Formula 3000 was a type of open wheel, single seater formula racing, occupying the tier below Formula One and above Formula Three. It was so named; the most prestigious F3000 series, International Formula 3000, was introduced by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile in 1985 to replace Formula Two, was itself replaced by the GP2 Series in 2005. While the International series is synonymous with F3000, other series racing to F3000 specification have existed. A small British Formula 3000 series ran for several years in the late 1980s and early 1990s using year-old cars. Founded in 1989 as the British Formula 3000 Championship, the series was renamed the British Formula Two Championship in 1992, but grids diminished and it was ended after the 1994 season, it was restarted in 1996 and cancelled once more the following year, after one race had been held with only three cars. Two other attempts at restarting F3000 racing in the UK failed. An Italian series evolved into a second-level one, Euro Formula 3000, running the previous generation of spec Lolas.
An Italian national series started in 2005 with the arrival of the GP2 Series, but has now been merged with Euroseries 3000, running both B02/50 and B99/50 cars. As of 2010, it is renamed Auto GP, using old A1 Grand Prix cars and engines in place of F3000 regulations; the American Racing Series, a predecessor of Indy Lights, ran with March F3000 chassis and Buick V6 engines, before turning to Lolas some years later. Japan persisted with Formula Two rules for a couple of years after the demise of F2 in Europe, but adopted F3000 rules in 1987. Unlike European F3000, the Japanese Championship featured a lot of competition between tyre companies, tended to feature paid drivers in cars tending to be more developed and tested than those in the European series; the Mugen engine dominated this series, was competitive in European F3000. Japanese F3000 was renamed Formula Nippon in 1996, split off from European racing in 2009 with the new Swift chassis. In Australia Formula 4000 continued to use old F3000 chassis until 2006, as had its predecessors Formula Brabham and Formula Holden
Super GT is a grand touring car racing series that began in 1993. Titled as the Zen Nihon GT Senshuken referred to as either the JGTC or the All Japan Grand Touring Car Championship, the series was renamed to Super GT in 2005, it is the top level of sports car racing in Japan. The series is run by the GT Association. Autobacs has served as the title sponsor of the series since 2005; the JGTC was established in 1993 by the Japan Automobile Federation via its subsidiary company the GTA, replacing the defunct All Japan Sports Prototype Championship for Group C cars and the Japanese Touring Car Championship for Group A touring cars, which instead would adopt the supertouring formula. Seeking to prevent the spiraling budgets and one-team/make domination of both series, JGTC imposed strict limits on power, heavy weight penalties on race winners in an stated objective to keep on-track action close with an emphasis on keeping fans happy; the JGTC had planned to hold a race during the 2005 season at the Shanghai International Circuit in China, in addition to the existing overseas round at Sepang in Malaysia.
However, holding the series in more than two countries would have meant the JGTC would lose its status as a "national championship" under the International Sporting Code of the FIA, therefore could not keep "Japanese Championship" in its name. The series would instead be classified as an "international championship" by the FIA, would therefore require direct authorization from it, rather than the JAF. Therefore, on December 10, 2004, it was announced that JGTC would be renamed "Super GT", with the goals of "challenge to the world", "challenge to entertainment". However, despite the name change, Super GT has continued to only hold one overseas race per year. In 2014, Super GT and the German touring car series DTM announced the creation of "Class One", which would unify GT500's and DTM's technical regulations, allowing manufacturers to race in both series with a single specification of car. After some delays, full unification of technical regulations is set for 2019. Races take place on well-known Japanese race tracks such as Twin Ring Motegi, Fuji Speedway, Suzuka Circuit, as well as smaller circuits like Sportsland Sugo.
The series made its first international expansion in 2000, holding an exhibition race at Sepang in Malaysia. After a further exhibition race in 2001, it gained points-paying championship status in 2002, staying on the calendar until 2014, when it was replaced by the Buriram circuit in Thailand. Additional overseas races were planned to be held at Zhuhai in 2004, Shanghai in 2005, Yeongam in 2013, but all three events never came to fruition. Races are single events of at least 300 kilometers, though in 2011, the minimum distance was reduced to 250 km due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes forced the GTA to cancel its Autopolis round, substituting the race with Super GT's sole instance of a double-header event, comprising two 250 km races held at Motegi; the 1000 km Suzuka rejoined the series in 2006, becoming the longest and most prestigious race on the calendar. It was a round of the series until 2017, as the race became a part of the Intercontinental GT Challenge starting in 2018, although all GT300 cars remained eligible to participate.
Suzuka with a shorter 300 km race. In 2018, Super GT started holding a 500 mile race at Fuji, replacing the 1000 km Suzuka as the series' endurance round; as with its predecessor, the Fuji 500 mile race is the longest race on the calendar, awards double championship points. The cars are divided into two groups; the names of the categories derive from their traditional maximum horsepower limit - in the early years of the series, GT500 cars would have no more than 500 horsepower, GT300 cars would max out at around 300 hp. However, the current generation of GT500 powerplants produce in excess of 650 horsepower. Meanwhile, in present-day GT300, the horsepower range varies from around 400 to just over 550 horsepower. In both groups, the car number is assigned to the team, in which each team is allowed to choose whichever number they want as long as the number isn't used by any other team; the number assigned to each team is permanent, may only change hands when the team exits the series. In addition, only defending team champions are allowed to use number 0 and 1, although it isn't mandatory for defending champions to use those numbers.
For easy identification, GT500 cars run white headlight covers, windshield decals, number panels, while GT300 cars run yellow versions of those items. The top class in Super GT, GT500, is dominated by the three largest automakers in Japan - Nissan and Toyota. Since 2006, Toyota has been represented in GT500 by its luxury vehicle brand, after the retirement of the Toyota Supra from the series; the GT500 class is composed of manufacturer-supported teams, the giants of the Japanese racing industry. Since 2014, GT500 cars have been powered by twin-turbocharged, inline four-cylinder engines with two liters of displacement and producing over 650 horsepower; the cars are tube-frame silhouette racing cars similar to those seen in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters. The advancements in aerodynamics and horsepower, combined with an ongoing tyre war driving higher speeds, have made the GT500 class the fastest form of production-ba
Kremer Racing is a motorsports team based in Cologne, founded by racing driver Erwin Kremer and his brother Manfred. They have competed internationally with Porsches for nearly all of their existence, were one of the factory-backed squads for many years. Besides running Porsches, the team was known for their tuned Porsche race cars that they both raced and sold to other teams who could not gain the best equipment from the factory. Among Kremer's greatest achievements were: Winning the 1979 24 Hours of Le Mans with their own 935 K3 with Klaus Ludwig and American brothers Don and Bill Whittington. Kremer Racing won the 24 Hours of Daytona in a K8 Spyder in 1995 with drivers Jürgen Lässig, Christophe Bouchut, Giovanni Lavaggi and Marco Werner. After surviving a heart attack two years earlier, the company's founder Erwin died in 2006 and the managing director Uwe Sauer is at the helm of the team when younger brother Manfred Kremer bought it back in 2008, before selling it to Mr. Baunach in 2010.
In the 1970s, Kremer tuned 911s, 914-6 GTs, 934s. However, with the Porsche 935, Kremer began designating their tuned models with the letter K, followed by a number in order of construction. Eight cars were designated as such. 935 K1 - Their first built 935 in 1976 935 K2 - An improvement on K1 in 1977. 935 K3 - An attempt to mimic the Evolution bodywork on the factory 935/78s. The most successful 935 variant, due to its technical advantage running an air/air intercooler instead of the air/water units used by the Porsche factory. Winner of Le Mans 24 Hours in 1979. 935 K4 - An all-new variant of the 935 for the early 1980s, featuring a space frame CK5 - A custom-built Group C prototype based on a 936 meant as a temporarily replacement until the 956 was available for customers in 1983. 962CK6 - An improvement on the factory 962 CK7 Spyder - An open-cockpit prototype using 962 mechanicals used in Interserie K8 Spyder - An improved version of the K7 for use in the International Sports Racing Series and 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Kremer built a 917 for use in the 1981 24 Hours of Le Mans, would make improvements on the 911 GT1 and GT2 in the 1990s. Kremer Racing Kremer Racing: Eberhard Baunach übernimmt das Steuer bei prestigecars.de
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
All-Japan Sports Prototype Championship
The All Japan Sports Prototype Championship, abbreviated as JSPC, formed by the Japan Automobile Federation, was a domestic championship which took place in Japan for Group C and IMSA GTP prototype cars and featured cars that were eligible for touring car racing in its earlier years. Class A and Class B for production cars which were defined by the FIA and the lead category, Class C would be for cars that are similar to IMSA's Camel Lights and the WEC's C2, whereas Class D was for C1/GTP cars; the series began in 1983 as All Japan Endurance Championship, an endurance championship with an intention to replace its domestic touring car championship and started out as a three-round event, including one which as it was part of the WEC round which meant drivers competing in the national series was counted into the world championship. In 1987, the championship would be broken up into two as production cars from the lower categories would be moved into the All Japan Touring Car Championship formed two years earlier to become a dedicated championship and was renamed the All Japan Sports Prototype Car Endurance Championship.
The series was noted throughout its ten-year run for battles between the various Porsche 956/962C and Japanese manufacturers presented by works teams of Toyota and Mazda. Due to waning popularity and seeking to prevent the spiraling budgets and the disappearance of Gr. C and IMSA GTP, the JAF would dissolve the series at the end of 1992 and for the following year replace the series with the All Japan Grand Touring Car Championship, using GT cars such as those in secondary classes as major international sportscar series worldwide favoured the grand tourers; this was not to be the end for Group C cars as they would be allowed to compete in the newly formed series for two more years before being banished altogether. Major sportscar racing in Japan would return again in 2006 with the short-lived Japan Le Mans Challenge