in her youth when she helped edit the works of her mother, Mary Wright Sewell, a religious, popular author of juvenile best-sellers. Anna Sewell never had children. In visits to European spas, she met many writers and philanthropists, her only book was Black Beauty, written between 1877 in her house at Old Catton. During this time, her health was declining, she could get out of bed, her dearly-loved mother had to help her in her illness. She sold the book to Jarrold & Sons; the book broke records for sales and is the “sixth best seller in the English language." By telling the story of a horse's life in the form of an autobiography and describing the world through the eyes of the horse, Anna Sewell broke new literary ground. Sewell died of hepatitis or tuberculosis on 25 April 1878, only five months after the novel was published, but she lived long enough to see its initial success.
She was buried on 30 April 1878 in the Quaker burial-ground at Lammas near Buxton, where a wall plaque marks her resting place. Her birthplace in Church Plain, Great Yarmouth, is now a museum. Sewell did not write the novel for children, she said that her purpose in writing the novel was "to induce kindness, an understanding treatment of horses"—an influence she attributed to an essay on animals she read earlier by Horace Bushnell entitled "Essay on Animals". Her sympathetic portrayal of the plight of working animals led to a vast outpouring of concern for animal welfare and is said to have been instrumental in the abolition of the cruel practice of using the checkrein. Black Beauty mentions the use of blinkers on horses, concluding that this use is to cause accidents at night due to interference with "the full use of" a horse's ability to "see much better in the dark than men can." The story is narrated in the first person as an autobiographical memoir told by the titular horse named Black Beauty—beginning with his carefree days as a colt on an English farm with his mother, to his difficult life pulling cabs in London, to his happy retirement in the country.
Along the way, he recounts many tales of cruelty and kindness. Each short chapter recounts an incident in Black Beauty's life containing a lesson or moral related to the kindness and understanding treatment of horses, with Sewell's detailed observations and extensive descriptions of horse behaviour lending the novel a good deal of verisimilitude; the book describes conditions among London horse-drawn taxicab drivers, including the financial hardship caused to them by high licence fees and low fixed fares. A page footnote in some editions says that soon after the book was published, the difference between 6-day taxicab licences and 7-day taxicab licences was abolished and the taxicab licence fee was much reduced. Sewell uses anthropomorphism in Black Beauty; the text advocates fairer treatment of horses in Victorian England. The story is narrated from Black Beauty's perspective and resultantly readers arguably gained insight into how horses suffered through their use by human beings with restrictive technical objects like the "bearing rein" and "blinkers" as well as procedures like cutting off the tails of the horses.
For instance, Ginger describes the physical effects of the "bearing rein" to Black Beauty, by stating, "... it is dreadful... your neck aching until you don’t know how to bear it... its hurt my tongue and my jaw and the blood from my tongue covered the froth that kept flying from my lips". Tess Coslett highlights that Black Beauty's story is structured in a way that makes him similar to those he serves; the horses in the text have reactions as well as emotions and characteristics, like love and loyalty, which are similar to those of human beings. Coslett emphasises that, while Black Beauty is not the first book written in the style of an animal autobiography, it is a novel that "allows the reader to slide in and out of horse-consciousness, blurring the human/animal divide". Upon publication of the book, many readers related to the pain of the victimised horses and wanted to see the introduction of refo
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Wick is a village in South Gloucestershire, England. It is the main settlement in the civil parish of Abson; the population of this civil parish taken at the 2011 census was 1,989. It is situated on the A420 between Chippenham, south of the Cotswolds; the River Boyd flows through the old village, with its watermeadows facing St. Bartholomew's Church, a grade II* listed building dating from 1850; as well as the church, the village has several shops, the Carpenters Arms and Rose & Crown public houses, a village hall, a primary school. Nearby Blue Lodge was once the home of Black Beauty author Anna Sewell and Tracy Park on the Bath Road was thought to be the inspiration for Black Beauty's Birtwick Park; the picturesque Golden Valley is well known for walking and equestrian activity. It was described by the poet John Dennys of Pucklechurch in his work of 1613 The Secrets of Angling, the earliest English poetical treatise on fishing: And thou sweet Boyd that with thy watry sway Dost wash the cliffes of Deington and of Weeke And through their Rockes with crooked winding way Thy mother Avon runnest soft to seek.
The authorship of the poem was a mystery for many years, having been published anonymously, it was due to his mention of the rocks of Wick that he was identified. The Golden Valley is a favorite destination for hot air balloonists. Adjacent to Golden Valley is the historic Bury Manor guest house. Wick Quarry, owned by CEMEX, is an operational limestone quarry and a birdwatching site. Media related to Wick, Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons
Lamas is a village in Broadland, England. Administratively it falls within the civil parish of Buxton with Lamas. Located between Norwich and Aylsham, Lamas lies down between RAF Coltishall on the Bure Valley Railway, there is a railway halt called Buxton Lammas. Lamas is separated by the River Bure from the larger village of Buxton, where the two meet is Buxton Mill; the two otherwise appear to be the same village. Lamas gives the impression of being a rural place. Today it has no shops, being served by Buxton; the village's two main roads are called The Scottow Road. There are four'big houses' located within the village, Lammas Hall, located in a park, not visible from the road, the Tudor Manor House, which Pevsner describes as having formed part of a larger structure, Bure House, which stands on the other side of the churchyard from the Manor, the Rectory, located on the Little Hautbois Road. A house opposite Bure House describes itself as'Blacksmith's Cottage', a reference to its former use as a Blacksmithery building.
Early photographs of the village show that the house called'The Old Anchor of Hope' by the river Bure was once a pub. In earlier centuries, agriculture was the main industry. Today, Lamas serves as a dormitory for the city of Norwich, with many residents using the village as a retreat from jobs in Norwich City centre and the surrounding area, with daily commutes into the City. For local government purposes, the two villages jointly elect the Buxton with Lamas Parish Council, both fall within the area covered by Broadland District Council and Norfolk County Council. Lamas and Buxton together have a population of 1,695. Although Lamas is the smaller of the two places, it is a parish in its own right, for centuries had its own Rector. Lamas has been united with the neighbouring hamlet of Little Hautbois since the 15th century; the village is a part of the Buxton Division of the district of Broadland, the Aylsham Division of the County Council. The village church is dedicated to St. Andrew. Much restored in the 19th century, the church still displays some traces of Anglo-Saxon work in the walls of the nave.
The chancel slants away from the nave due to the marshy nature of the riverside site. Inside, there is a finely-painted organ decorated with images of St. Michael. Two RAF standards hang in the chancel. A late nineteenth-century writer reports that, prior to the restoration, the old church possessed some fine medieval figurative stained-glass, but that this had vanished during the restoration. Today, the church possesses a ring of five bells, the ringing chamber was extensively restored by Peggy Anne Williamson of Lammas Hall, a former tower Captain; the writer Anna Sewell is buried in the graveyard of the old Quaker Meeting-House on The Street. The meeting house itself has now been converted into a house, but Anna Sewell's gravestone is set in a wall fronting the Street; the other stones commemorate local benefactors John Wright and Phillip Sewell, of Dudwick Park, Buxton. The burial ground was destroyed in 1984, when a large part was bulldozed without permission. In the 19th century, Lamas had a small Particular Baptist Chapel.
Calvinistic Baptist John Grace, minister of Tabernacle Chapel, Brighton preached here in 1856. The Rector of Lamas from 1738 to 1754, the Reverend William Lubbock, was the ancestor of the Lubbock family, Lords Avebury. One of the former Rectors of the Parish is named as'Roger' on the board in the Church. Local legend says this is because he murdered a man shortly after he had been inducted to the benefice and fled, it is said. The current incumbent, the Revd Dr Peter Hansell, married to the Revd Anupama Hansell, was instituted as Rector of the Bure Valley Benefice in September 2010. Lammas Hall, a large building of uncertain date, lies in a small park, concealed from the road; the building possesses a seventeenth-century porch, a doorcase with stone quoins contained within a nineteenth-century single storey brick porch. The North wing is of the same date as the porch; the shaped gable above the entrance is one of the few surviving traces of architecture. Limewash has been applied to the exterior in an attempt to create an impression of architectural unity.
Among the notable inhabitants of the Hall was Wallace White Williamson, Actuary, of Norwich Union. The Hall was an old people's home for a time, before returning to private ownership; the Manor House was built in several sections over the centuries. It was begun by three sheep farming brothers, the Allens circa the reign of Henry VII with subsequent extensions – the east gable was said by Pevsner to bear the date of 1525 on the east gable, it was extended to the West circa 1600. There appears to be a Georgian addition to the west gable and there was one final modern alteration/extension carried out in the late 1980s; the Manor became the home of the Dammant family between the 17th century to the early 19th century. They were a family of doctors who had a private gate to the adjacent church through the brick wall which bounds the property. After their departure, the house was subdivided into five homes, chiefly for workers at Lammas Hall, it was restored by Canon and Mary Boston in the 1960s. William White's History and Directory of Norfolk, 1845 says of Lamas: Pevsner, The Buildings of England: North-East Norfolk and Norwich Anon.
Guide to Lamas Church http://www.buxton-norfolk.co.uk http://www.norfolkmills.co.uk/Watermills/buxton.html http://www.buxtonmill.com http:/