Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, was chosen to suggest that the travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly. The basic format consists of five numerical digits, an extended ZIP+4 code, introduced in 1983, includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, a hyphen, and four additional digits that determine a more specific location within a given ZIP Code. The term ZIP Code was originally registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, USPS style for ZIP is all caps and the c in code is capitalized, although style sheets for some publications use sentence case or lowercase. The early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers, the United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example, Mr. John Smith 3256 Epiphenomenal Avenue Minneapolis 16, by the early 1960s a more organized system was needed, and on July 1,1963, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide.
Three months later, on October 1,1963, the U. S, an earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with one exception, according to the historian of the U. S. Robert Moon, an employee of the post office, is considered the father of the ZIP Code, he submitted his proposal in 1944 while working as a postal inspector. The post office gives credit to Moon only for the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or sec center, an SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes, the mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight.
The United States Post Office used a character, which it called Mr. ZIP. He was often depicted with a such as USE ZIP CODE in the selvage of panes of stamps or on labels contained in, or the covers of. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4, often called plus-four codes, add-on codes, or add ons. But initial attempts to promote use of the new format met with public resistance. For Post Office Boxes, the rule is that each box has its own ZIP+4 code. However, there is no rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box. It is common to use add-on code 9998 for mail addressed to the postmaster,9999 for general delivery, for a unique ZIP Code, the add-on code is typically 0001
Howard County, Maryland
Howard County is a county located in the central part of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 287,085 and its county seat is Ellicott City. Howard County is included in the Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, recent development in the south of the county has led to some realignment towards the Washington, D. C. media and employment markets. The county is home to Columbia, a planned community of approximately 100,000 founded by developer James Rouse in 1967. Howard County is frequently cited for its affluence, quality of life, with an estimated median household income of $108,844 in 2012, Howard County had the third-highest median household income of any U. S. county in 2013. The main population center of Columbia/Ellicott City was named second among Money magazines 2010 survey of Americas Best Places to Live, Howard Countys schools frequently rank first in Maryland as measured by standardized test scores and graduation rates. In 2010, the center of population of Maryland was located in the Howard County town of Jessup and he was the fifth governor of Maryland from 1788 to 1791.
The lands of prehistoric Howard County were populated by Native Americans, the Maryland Historical Trust has documented sites along the Patapsco, Patuxent and Little Patuxent River valleys. In 1652, the Susquehannock tribes signed a treaty with Maryland. In 1800, the center of U. S. population as calculated by the US Census Bureau was found in what is now Howard County. In 1838, Dr. William Watkins of Richland Manor proposed the Howard District of Anne Arundel County, after several adjournments, the area of western Anne Arundel County was designated the Howard District in 1839. The district had the status as a county except that it was not separately represented in the Maryland General Assembly. In 1841, the county built its first courthouse in Ellicott City, at the January 1851 constitutional convention, Thomas Beale Dorsey submitted a petition led by James Sykes. A committee was formed with Dorsey, Smith, after several postponements, the district was erected officially as Howard County on March 7,1851.
The plantations of modern Howard County used slave labor as early as 1690, at the time of the Underground Railroad, some Howard County residents assisted slaves who were escaping to freedom. This was particularly risky, as many prominent plantation families were Confederate sympathizers during the Civil War, Maryland was exempt from the Emancipation Proclamation, abolishing slavery in the update of the Maryland Constitution in November 1864. On May 1,1883 Howard County joined Anne Arundel and Hardford County in liquor prohibition, by 1899, Howard County contained 400 miles of dirt and 48 miles of stone roads, including three paid turnpikes maintained by 118 men. Most traffic consisted of loads delivered to rail crossings, in 1909, County Commissioners Hess, Werner and ONeil were charged with malfeasance regarding contract bids
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information, created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the predominance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since then, it has grown to over 2 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography and these crowdsourced data are made available under the Open Database Licence. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, an organisation registered in England. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the OpenStreetMap project are considered its primary output, OpenStreetMap data have been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, though data quality varies worldwide. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004, initially focusing on mapping the United Kingdom, in the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like the Ordnance Survey created massive datasets but failed to freely and widely distribute them.
In April 2006, the OpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth and distribution of free data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use. In December 2006, Yahoo. confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production, sponsors of the event included Google, Yahoo. and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset, in December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. In March, two announced that they have received venture capital funding of €2.4 million for CloudMade. In November 2010, Bing changed their licence to use of their satellite imagery for making maps. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Map data is collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using tools such as a handheld GPS unit, the data is entered into the OpenStreetMap database.
Mapathon competition events are held by OpenStreetMap team and by non-profit organisations. The availability of photography and other data from commercial and government sources has added important sources of data for manual editing. Special processes are in place to handle automated imports and avoid legal and technical problems, editing of maps can be done using the default web browser editor called iD, an HTML5 application using D3. js and written by MapBox. The earlier Flash-based application Potlatch is retained for intermediate-level users, JOSM and Merkaartor are more powerful desktop editing applications that are better suited for advanced users. The GNOME Maps application developed for the GNOME desktop environment, which runs on many Linux operating systems, the project has a geographically diverse user-base, due to emphasis of local knowledge and ground truth in the process of data collection
Fort George G. Meade
It is named for George G. Meade, a general from the U. S. Civil War, who served as commander of the Army of the Potomac. The forts smaller census-designated place includes support facilities such as schools, initially called Camp Annapolis Junction, the post was opened as Camp Admiral in 1917 on 29.7 sq mi acquired for a training camp. Renamed to Fort Leonard Wood, the forts Experimental Motorized Forces in the summer and fall of 1928 tested vehicles, in 1929, the forts 1st Tank Regiment encamped on the Gettysburg Battlefield. S. The Second U. S. Army Headquarters transferred to the post on June 15,1947, and in the 1950s, from the 1950s until the 1970s, the Fort Meade radar station had various radar equipment and control systems for air defense. Fort Meade had the first Nike Ajax surface-to-air missiles in December 1953, in 1977, a merger organized the forts U. S. Army Intelligence Agency as part of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command. On 1 October 1991, a wing of the Air Force Intelligence Command transferred to Fort Meade, in the early 1990s,12.7 sq mi was transferred from the post to the Patuxent Research Refuge.
A planned closure of the post in the 1990s was not implemented, the 311th Signal Command headquarters was at Fort Meade from 1996 – September 2006. After an August 27,2007, U. S, advancements in information technology and recent base realignment and closure initiatives have contributed to the evolution of the school. The result is a single school proud of its roots and dedicated to serving the diverse requirements for public affairs, broadcasting. Alleged gunman Hong Young was arrested in connection with shootings at five places in Maryland, including an NSA building, theaters. No motive has been established but his estranged wife attributed his behavior to mental issues, on March 30,2015, National Security Agency police officers shot and killed a person who attempted to drive an SUV through a restricted entrance to the NSA campus in Fort Meade, Maryland. A passenger in the SUV was injured, as was an officer, president Obama was briefed but the FBI determined we do not believe it is related to terrorism.
Fort Meade is bordered by the Baltimore–Washington Parkway on the west and is about 5 miles east of Interstate 95 and it is located between Washington, DC and Baltimore. It is located in proximity to Columbia, Laurel, Hanover, the Fort George G. Meade Museum exhibits the Posts historical artifacts, including uniforms and equipment
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
Baltimore is the largest city in the U. S. state of Maryland, and the 29th-most populous city in the country. It was established by the Constitution of Maryland and is not part of any county, thus, it is the largest independent city in the United States, with a population of 621,849 as of 2015. As of 2010, the population of the Baltimore Metropolitan Area was 2.7 million, founded in 1729, Baltimore is the second largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic. Baltimores Inner Harbor was once the leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a city of neighborhoods, in the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote The Star-Spangled Banner, the American national anthem, in Baltimore. More than 65,000 properties, or roughly one in three buildings in the city, are listed on the National Register, more than any city in the nation. The city has 289 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives.
The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, of the Irish House of Lords, Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, in 1608, Captain John Smith traveled 210 miles from Jamestown to the uppermost Chesapeake Bay, leading the first European expedition to the Patapsco River. The name Patapsco is derived from pota-psk-ut, which translates to backwater or tide covered with froth in Algonquian dialect, a quarter century after John Smiths voyage, English colonists began to settle in Maryland. The area constituting the modern City of Baltimore and its area was first settled by David Jones in 1661. He claimed the area today as Harbor East on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was populated, if at all. The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, one Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period.
During the Late Woodland period, the culture that is called the Potomac Creek complex resided in the area from Baltimore to the Rappahannock River in Virginia. It was located on the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County, in 1674, the General Assembly passed An Act for erecting a Court-house and Prison in each County within this Province. The site of the house and jail for Baltimore County was evidently Old Baltimore near the Bush River. In 1683, the General Assembly passed An Act for Advancement of Trade to establish towns, one of the towns established by the act in Baltimore County was on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House
Prince George's County, Maryland
Prince George’s County, known as P. G. County, is a county in the U. S. state of Maryland, bordering the eastern portion of Washington, D. C. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 863,420 and its county seat is Upper Marlboro. Prince George’s County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, the official name of the county, as specified in the countys charter, is Prince George’s County, Maryland. The county is named after Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Anne, Queen of Great Britain, the countys demonym is Prince Georgian and its motto is Semper Eadem, a phrase used by Queen Anne. Prince Georges County is frequently referred to as P. G. or P. G, County, an abbreviation viewed as pejorative by some residents. The Cretaceous Era brought dinosaurs to the area left a number of fossils. The site, which among other finds has yielded fossilized teeth from Astrodon and Priconodon species, has called the most prolific in the eastern United States.
In the mid to late Holocene era, the area was occupied by Paleo-Native Americans and later, when the first European settlers arrived, what is now Prince Georges County was inhabited by people of the Piscataway Indian Nation. Three branches of the tribe are living today, two of which are headquartered in Prince Georges County. Prince Georges County was created by the English Council of Maryland in the Province of Maryland in 1696 from portions of Charles, the county was divided into six districts referred to as Hundreds, Petuxant, Mount Calvert and New Scotland. A portion was detached in 1748 to form Frederick County, during the War of 1812, the British marched through the county by way of Bladensburg to burn the White House. On their return, they kidnapped a prominent doctor, William Beanes, lawyer Francis Scott Key was asked to negotiate for his release, which resulted in his writing The Star-Spangled Banner. Since much of the part of the county was tobacco farms that were worked by enslaved Africans.
After the Civil War, many African Americans attempted to become part of Maryland politics, in April 1865, John Wilkes Booth made his escape through Prince Georges County after shooting President Abraham Lincoln. He was on his way to Virginia, the population of African Americans declined during the first half of the 20th century, but was renewed to over 50% in the early 1990s when the county again became majority African American. The first African American County Executive was Wayne K. Curry and this was done after city residents voted to be under the sole jurisdiction of Montgomery County, and subsequent approval by both counties and the Maryland General Assembly. This was the first change in Prince Georges Countys boundaries since 1968, the county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans, are Americans who are descendants of the peoples of Spain, Portugal, or the Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries of Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, other U. S. government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term, including Brazilians and other Portuguese-speaking groups. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably, origin can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race, as the only specifically designated category of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan, the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country.
Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States after Asian Americans, hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565, after Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, the terms Hispanic and Latino refer to an ethnicity, people of this group may be of any race. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, history, according to the Smithsonian Institution, the term Latino includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin. In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both European and Native American ancestry, others are wholly or predominately of European ancestry, or wholly or predominantly of Amerindian ancestry.
Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread. The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some, the U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions, one definition of Latino is a Latin male in the United States. This is the oldest and the definition used in the United States. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas, under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino. This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, a definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term Latino-Americano, the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino, a Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America.
An immigrant from Spain, would be classified as Hispanic, while the U. S. Census Bureaus definition of Hispanic is limited to Spain and Spanish-speaking Latin America, other government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term