Kōka is a city located in southern Shiga Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the city has an estimated population of 89,881 and a population density of 190 persons per km2; the total area is 481.69 km2. The modern city of Kōka was established on October 1, 2004, from the merger of the former town of Kōka, absorbing the towns of Kōnan, Minakuchi and Tsuchiyama. Kōka is quite well known for its ninja history, fine quality ceramics and for containing two shukuba post stations from the historic Tōkaidō; the city launched a new English version of their homepage in April 2007, they have begun to promote themselves as a little-known, yet authentic, sightseeing destination. Koka is served by local buses as well as two train lines. Koka sits on the Kusatsu Line of the JR; the line runs from Kusatsu to Tsuge Station in Mie Prefecture. There are five stops in Koka - Kibukawa, Kōnan, Terashō, Kōka, Aburahi. Kibukawa Station has lines for the Shigaraki Kōgen Railway: Shigaraki Line and the Ohmi Railway: Main Line.
Kōga-ryū, the Koga Ninja school of ninjutsu Miho Museum Minakuchi Castle Shigaraki ware Media related to Kōka, Shiga at Wikimedia Commons Koka travel guide from Wikivoyage Kōka City official website Kōka City official website
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
University of Tsukuba
The University of Tsukuba, located in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, is one of the oldest national universities and one of the most comprehensive research universities in Japan. The university has schools with around 16,500 students; the main Tsukuba campus covers an area of 258 hectares, making it the second largest single campus in Japan. The branch campus is in Bunkyo-ku, which offers graduate programs for working adults in the capital and manages K-12 schools in Tokyo that are attached to the university; the university's academic strength is in STEMM fields, physical education, related interdisciplinary fields. It is by taking located in Tsukuba Science City; the university has had three Nobel laureates, about 70 athletes, their students and alumni, have participated in the Olympic Games. It has established interdisciplinary Ph. D. programs in Human Biology and Empowerment Informatics, the International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine, which were created through the Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology's competitive funding projects.
Its Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences is represented on the national Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction. Their founding philosophy states the University of Tsukuba is "a university, open to all within and outside of Japan." The university is known for its internationalization efforts. It has won Japanese government funding projects for internationalization of Japanese universities, including the Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology's "Global 30" Project and the "Super Global University Project". In the Super Global University Project, University of Tsukuba won Type A funding, for 13 elite Japanese universities to be ranked in the top 100 in global university rankings by 2023, their initiative includes expanding the number of courses and degree programs taught in English only, sharing faculty members with partner institutions such as National Taiwan University, University of Bordeaux, University of California, Irvine to promote education and research collaboration, establishing so-called "Course Jukebox System" which enables their and partner institutions' students to take partner institutions' courses as if they are at their original institution.
In 2004, the university established the Alliance for Research on North Africa as an academic research center with the purpose of promoting comprehensive research concerning the North African Region through integration of humanities and sciences. Since ARENA has been expanding its research fields, the university established a branch office in Tunis, Tunisia in 2006; the University of Tsukuba is accepting African students through the ABE initiative, initiated by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and is bringing 1,000 African graduate students to Japanese universities in five years from 2014. The University of Tsukuba is planning and leading Japan-Africa Academic Network initiative to bring together all the Japanese universities' resources for Africa and to deepen the academic relationship between Japan and Africa. In May 2008, the Tokyo International Conference on African Development became an opportunity for the African Development Bank and universities in Japan to promote partnership on higher education and technology.
Donald Kaberuka, the president of the AfDB, the president of University of Tsukuba signed a memorandum of understanding during the three-day event. In 2009, the University of Tsukuba participated in the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization's affiliated member, it has been cooperating in the development of education in the ASEAN region; the university is a member of AIMS program, to promote regional student mobility among the ASEAN and participated countries including Japan. As of August 2015, the university has over 300 international inter-university agreements and 13 overseas offices in 12 countries, located in Brazil, Germany, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, United States and Vietnam; the university was established in October 1973. A forerunner was Tokyo University of Education, founded in 1872, it was one of the oldest universities in Japan, Tokyo Higher Normal School. In October 2002, the University of Tsukuba merged with the University of Library and Information Science; the School of Library and Information Science and the Graduate School of Library and Information – Media Studies were established.
It has provided several Nobel Prize winners, such as Leo Esaki, Hideki Shirakawa and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. Dr. Satoshi Ōmura was an auditor at Tokyo University of Education. University of Tsukuba is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. Tsukuba is one of the leading research institutions in Japan. According to Thomson Reuters, Tsukuba is the 10th best research institutions among all the universities and non-educational research institutions in Japan. Weekly Diamond reported that Tsukuba has the 27th highest research standard in Japan in research fundings per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it's ranked 11th in the quality of education by GP funds per student, it has a good research standard in Economics, as Research Papers in Economics ranked Tsukuba as the eighth best Economics research university in January 2011. Tsukuba's law school was ranked 19th in 2010 for its p
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Kazuyoshi Miura known as Kazu, is a Japanese footballer who plays as a forward for Yokohama FC in the J2 League. He played for the Japanese national team from 1990 to 2000, was the first Japanese recipient of the Asian Footballer of the Year award in 1993, the last year before it was adopted by the Asian Football Confederation. Miura, whose rise to fame in Japan coincided with the launch of the J. League in 1993, was arguably Japan's first superstar in football, he is known for his trademark "Kazu Feint" and his famous "Kazu dance", when he scores great goals or produces great plays. Miura holds the records for being the oldest footballer and oldest goalscorer in worldwide professional leagues at the age of 50, his elder brother Yasutoshi was a professional footballer. In 1982, Miura left the Shizuoka Gakuen School after less than a year, travelled alone to Brazil at the age of fifteen to become a professional footballer there, he signed with Clube Atlético Juventus, a youth club in São Paulo, in 1986, Miura signed his first professional contract with Santos.
He played for several other Brazilian clubs including Palmeiras and Coritiba, until his return to Japan in 1990. His time in Brazil elevated him to star status and on his return to Japan, he joined the Japan Soccer League side Yomiuri SC, which spun off from its parent company Yomiuri Shinbun and became Verdy Kawasaki with the launch of the J1 League in 1993. With Yomiuri/Kawasaki, Miura won four consecutive league titles playing alongside fellow Japanese national team regulars Ruy Ramos and Tsuyoshi Kitazawa. Yomiuri won the last two JSL titles in 1991 and 1992, Verdy Kawasaki won the first two J1 League titles in 1993 and 1994, he was named the first J. League Most Valuable Player in 1993 and the last unofficial Asian Footballer of the Year in 1993. Miura became the first Japanese footballer to play in Italy, joining Genoa in the 1994–95 Serie A season. In his Italian stint, he played 21 times and scored one goal, during the Genoa derby against Sampdoria. On 15 January 1994, Miura assisted Antonio Manicone's match-winning goal against Padova.
He returned to Verdy Kawasaki for the 1995 season and played with them until the end of the 1998 season. Miura made another attempt at playing in Europe with Dinamo Zagreb in 1999, he returned to Japan, following a brief trial with Bournemouth, in the same year, played with Kyoto Purple Sanga and Vissel Kobe, before signing for Yokohama FC in 2005. In 2007, Miura was selected for the 2007 J. League played exceptionally well. In November 2015, Miura signed a new one-year contract with Yokohama FC at the age of 48. In January 2017, Miura signed another new one-year contract with Yokohama, taking his professional career into his fifties. On 5 March 2017, Miura became the oldest player to feature in a professional match when he started in Yokohama's 1–1 draw against V-Varen Nagasaki. With 50 years and seven days, he surpassed the previous record held by Stanley Matthews from 1965 by two days. Seven days he broke Matthews' record for oldest goalscorer in professional football when he struck the only goal of a 1–0 win over Thespakusatsu Gunma.
In January 2018, he signed a new contract, renewed it again in January 2019. In September 1990, Miura was named as part of the Japan squad for the 1990 Asian Games. At this competition, on September 26, he debuted against Bangladesh. After his debut, he played as a forward until 1997. In 1992, he played at the 1992 Asian Cup. In 1993, in the 1994 World Cup qualification, he scored thirteen goals. However, Japan failed to qualify for the 1994 World Cup, he played at the 1994 Asian Games, the 1995 King Fahd Cup and the 1996 Asian Cup. In 1997, Miura scored fourteen times for Japan during qualification for the 1998 World Cup, leading the Samurai Blue to their first World Cup finals. Despite this, Miura was controversially left out of the squad. In February 2000, Miura played for Japan for the first time in two years, he played his last national team match that year, finished with the second-most career goals in Japanese national team history with 55 goals in 89 matches. In 2012, at the age of 45, Miura made his debut for the Japan futsal team in a 3–3 draw against Brazil.
He was involved in build up for the second goal scored by Nobuya Osodo. In his second appearance with the futsal team, he scored the third goal in a 3–1 win over Ukraine. In the 2012 FIFA Futsal World Cup, Miura appeared in all four matches for Japan, but failed to score as the Japanese were knocked out by Ukraine in the round of 16. Updates to 7 April 2019
1996 AFC Asian Cup
The 1996 AFC Asian Cup was the 11th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation. The finals were held in the United Arab Emirates between 4 and 21 December 1996. Saudi Arabia defeated hosts United Arab Emirates in the final match in Abu Dhabi; as the runners-up, the United Arab Emirates represented the AFC in the 1997 FIFA Confederations Cup as the winners Saudi Arabia had qualified automatically as host. United Arab Emirates qualified automatically as host Japan qualified automatically as defending champions33 teams participated in a preliminary tournament, it was divided into the first-placed team of each group thus qualified. The other 10 qualifying teams were: China PR Indonesia Iran Iraq South Korea Kuwait Saudi Arabia Syria Thailand Uzbekistan All times are UAE time At the end of the first stage, a comparison was made between the third placed teams of each group; the two best third-placed teams advanced to the quarter-finals.
Iraq and Korea Republic qualified for the quarter-finals. All times are UAE time Khodadad Azizi Ali Daei – 8 goals Mohamed Al-Deayea Iran With eight goals, Ali Daei is the top scorer in the tournament. In total, 80 goals were scored with only one of them credited as own goal. RSSSF Details
Júbilo Iwata is a professional Japanese association football team that play in the J1 League. The team name Júbilo means ` joy' in Portuguese; the team's hometown is Iwata, Shizuoka prefecture and they play at Yamaha Stadium. For big fixtures such as the Shizuoka Derby with Shimizu S-Pulse and against some of the top teams in J1, Júbilo play at the much larger Ecopa Stadium in Fukuroi City, a venue built for the 2002 FIFA World Cup finals, they practice at Okubo Ground in Iwata Sports Park Yumeria. One of the most successful teams in the J. League, Júbilo have three times won the J. League title and three times finished as runners up. Júbilo hold the distinction of being Japan's most successful team in international club football, making three successive appearances in the Asian Club Cup final, being champions once and runners up twice; the team started out as the company team for Yamaha Motor Corporation in 1970. After making its way through the Shizuoka and Tōkai football leagues, it played in the Japan Soccer League until it reorganized as the J.
League at the end of 1992. Their first glory happened when they won both the Emperor's Cup and promotion as champions of the JSL Division 2 in 1982, they won their first Japanese league title in the 1987/88 season. Due to problems in the upcoming professionalization, Yamaha decided to relegate themselves and not be one of the J. League founder members, they finished in 2nd place of the JFL 1st division, a division below the top flight, in 1993 and were promoted to the J1 league for 1994. The team welcomed Marius Johan Ooft as its manager, as well as the Brazilian national team captain Dunga and a number of foreign players to build a winning team. Dunga's football philosophy influenced the club as a player and as an advisor. In a seven-year period between 1997 and 2003, the club won a number of titles relying on Japanese players instead of foreigners who may leave on a transfer during the middle of the season. Within this period Júbilo won the J. League title three times, finished second three more and won each of the domestic cup competitions once.
In 1999 they were crowned Champions of Asia after winning the final match against Esteghlal F. C. and 121.000 spectators in Azadi Stadium. In one of the most fruitful periods in J. League history, Júbilo created some new ones. Amongst these are the most goals scored in a season. In 2002, the team won both stages of the championship, a first in J. League history, the same year the team had a record seven players selected for the J. League Team of the Year. All of these records still stand today. Since their last cup triumph in the 2003 Emperor's Cup, the squad which took them to such heights began to age. Without skilled replacements coming through the youth team or from outside, Júbilo's power started to fade, in 2007 the club ended the season in a record worst position of 9th. More concerning to Júbilo supporters is their eclipse in recent seasons by bitter local rivals Shimizu S-Pulse who, in ending the season above Júbilo every year since 2006, have become Shizuoka prefecture's premier performing team.
In 2008 they finished 16th out of 18 – their lowest position in the 18-club table – but kept their J1 position by defeating Vegalta Sendai in the promotion/relegation playoff. In 2013 season, it took them until 8th week to make their first win in the league matches, never move up higher than 16th since they were ranked down to 17th as of the end of 5th week. Suffered their first relegation to 2014 J. League Division 2 after they were defeated by Sagan Tosu at their 31st week match. Júbilo were promoted back to J1 in 2015 after finishing runners-up. Júbilo's closest professional rivals are S-Pulse from Shizuoka. Júbilo has rivalries with Kashima Antlers and Yokohama Marinos, with whom they traded the Japanese league championship since the late 1980s. During the Japan Soccer League days they had a more local derby with Honda, across the Tenryu in Hamamatsu, but as Honda has long resisted professionalism, competitive matches between them since 1994 are a rarity. KeyTms. = Number of teams Pos. = Position in league Attendance/G = Average league attendance Source: J.
League Data Site As of 2 March 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; the following players have been selected by their country in the World Cup, while playing for Júbilo Iwata: Dunga Hiroshi Nanami Masashi Nakayama Toshihiro Hattori Takashi Fukunishi Kim Jin-Kyu Yūichi Komano Masahiko Inoha The following players have won the awards while at Júbilo Iwata: J. League Player of the Year Dunga Masashi Nakayama Toshiya Fujita Naohiro Takahara J. League Top Scorer Masashi Nakayama Naohiro Takahara Ryoichi Maeda J. League Best XI Hiroshi Nanami Dunga Tomoaki Ōgami Masashi Nakayama Daisuke Oku Toshiya Fujita Makoto Tanaka Takashi Fukunishi Arno van Zwam Toshihiro Hattori Go Oiwa Hideto Suzuki Makoto Tanaka Naohiro Takahara Yoshikatsu Kawaguchi Ryoichi Maeda Yūichi Komano J. League Rookie of the Year Robert Cullen J