Dorchester County, Maryland
Dorchester County is a county located in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,618, its county seat is Cambridge. The county was named for the Earl of Dorset, a family friend of the Calverts. Dorchester County comprises the Cambridge, MD Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Dorchester County is the largest county on the Eastern Shore, it is bordered by the Choptank River to the north, Talbot County to the northwest, Caroline County to the northeast, Wicomico County to the southeast, Sussex County, Delaware, to the east, the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Dorchester County uses the slogan, "The Heart of Chesapeake Country," due to its geographical location and the heart-like shape of the county on a map. Many residents of Dorchester County have made their living as farmers or working on the water; the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries provide harvests of crabs and many fish species to both commercial and recreational fisherman.
Dorchester County, Maryland was the birthplace of Harriet Tubman, who escaped from slavery and afterward worked to guide other refugee slaves to freedom in the North. Dorchester County has been hit by two deadly tornadoes; the first one occurred on June 23, 1944 in Cambridge, where 2 people were killed and 33 were injured. The other was on May 1984 in Hurlock, where one death and 6 injuries were reported. Both storms caused between 5 million dollars in damage. Dorchester County operates under the Charter Home Rule form of government, the affairs of the County are managed by five County Council Members; each is elected from a single-member district defined within the county. Meetings of the County Council are held weekly; the agenda and the minutes of each week’s proceedings are public record. The white population of Dorchester has voted conservatively. Along with rock-ribbed Unionist Garrett County, located in Appalachia, its white majority was one of only two Maryland counties to vote for Barry Goldwater in 1964.
During the following election, Dorchester was the only county in the state where segregationist George Wallace outpolled either Nixon or Humphrey. In the late 20th century, white conservatives in the South shifted from the Democratic to the Republican Party. Since the only Democratic presidential nominee to carry Dorchester County was southern native son Bill Clinton in 1996; the county has trended less conservative in recent years, with Democrat Barack Obama coming within five percentage points of beating Mitt Romney in the presidential election 2012. In earlier times, unlike secessionist Wicomico, Queen Anne’s and Cecil counties, Dorchester was a swing county in the late 19th century due to the voting power of its freedman population, who supported the Republican Party; the conservative whites voted Democratic for William Jennings Bryan in 1908, after Maryland had passed laws raising barriers to voter registration among blacks, resulting in a dramatic drop in their voting until after passage of civil rights legislation in the 1960s.
The county is policed by the Dorchester County Sheriff's Office, the Maryland State Police, the DNR Police. The DSO is a full service agency headed by Sheriff James W. Phillips Jr. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 983 square miles, of which 541 square miles is land and 442 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Maryland by total area. Caroline County Sussex County, Delaware Talbot County Somerset County Saint Mary's County Wicomico County Calvert County Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 30,674 people, 12,706 households, 8,500 families residing in the county; the population density was 55 people per square mile. There were 14,681 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.45% White, 28.39% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 1.26 % of the population was Latino of any race.
20.1 % were of 12.7 % English, 9.8 % German and 8.2 % Irish ancestry. There were 12,706 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.10% were non-families. 28.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 17.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 89.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,077, the median income for a family was $41,917. Males had a median income of $29,014 versus $22,284 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,929.
13.80% of the population and 10.10% of families were below the poverty line. 18.10% of those under the age of 18 and 14.20% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 32,618 people, 13,522 households, 8,894 families residing in the county; the population density was 60.3 inha
Cecil County, Maryland
Cecil County is a county located in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,108; the county seat is Elkton. The county was named for Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, the first Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, it is the only Maryland county, part of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cecil County has existed since the late 1600s, though it continued to grow in population and town size; the area now known as Cecil County was an important trading center long before the county's official organization in 1674 by proclamation of Lord Baltimore. It had been a northeastern part of a much larger Baltimore County, in the northeastern portion of the Province; this had included present-day Baltimore City and county, Carroll, eastern Frederick, portions of Howard and Anne Arundel counties. At the time of its founding, Cecil County included modern Kent County and the border on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay went as far south as the Chester River, until its formation in 1706.
The Piscataway traded with the Susquehannocks near Conowingo, with Lenape of the Delaware valley and their Nanticoke allies near the Elk River and Elk Neck Peninsula. A southern tribe sometimes called the Shawnace moved into what became North East, Maryland. Captain John Smith visited the area in 1608. William Claiborne, a Puritan trader based in Virginia, earlier established a trading post at what is now known as Garrett island at the mouth of the Susquehanna River near what became Perryville. Bohemian immigrant Augustine Herman lobbied for Cecil County's creation, drew the 1674 maps, in exchange for which Herman received extensive land grants, including one developed as Bohemia Manor, where he died. Another early developer was George Talbot, appointed Surveyor-General of Maryland in 1683, who came from Ballyconnell, County Cavan, Ireland; until the American Revolution, Cecil County was an important shipping center, both within the colonies and abroad. It exported not only its own agricultural products but animal skins from the west and tobacco from the south.
St. Francis Xavier Church begun as a Jesuit mission in 1704 and rebuilt in 1792, is one of Maryland's oldest churches, though now a museum. St. Mary Anne's Episcopal Church, rebuilt in 1742 is another. West Nottingham Academy founded by Presbyterian Rev. Samuel Finley in 1744, educated Benjamin Rush and Richard Stockton, both of whom signed the Declaration of Independence, still operates today; the Principio Furnace, founded in 1719, became an important exporter of pig iron. During the American Revolution both British and colonial troops traveled through Cecil County, although no major battles occurred within its borders; the Battle of Cooch's Bridge occurred in nearby Delaware, both General Howe and General George Washington stopped in Elkton during the summer of 1777. Robert Alexander, the area's delegate to the Continental Congress of 1776, spoke with both sides but decided to go into exile in England without his wife, she remained a loyal Marylander and received a life estate in some of Elkton property that Maryland confiscated.
The War of 1812 caused Cecil County considerable damage. Not only did British Admiral George Cockburn blockade the upper Chesapeake bay, in response to musket fire from colonials at Welch Point, his troops destroyed a trading post known as Frenchtown, they tried to sail further up the Elk River to the county seat at Elkton, but turned back under fire from Fort Defiance hindered by a cable across the navigation channel. British troops destroyed most of Havre de Grace in nearby Harford County, Maryland. Cockburn's ships traveled up the Sassafras River, meeting resistance, destroyed Georgetown and Fredericktown, Maryland. Avoiding Port Deposit which rumors called defended, the British destroyed the Principio Iron Works, an important military target. Port Deposit boomed after the Susquehanna Canal opened in 1812. Engineer James Rumsey, who grew up in Bohemia Manor before moving to Bath, invented a steamboat which he demonstrated to George Washington, before traveling to London to secure patents against competition from John Finch.
Rumsey died there in 1792, but his lawyer brother Benjamin Rumsey moved south to Joppa and served as Maryland's Chief Justice for 25 years. Steamboats, using technology such as by Robert Fulton, came to dominate travel on the bay during the following decades; the Eagle, built in Philadelphia in 1813, transported travelers between Baltimore and Elkton, where they connected with stagecoaches to travel to Wilmington and other points north. An 1802 attempt to build a canal to connect the Elk River to Christiana, Delaware failed within two years. However, between 1824 and 1829, with financial support from the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, over 2600 workers built the 14 miles long Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which became for a while the busiest canal in the new nation; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers still operates it today, Chesapeake City, Bohemia Manor until 1839, has a museum explaining the canal's importance. Railroads and bridges proved economically important to Cecil County and surrounding region.
The New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad began service in 1831. Railroads crisscrossed Cecil county within three decades, although they greatly reduced its importance as a trading center. Cities such
Harford County, Maryland
Harford County is a county in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 244,826, its county seat is Bel Air. Harford County is included in the Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area. In 1608 the area was settled by Susquehannocks; the first European to see the area was John Smith in 1608 when he traveled up the Chesapeake Bay from Jamestown. In 1652 the English and Susquehannocks signed a treaty at what is now Annapolis for the area now called Harford County. Harford County was formed on March 22, 1774 from the eastern part of Baltimore County with a population of 13,000 people. On March 22, 1775 Harford County hosted the signers of the Bush Declaration, a precursor document to the American Revolution. On January 22, 1782 Bel Air became the county seat. After marrying Mary Ann Holmes in 1821 Junius Brutus Booth Sr. moved to the county into a log cabin before building Tudor Hall in 1847.
Junius Brutus Booth Sr. "was followed as a marvel. Mention of his name stirred an enthusiasm no other could awaken." Junius Brutus Booth Jr. was born to the couple in Bel Air, Harford County, Maryland in 1821 before managing the Boston Theatre, Walnut Street Theatre, Winter Garden Theatre, Booth's Theatre where his younger brother Edwin was the star attraction. Though a undistinguished actor, Junius Jr. was regarded for his performances as King John and Cassius in Julius Caesar, which he performed with Edwin as Brutus and John Wilkes as Mark Antony in 1864. He married Agnes Land Perry in 1867, he retired in 1881 to Masconomo House in Manchester-by-the-Sea, where he died on September 17, 1883. Edwin Booth was born in Bel Air but in 1833 and toured America and Europe performing plays by Shakespeare before founding Booth's Theatre in New York in 1869. Edwin was a Unionist. Born in the same log cabin but in 1838 John Wilkes Booth made his stage debut at age 17 on August 14, 1855 in the supporting role of the Earl of Richmond in Richard III at Baltimore's Charles Street Theatre.
Some of the more known theaters that he acted for include John T. Ford's Holliday Street Theater in Baltimore, Arch Street Theatre in Philadelphia, the Richmond Theatre. Of all Shakespearean characters his favorite role was Brutus the slayer of a tyrant; some critics called him "the handsomest man in America," a "natural genius", praised his "astonishing memory" while others gave mixed reviews of his acting. Historian Benjamin Platt Thomas wrote that Booth "won celebrity with theater-goers by his romantic personal attraction."Author Gene Smith wrote that Booth's acting may not have been as precise as his brother Edwin's, but his strikingly handsome appearance enthralled women. As the 1850s drew to a close, Booth was becoming wealthy as an actor. Despite the acting fame of the entire Booth family, John Wilkes Booth will always be most known for assassinating Abraham Lincoln. Havre de Grace, a city incorporated in 1785 within Harford County, was once under consideration to be the capital of the United States rather than Washington, D.
C. It was favored for its strategic location at the top of the Chesapeake Bay. Today, the waterways around Havre de Grace have become adversely affected by silt runoff, one of the primary environmental issues of Harford County. While today the site is a Maryland National Guard military reservation, the land was used as the Havre de Grace Racetrack where racehorse Man o' War ran in 1919 and 1920. During the 1900s the Bata Shoe Company employed numerous Eastern European refugees at the Belcamp factory. In the 1940s the Susquehanna River tributary Broad Creek was dammed to form the 55 acres at what is now the Broad Creek Memorial Scout Reservation. In June 1972 Hurricane Agnes flooded areas in many states. On the County Health Rankings & Roadmaps by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, "prior to the 2016 report... Harford's yearly rankings fell between ninth and 10th place because of the percentage of county residents who were obese or who smoked."
Scenes from Tuck Everlasting, From Within, House of Cards were all filmed in Harford County. In 2011 the Office of National Drug Control Policy deemed Harford County a designated High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area; the county was named for Henry Harford, the illegitimate son of Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Henry Harford was born to Calvert's mistress, Hester Whelan, whose residence still stands as part of a private residence on Jarretsville Pike, in Phoenix, Maryland. Harford served as the last Proprietary Governor of Maryland but, because of his illegitimacy, did not inherit his father's title. There are 79 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including one National Historic Landmark called Sion Hill. Harford County has environmental issues in three major areas: land use, water pollution/urban runoff, soil contamination/groundwater contamination; as the county sits at the headwaters of the Chesapeake Bay along the Susquehanna River, it plays a key role in controlling sediment and fertilizer runoff into the bay as well as fostering submerged aquatic vegetation regrowth.
The county has had to balance the needs of land owners to practice agriculture and/or pave land with effects of runoff into the bay. Harford County has been burdened by soil contamination and groundwater contamination since the creation of the Aberdeen Proving Ground; the military installation performs researc
Annapolis is the capital of the U. S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles south of Baltimore and about 30 miles east of Washington, D. C. Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census. This city served as the seat of the Confederation Congress and temporary national capital of the United States in 1783–1784. At that time, General George Washington came before the body convened in the new Maryland State House and resigned his commission as commander of the Continental Army. A month the Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War, with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States; the city and state capitol was the site of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which issued a call to the states to send delegates for the Constitutional Convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia.
Over 220 years the Annapolis Peace Conference, was held in 2007. Annapolis is the home of St. John's College, founded 1696. A settlement in the Province of Maryland named "Providence" was founded on the north shore of the Severn River on the middle Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1649 by Puritan exiles from the Province/Dominion of Virginia led by third Proprietary Governor William Stone; the settlers moved to a better-protected harbor on the south shore. The settlement on the south shore was named "Town at Proctor's," "Town at the Severn," and "Anne Arundel's Towne". In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, Parliamentary forces assumed control of the Maryland colony and Stone went into exile further south across the Potomac River in Virginia. Per orders from Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier royalist force, loyal to the King of England. On March 25, 1655, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn, Stone was defeated, taken prisoner, replaced by Lt. Gen. Josias Fendall as fifth Proprietary Governor.
Fendall governed Maryland during the latter half of the Commonwealth period in England. In 1660, he was replaced by Phillip Calvert as fifth/sixth Governor of Maryland, after the restoration of Charles II as King in England. In 1694, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of second Royal Governor Thomas Lawrence third Royal Governor Francis Nicholson, moved the capital of the royal colony, the Province of Maryland, to Anne Arundel's Towne and renamed the town Annapolis after Princess Anne of Denmark and Norway, soon to be the Queen Anne of Great Britain. Annapolis was incorporated as a city in 1708.17th-century Annapolis was little more than a village, but it grew for most of the 18th century until the American Revolutionary War as a political and administrative capital, a port of entry, a major center of the Atlantic slave trade. The Maryland Gazette, which became an important weekly journal, was founded there by Jonas Green in 1745. Water trades such as oyster-packing and sailmaking became the city's chief industries.
Annapolis is home to a large number of recreational boats that have replaced the seafood industry in the city. Dr. Alexander Hamilton was a Scottish-born writer who lived and worked in Annapolis. Leo Lemay says his 1744 travel diary Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America." Annapolis became the temporary capital of the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Congress was in session in the state house from November 26, 1783 to June 3, 1784, it was in Annapolis on December 23, 1783, that General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. For the 1783 Congress, the Governor of Maryland commissioned John Shaw, a local cabinet maker, to create an American flag; the flag is different from other designs of the time. The blue field extends over the entire height of the hoist. Shaw created two versions of the flag: one which started with a red stripe and another that started with a white one.
In 1786, delegates from all states of the Union were invited to meet in Annapolis to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce. Delegates from only five states—New York, Virginia, New Jersey, Delaware—actually attended the convention, known afterward as the "Annapolis Convention." Without proceeding to the business for which they had met, the delegates passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia convention drafted and approved the Constitution of the United States, still in force. On April 24, 1861, the midshipmen of the Naval Academy relocated their base in Annapolis and were temporarily housed in Newport, Rhode Island until October 1865. In 1861, the first of three camps that were built for holding paroled soldiers was created on the campus of St. John's College; the second location of Camp Parole would
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly necessary to conduct the business of that group. According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, the "requirement for a quorum is protection against unrepresentative action in the name of the body by an unduly small number of persons."The term quorum is from a Middle English wording of the commission issued to justices of the peace, derived from Latin quorum, "of whom", genitive plural of qui, "who". As a result, quora as plural of quorum is not a valid Latin formation; each assembly determines the number of members. The quorum may be set by law. Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised states that the quorum set in an organization's bylaws "should approximate the largest number that can be depended on to attend any meeting except in bad weather or other unfavorable conditions."In the absence of such a provision, a quorum is an assembly whose membership can be determined is a majority of the entire membership. In the meetings of a convention, unless provided otherwise, a quorum is a majority of registered delegates if some have departed.
In a mass meeting or in an organization in which the membership cannot be determined, the quorum consists of those who attend the meeting. In committees and boards, a quorum is a majority of the members of the board or committee unless provided otherwise; the board or committee can not set its own quorum. In a committee of the whole or its variants, a quorum is the same as the assembly unless otherwise provided. In online groups, a quorum has to be determined in a different manner since no one is "present"; the rules establishing such groups would have to prescribe this determination. An example is that a quorum in such groups could be established as "present" if enough members state that they are "present" at the designated meeting time; the chairman of the group has the responsibility to determine. In addition, any member can raise a point of order about an apparent absence of a quorum; because it is difficult to determine when a quorum was lost, points of order relating to the absence of a quorum are "generally not permitted to affect prior action.
When a quorum is not met, the assembly can only take limited procedural actions. These limited actions are to fix the time to which to adjourn, recess, or take measures to obtain a quorum, such as a motion that absent members be contacted during a recess. Any other business, conducted is not valid unless it is ratified at a meeting where a quorum is present. However, there is no obligation to ratify such action and those responsible may be punished for their actions. In legislatures and other assemblies that have the legal power to compel the attendance of their members, the call of the house procedure may be used to obtain a quorum; this procedure does not exist in ordinary societies, since voluntary associations have no coercive power. When a call of the house is ordered, the clerk calls the roll of members and the names of absentees. Members who do not have an excused absence are brought in; the arrested members may be charged a fee. The tactic of quorum-busting—causing a quorum to be prevented from the meeting—has been used in legislative bodies by minorities seeking to block the adoption of some measure they oppose.
This only happens where the quorum is a super-majority, as quorums of a majority or less of the membership mean that the support of a majority of members is always sufficient for the quorum. Rules to discourage quorum-busting have been adopted by legislative bodies, such as the call of the house, outlined above. Quorum-busting has been used for centuries. For instance, during his time in the Illinois Legislature, Abraham Lincoln leapt out of a first story window in a failed attempt to prevent a quorum from being present. A recent prominent example of quorum-busting occurred during the 2003 Texas redistricting, in which the majority Republicans in the Texas House of Representatives sought to carry out a controversial mid-decade congressional redistricting bill which would have favored Republicans by displacing five Democratic U. S. Representatives from Texas from their districts; the House Democrats, certain of defeat if a quorum were present, took a plane to the neighboring state of Oklahoma to prevent a quorum from being present.
The group gained the nickname "the Killer Ds." The minority Democrats in the Texas Legislature's upper chamber, the Texas Senate, fled to New Mexico to prevent a quorum of the Senate to prevent a redistricting bill from being considered during a special session. The Texas Eleven stayed in New Mexico for 46 days before John Whitmire returned to Texas, creating a quorum; because there was now no point in staying in New Mexico, the remaining ten members of the Texas Eleven returned to Texas to vote in opposition to the bill. During the 2011 Wisconsin protests, fourteen Democratic members of the Wisconsin Senate went to Illinois in order to bust the necessary 20-member quorum. Democrats in the Indiana House of Representatives did the same in order to block another union-related bill, causing the legislative clock on the bill to expire. Traveling out of their state placed these legislators beyond the jurisdiction of state troopers who could comp
Governor of Maryland
The governor of the State of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the State of Maryland, is the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard units. The governor is the highest-ranking official in the state and has a broad range of appointive powers in both the state and local governments, as specified by the Maryland Constitution; because of the extent of these constitutional powers, the governor of Maryland has been ranked as being among the most powerful governors in the United States. The current governor is Larry Hogan, a Republican who took office on January 21, 2015. Like most state chief executives in the United States, the governor is elected by the citizens of Maryland to serve a four-year term. Under the Constitution of Maryland, the governor can run any number of times, but not more than twice in a row; this makes it possible for a two-term governor to run for the office again after remaining out of office for at least one term. An eligible candidate for governor must be at least 30 years old, a resident of and a registered voter in Maryland for the five years preceding the election.
If a candidate meets this minimum requirement, he or she must file his or her candidacy with the Maryland State Board of Elections, pay a filing fee, file a financial disclosure, create a legal campaign financial body. The governor, like all statewide officials in Maryland, is elected in the even-numbered years in which the election for President of the United States does not occur; as the chief executive of the State of Maryland, the governor heads the executive branch of government, which includes all state executive departments and agencies, as well as advisory boards, commissions and task forces. The main constitutional responsibility of the governor of Maryland, any other State's chief executive, is to carry out the business of the state and to enforce the laws passed by the Legislature; the governor has some say in these laws, since the governor has the ability to veto any bill sent to his or her desk by the Maryland General Assembly, though the assembly may override that veto. The governor is given a number of more specific powers as relates to appropriations of state funds, the appointment of state officials, a variety of less prominent and less utilized powers.
Every year, the governor must present a proposed budget to the Maryland General Assembly. After receiving the proposed budget, the assembly is allowed to decrease any portion of the budget for the executive branch, but it may never increase it or transfer funds between executive departments; the assembly may, increase funds for the Legislative and Judicial branches of government. The governor has the power to veto any law, passed by the General Assembly, including a "line item veto", which can be used to strike certain portions of appropriations bills; the Legislature has the power to override a Governor's veto by vote of three-fifths of the number of members in each house. The governor sits on the board of public works, whose other two members are the comptroller and the treasurer; this board has broad powers in approving the spending of state funds. They must approve state expenditures of all general funds and capital improvement funds, excluding expenditures for the construction of state roads and highways.
It has the power to solicit loans on its own accord either to meet a deficit or in anticipation of other revenues, in addition to approving expenditures of funds from loans authorized by the General Assembly. The governor appoints all military and civil officers of the state government, subject to advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate; the governor appoints certain boards and commissions in each of the 24 Counties and in Baltimore City, such as local Boards of Elections, commissions notaries public, appoints officers to fill vacancies in the elected offices of Attorney General and Comptroller. Should a vacancy arise in either of the two houses of the General Assembly, the governor fills that vacancy, though the governor must choose from among the recommendations of the local party organization to which the person leaving the vacancy belonged. Any officer appointed by the governor, except a member of the General Assembly, is removable by him or her, if there is a legitimate cause for removal.
Among the most prominent of the governor's appointees are the 24 secretaries and heads of departments that make up the governor's Cabinet known as the executive council. The governor of Maryland is the chairman of the governor's executive council which coordinates all state government functions; this is composed of the following members, all of whom, except the lieutenant governor, are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate as heads of executive departments: Lieutenant governor- Boyd Rutherford Secretary of State- John C. Wobensmith Secretary of Aging- Rona E. Kramer Secretary of Agriculture- Joe Bartenfelder Secretary of Budget and Management- David Brinkley Secretary of Business and Economic Development- R. Michael Gill Secretary of Disabilities-Carol Beatty State Superintendent of Schools - Lillian M. Lowery Secretary of Environment- Ben Grumbles Secretary of General Services- C. Gail Bassette Secretary of Health and Mental Hygiene- Van Mitchell Secretary of Housing and Community Development- Kenneth C. Holt Secretary of Human Resources- Sam Maholtra Secretary of Information Technology- David Garcia Secretary of Juvenile Services- Sam J. Abed Secretary of Labor and Regulation- Kelly Schulz Secretary of Natural Resources- Mark Belton Secretary of Planni
Rutgers Law School
Rutgers Law School is the law school of Rutgers University located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is the largest public law school in the United States by enrollment and the 10th largest overall, with each class in Rutgers Law's three-year J. D. program enrolling 300 students. Founded in 1908, Rutgers offers the J. D. and foreign lawyer J. D. Rutgers has over 20,000 alumni practicing in all 50 U. S. states. In 2015, Rutgers School of Law–Newark and Rutgers School of Law–Camden were unified into a single law school with two campuses. U. S. News & World Report, in its 2018 rankings of Best Graduate Schools, ranked Rutgers Law School 62nd among 197 law schools accredited by the American Bar Association. Above the Law ranked Rutgers 43rd on its 2017 list of top law schools According to Rutgers Law School's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-advantage employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. Rutgers Law School is the oldest law school in New Jersey.
Rutgers Law School has its in the roots in three law schools. The first was founded October 5, 1908 as the New Jersey Law School, the second, the South Jersey Law School founded in 1926 by Collingswood, New Jersey mayor and businessmen Arthur E. Armitage, Sr. and the final was Mercer Beasley School of Law named for a former New Jersey Supreme Court Justice and founded in 1926 by several prominent Newark attorneys. The New Jersey Law School was founded as a for-profit law school by Richard D. Currier, a New York lawyer and graduate of Yale and New York Law School. Currier was joined by Charles M. Mason, a New Jersey attorney, who served as dean until his death in 1928; the school had only three faculty members 30 students with classes on the 4th floor of the Prudential Insurance Home Office in Newark for their first classes. In December 1908, the school was moved to a large Victorian townhouse at 33 East Park Street in Newark. From its founding, women were to be admitted on "equal basis to men."
After World War I, the New Jersey Law School saw increase in enrollment and by 1927, enrollment had peaked to more than 2,300 students, making it the second largest law school in the United States. In 1927 the school moved to the former Sons Ale Brewery at 40 Rector Street. In 1934, Mercer Beasley School of Law and Newark Institute of Arts and Sciences merged to form the University of Newark and two years the New Jersey Law School joined establishing the University of Newark Law School. Combining the resources of the schools was designed created a stronger institution however the law school experienced a major decline in enrollment due to World War II and therefore was in a precarious financial condition. In 1946, the University of Newark merged with Rutgers University and the law school was renamed the Rutgers University School of Law. In 1950, the South Jersey Law School in Camden, New Jersey, merged with Rutgers University; the school was divided between the Newark Division and the South Jersey division based in Camden, with the dean and law school administration based in Newark.
During the 1950s and 1960s the law school expanded in size creating the largest law library in New Jersey and its faculty tripled in size. In 1963, the now U. S. Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, was hired as a law professor and served on the faculty until 1972. Ginsburg developed some of the concepts that led to the founding of the Women's Rights Litigation Clinic by Professor Nadine H. Taub, its director for many years, the Women's Rights Law Reporter the first American legal journal dedicated women's rights. In 1967, the South Jersey Division was split and created as a separate unit, creating two law schools: Rutgers School of Law – Camden and Rutgers School of Law – Newark. In 1968, following the Newark riots of 1967, the faculty created the Minority Students Program one of the first law school affirmative action programs in the country, with the goal of increasing African American student enrollment. In 1978, the law faculty voted to admit students regardless of race and revamped the Minority Students Program to focus on socio-economically disadvantaged students in response to the Supreme Court's decision in Bakke.
In Doherty V. Rutgers School Of Law-Newark the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the MSP in a lawsuit from a white student alleging discrimination. Throughout the 1970s the Newark campus was a center of activism and law students nicknamed it "The Peoples'Electric Law School." Its graduates from this period include United States Senators Elizabeth Robert Menendez. After eliminating its evening program in 1955, in 1975, the law school restarted an evening program on Camden and Newark campus. From 1965 to 1978 the Newark division of the law school was located on Akerson Hall. In 1978, it moved to a skyscraper at 15 Washington Street, renamed in honor of billionaire media baron Samuel I. Newhouse, a 1916 graduate of the law school. In January 2000, the school moved to the Center for Law and Justice, a newly constructed 225,000-square-foot, six-story building at 123 Washington Street in Newark. In 2015, Rutgers School of Law–Newark and Rutgers School of Law–Camden were unified into a single, jointly administered Rutgers Law School with two campuses.
In 2017, Rutgers had a 48 % acceptance rate, with 2,079 applications for 1,001 offers. The for the 2017 admitted students, the LSAT 75% - 25% was 157-151 and the UGPA 75% - 25% was 3.61 - 3.11. Rutgers' admissions process offers applicants a choice between competing for admission based on traditional measures such as LSAT scores and college GPAs, or, alternatively, on the basis of an applicant's life experience, with a lesser emphasis placed on traditional factor