Historic roads and trails
Historic roads are paths or routes that "have great historical importance or fame". Examples exist from prehistoric times until the early 20th century, they include ancient trackways and roads that existed in "the period of history before the fall of the Western Roman Empire" in 476 AD. "The first roads were paths made by animals and adapted by humans." Many historic routes, such as the Silk Road, the Amber Road, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire, existed before the Christian era and covered great distances. The Post Track, a prehistoric causeway in the valley of the River Brue in the Somerset Levels, England, is one of the oldest known constructed trackways and dates from around 3838 BCE; the world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. The Romans were the most significant road builders of the ancient world. At the peak of the Roman Empire there were more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,000 kilometres were stone-paved. Another empire, that of the Incas of pre-Columbian South America built an extensive and advanced transportation system.
Much historic roads include the Red River Trails between Canada and the US, from the 19th century. However, such pioneer trails in these countries made use of ancient routes created by indigenous people; the Silk Road was a major trade route between China and India and Arabia. It derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty; the Han dynasty expanded the Central Asian section of the trade routes around 114 BCE through the missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy Zhang Qian. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route. Prior to the Silk Road an ancient overland route existed through the Eurasian Steppe. Silk and horses were traded as key commodities; this route extended for 10,000 km. Trans-Eurasian trade through the Steppe Route precedes the conventional date for the origins of the Silk Road by at least two millennia.
See the Northern Silk Road, the Southern Silk Road: Through Khotan, Tea Horse Road. The Shudao, or the "Road to Shu", is a system of mountain roads linking the Chinese province of Shaanxi with Sichuan and maintained since the 4th century BC. Technical highlights were the gallery roads, consisting of wooden planks erected on wooden or stone beams slotted into holes cut into the sides of cliffs; the roads join three adjacent basins surrounded by high mountains. Like many ancient road systems, the Shu Roads formed a network of major and minor roads with different roads being used at different historical times. However, a number of roads are identified as the main routes. Kaidō were roads in Japan dating from the Edo period, they act important roles in transportation like the Appian way of ancient Roman roads. Major examples include the Edo Five Routes. Minor examples include sub-routes such as the Hokuriku Kaidō and the Nagasaki Kaidō. Kaidō, however, do not include San'yōdō, San'indō, Nankaidō and Saikaidō, which were part of the more ancient system of Yamato government called Gokishichidō.
This was the name for ancient administrative units and the roads within these units, organized in Japan during the Asuka period, as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese. Many highways and railway lines in modern Japan carry the same names; the early roads radiated from the capital at Kyoto. Edo was the reference, today Japan reckons directions and measures distances along its highways from Nihonbashi in Chūō, Tokyo; the Grand Trunk Road in South Asia was the main road from modern day Bangladesh to northern Pakistan and Afghanistan. A route since antiquity, it was constructed into a coherent highway by the Maurya Empire in 300BC. Soon after, the Greek diplomat Megasthenes wrote of his travels along the road to reach Hindu kingdoms in the 3rd century BC. After invading India over 1,500 years Mughals extended the Grand Trunk Road westwards from Lahore to Kabul crossing the Khyber Pass; the road was improved and extended from Calcutta to Peshawar by the British rulers of colonial India.
For many centuries, the road has acted as a major trade route and facilitated travel and postal communication. The Grand Trunk Road remains under use for transportation in India; the Khyber Pass was an all-season mountain pass connecting Afghanistan to western Pakistan. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. Except for Roman roads, European pathways were in good shape and depended on the geography of the region. In the early Middle Ages, people preferred to travel along elevated drainage divides rather than in the valleys; this was due to other natural obstacles in valleys. The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Prehistoric trade routes between Northern and Southern Europe were defined by the amber trade; as an important commodity, sometimes dubbed "the gold of the north", amber was transported overland by way of the Vistula and Dnieper rivers to the Mediterranean area from at least the 16th century BC.
The breast ornament of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen
Fordoun is a parish and village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Fothirdun, as it was known, was an important area in the Howe of the Mearns. Fordoun and Auchenblae, together with their immediate districts form the Parish of Fordoun with the Parish Church in the vicinity of the original settlement, now absorbed by Auchenblae. In the 19th Century a railway station was opened 3 miles to the South East of Fordoun Church and the original settlement. A village grew at the site of the railway named Fordoun Station where there were a number of shops, but only a seasonal farm shop remains. In the time since the founding of the railway station the village known as Fordoun Station has come to be known as Fordoun and the site of original settlement has been absorbed by Auchenblae. John of Fordun, Scottish Chronicler was born in the Parish of Fordoun. James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, judge on the Court of Session lived at Monboddo House, a 17th-century house in the parish, he was author of The Origin and Progress of Man and Language, a study of evolution that predated the work of Charles Darwin.
James Beattie, Scottish scholar and writer was born in Laurencekirk and first worked as schoolmaster in Fordoun. He became Professor of Moral Philosophy and Logic at Marischal College and is noted for his Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth and poem The Minstrel. Alexander Hamilton co-founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, one of the first doctors to recognise the infectious nature of puerperal fever. There is a Pictish symbol stone, the Fordoun Stone, in the parish church on the outskirts of Auchenblae at NO726784In his 1819 Geography, James Playfair notes that Fordoun is a mean town, the seat of a presbytery, noted for being the birthplace or temporary residence of John Fordoun, author of the Scotichronicon; the chapel of Palladius, adjacent to the church, is 40 by 18 feet. North of the village is a disused airfield, active during World War II. A two-runway satellite for Peterhead airfield, Fordoun Aerodrome operated from 1942 to 1944
Laurencekirk is a small town in the historic county of Kincardineshire, just off the A90 Dundee to Aberdeen main road, which bypassed it in 1985. It is administered as part of Aberdeenshire, it is the largest settlement in the Howe o' houses the local secondary school. Its old name was Conveth, an anglification of the Gaelic Coinmheadh, referring to an obligation to provide free food and board to passing troops. Laurencekirk is in the valley between the Cairn O' Mount; the famous landmark of the Johnston Tower can be seen on the peak of the Garvock. Laurencekirk was, in the past, known for making snuff boxes with a special type of airtight hinge invented by James Sandy. Laurencekirk Golf Club first appeared in the early 1900s; the club closed at the time of WW2. Lewis Grassic Gibbon wrote the surrounding area in his book Sunset Song. A tribute centre can be visited at Arbuthnott a few miles from Laurencekirk. Fred Urquhart worked on the land at Laurencekirk in the Second World War, his short stories make use of his observations of rural life here.
The Edinburgh to Aberdeen Line passes through the town. The station, which closed to passengers in 1967, was re-opened on 17 May 2009; the opening of this station has affirmed Laurencekirk's status as a commuter town providing links to Aberdeen and beyond. Laurencekirk has three public houses. Laurencekirk Primary school was built in 1999 and Mearns Academy, the senior school, opened in August 2014; the Community Centre and Police Station are housed within the Mearns Campus. There are two public parks, both with children's play areas, in addition the memorial park houses a bowling green and a skate-board facility. There are two churches, a Church of Scotland and St Laurence's Church, an Episcopalian Church, part of the Diocese of Brechin; the Episcopalians had been driven from the parish kirk in 1693 the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution and built a new meeting house at Rdmyre, destroyed in 1746. The Episcopalians built a chapel dedicated to St Laurence in Laurencekirk 1791 which took in the congregations of Redmyre and Luthermuir.
The current St Laurence' was opened in 1873 and now serves he congregations of Drumtochty and Drumlithie. Its archives are held at the University of Dundee as part of the Brechin Diocese's Archives. Representations are being made for a grade separated junction at the south end of the A90 Laurencekirk bypass and a petition has been presented to parliament. Johnston Tower was built to commemorate the Duke of Wellington's victory over Napoleon in the Peninsular War, it is situated on the Garvock Hill alongside a wind farm. The neighbouring residence, Johnston Lodge, was built in 1780 by James Farquhar, MP for Aberdeen Burghs and for Portalington; the house was owned by Lord Gardenstone. Alongside the commercial enterprise of the local newspaper, The Observer The Kincardineshire Observer, first published in 1902, Laurencekirk has a Local Community Radio Station in Mearns FM. Broadcasting from nearby Stonehaven in the Townhall, Mearns FM helps to keep Laurencekirk up to date with local and charity events, as well as playing a wee bit of music.
Staffed by volunteers, Mearns FM is run as a not for profit organisation, broadcasting under a Community Radio licence, with a remit to provide local focus news events and programming. Jointly funded by local adverts and local and national grants. Mearns FM has one of the largest listening areas of any Community Radio Station owing to the Mearns' distributed population, Mearns FM was set up to try to bring these distant communities together. Francis Garden, Lord Gardenstone, founder of Laurencekirk. James Andrew Robbie FRSE geologist Thomas Ruddiman served as the parish schoolmaster from 1695 to 1700. Alexander Charles Stephen FRSE zoologist Fred Urquhart, during the Second World War. Laurencekirk area community website
Peterculter known as Culter, is a suburb of Aberdeen, about eight miles inland from Aberdeen city centre. Peterculter is on the northern banks of the River Dee, near the confluences with Crynoch Burn and Leuchar Burn. Following the 1996 Scottish council boundary changes it became part of the City of Aberdeen's Lower Deeside ward; the latter part of the name is said to come from the Gaelic compound word "Cul-tir", which signifies the "back part" of the country. About one mile south west of the Peterculter is the site of the Roman marching camp at Normandykes. King William the Lion bestowed the church of Kulter, "iuxta Abirdene", upon the Abbey and monks of St Mary of Kelso, about 1165–1199; the gift was afterwards confirmed by Mathew, Bishop of Aberdeen, within whose diocese the church sat. Alan of Soltre, an ecclesiastic of the hospital, or monastery of Soutra, in Lothian, was presented by the Abbot of Kelso, to the vicarage of the church of Culter, 1239–1240. In 1287–1288, an agreement was made between the Abbot and Convent of Kelso and the brotherhood of the Knights of Jerusalem, regarding the Templars’ lands of Blairs and Kincolsi, on the south side of the Dee, by which a chapel, built by the Templars at their house of Culter, was recognised as a church, with parochial rights, for the inhabitants of the said lands.
It was this agreement that changed the existing parish of Culter into two separate parishes with two separate names, the other being Maryculter. High up on the steep, rocky bank of the Culter Burn near the western exit of the village was a colourful and well-tended kilted wooden figure holding a broadsword and targe that represents Rob Roy Macgregor, who according to local legend leapt across the stream at that point to flee pursuing Hanoverian troops; the outlaw Gilderoy is a more historical figure for the story. The original statue is thought to have been a modified ship's figurehead; the statue was replaced in 2017 by a resin effigy. Due to its nearness to Aberdeen City and being only about thirty miles from the Cairngorm National Park, Culter is a base for tourists. In the town itself there are chances of many local walks, including its connection to the Deeside Way at the site of the former Culter railway station, as well as the forest area known locally as'Sandy Hilly', the entrance to which sits beside the Bucklerburn region.
For sport, there is Culter Sports Centre. Each year, on the last Saturday in May is the Culter Gala, in the main playing field of the village. Culter School is a primary school in Peterculter dating from 1896. Alexander Cuming, explorer. William Duff and psychologist Nan Shepherd, whose portrait appears on a Scottish £5 note. Peter Donald Thomson, moderator of the Church of Scotland. Crathes Castle Drum Castle Maryculter House Muchalls Castle CulterNET community website Peterculter Parish Church Peterculter Golf Club
Stonehaven is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It had a population of 11,602 at the 2011 Census. After the demise of the town of Kincardine, abandoned after the destruction of its royal castle in the Wars of Independence, the Scottish Parliament made Stonehaven the successor county town of Kincardineshire. Stonehaven had grown around an Iron Age fishing village, now the "Auld Toon", expanded inland from the seaside; as late as the 16th century, old maps indicate the town was called Stonehyve, Pont adding the alternative Duniness. It is known informally to locals as Stoney; the town is served by Stonehaven railway station, lies just to the east of the A90 road. Stonehaven is the site of prehistoric events evidenced by finds at Fetteresso Castle and Neolithic pottery excavations from the Spurryhillock area; the town lies at the southern origin of the ancient Causey Mounth trackway, built on high ground to make passable this only available medieval route from coastal points south to Aberdeen. This ancient passage connected the Bridge of Dee to Cowie Castle via the Portlethen Moss and the Stonehaven central plaza.
The route was that taken by the Earl Marischal and Marquess of Montrose when they led a Covenanter army of over 9000 men in the first battle of the English Civil War in 1639. The settlement of Stonehaven grew and prospered and was known as Kilwhang. With'Kil' meaning hill and'whang' the name, or sound of a whip the name is derived from the cliffs above the original settlement and the sound of wind whistling around their meagre shelters; the Covenanters were imprisoned in Dunnottar Castle. A memorial to them can be found in Dunnottar Church. Other castles in the vicinity are Fetteresso Castle and Muchalls Castle, both of which are in private ownership and not open to the public; the oldest surviving structure in Stonehaven is the Stonehaven Tolbooth at the harbour, used as an early prison and now a museum. Dunnottar Castle, perched atop a rocky outcrop, was home to the Keith family, during the Scottish Wars of Independence, the Scottish Crown Jewels were hidden there. In 1296, King Edward I of England took the castle only for William Wallace to reclaim it in 1297, burning down the church in the process with the entire English garrison still in it.
In 1650, Oliver Cromwell sacked the castle to find the Crown Jewels following an eight-month siege. However, just before the castle fell, the Crown Jewels were smuggled out by some ladies who took them by boat to a small church just down the coast in the village of Kinneff, where they remained undetected for eleven years. Stonehaven was a Jacobite town in the Fifteen and it was a safe base for the retreating Jacobite army to stay overnight on the night of 5–6 February 1716. In the Forty-Five Stonehaven, part of the Episcopalian north-east, was again ‘reliably Jacobite’ and it was one of the north-eastern ports where reinforcements, plus money and equipment were periodically landed from France. After 1709, when Dunnottar Parish Church was taken over by the Church of Scotland Episcopalian services were held in the tolbooth until a meeting house was built in the High Street in 1738. Following the failure of the Forty-Five, the Duke of Cumberland ordered the building's demolition. Services were held in a house in the High Street.
Near the Cowie Bridge, at the north of Stonehaven, was a fishing village known as Cowie, which has now been subsumed into Stonehaven. Somewhat further north are the ruins of Cowie Castle. To the west of Stonehaven is the ruined Ury House a property of the Frasers. A fossil of the oldest known land animal, Pneumodesmus newmani, a species of millipede, was found at Stonehaven's Cowie Beach in 2004. Stonehaven is 15 miles south of Aberdeen in a sheltered position on Stonehaven Bay between the Carron Water and the Cowie Water. Stonehaven lies adjacent to a indented bay surrounded on three sides by higher land between Downie Point and Garron Point; the harbour, consisting of two basins, was improved in the 1820s by the engineer Robert Stevenson and became an important centre of the 19th century herring trade. At the western edge of Stonehaven west of the A90 road lies the village of Kirkton of Fetteresso. Nearby to the south, Fowlsheugh is a coastal nature reserve, known for its 230 foot high cliff formations and habitat supporting prolific seabird nesting colonies.
Stonehaven has grown since the oil boom in Aberdeen. The increasing demand for new, middle class housing has seen four new estates being appended to the town, creating an expanse of suburbs and Stonehaven has been bypassed since 1984; because of its location at the confluence between two rivers, Stonehaven is prone to flooding following heavy rain. Aberdeenshire Council has held meetings about the possible construction of flood defences. Stonehaven has three Churches of Scotland: Dunnottar Parish Church, Stonehaven South Parish Church and Fetteresso Parish Church, an evangelical Church of Scotland; the town is home to City Church South, Stonehaven Baptist Church, St James' Episcopal Church and St Mary's Catholic Church. Arduthie Primary School is one of the three primary schools in Stonehaven serving a large portion of the north and east of the town as well as the surrounding countryside to the north-west. Dunnottar Primary School was founded in 1889, it is linked to the notable parish Church and to the historic Dunnottar Castle and is located at the edge of the old town.
It serves the old town and the majority of the
Glenbervie is located in the north east of Scotland in the Howe o' the Mearns, one mile from the village of Drumlithie and eight miles south of Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire. The river Bervie runs through the village; the rural area is the location of estate. The parish was named Overbervie; the population fell from a peak of 1307 in 1796 to 887 in 1895. Many of the villagers had immigrated the young to the nearby cities and towns; the kirkyard in Glenbervie is the final resting place of the great grandparents of the noted Scottish poet Robert Burns. Droop Hill Drumtochty Forest Monboddo House Drumlithie
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu