'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza or in Iran as Imam Reza, was a descendant of the Islamic prophet and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, before his son Muhammad al-Jawad. He was an Imam of knowledge according to Sufis, he lived in a period when Abbasid caliphs were facing numerous difficulties, the most important of, Shia revolts. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun sought out a remedy for this problem by appointing Al-Ridha as his successor, through whom he could be involved in worldly affairs. However, according to the Shia view, when Al-Ma'mun saw that the Imam gained more popularity, he decided to correct his mistake by poisoning him; the Imam was buried at the Imam Reza shrine in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom. On the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH, a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim in Medina, he was named Ali and titled al-Ridha meaning in Arabic, "the contented", since it was believed that Allah was contented with him.
His kunya was Abu' l Hasan. However, in the Shia sources he is called Abu'l-Ḥasan al-Ṯānī, since his father, Musa al-Kadhim, was Abu'l Hasan. In keeping with his high status amongst Shi'a, he has been given other honorific titles since, such as Saber, Razi and Vali. Ali was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-Sādiq, brought up in Medina under the direction of his father, his mother, was a distinguished and pious lady. It is said that the boy al-Ridha required a great deal of milk, so that when his mother was asked whether her milk was sufficient, she answered, "it is not because my milk is not sufficient, but he wants it all the time, I am falling short in my prayers." A Nubian woman, she was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, the wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, a Um Walad of Nubian origin. Imam Ali ibn Musa was said to be shadid udmah or aswad, meaning he had a dark skinned or black complexion. Bibi Hamidah was a notable Islamic scholar. Disputes exist regarding the number of their names.
A group of scholars say that they were five sons and one daughter, that they were: Muhammad al- Qani', al-Hasan, Ja'far, Ibrahim, al-Husayn, and'Ayesha. Sabt ibn al-Jawzi, in his work Tadhkiratul-Khawass, says that the sons were only four, dropping the name of Husayn from the list; the eighth Imam had reached the Imamate, after the death of his father, through Divine Command and the decree of his forefathers Imam Musa al-Kadhim, who would tell his companions that his son Ali would be the Imam after him. As such, Makhzumi says that one day Musa al-Kadhim summoned and gathered us and entitled him as "his executor and successor." From the onset, al-Kadhim preferred al-Ridha to the rest of his sons, informing them, "This is your brother ‘Ali b. Musa’, the scholar of the Household of Muhammad. Question him about your beliefs and memorize what he says to you, for I heard my father, Ja'far al-Sadiq say: ‘The scholar of the Household of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is in your loins.
Would that I met him, for he is the namesake of the Commander of the faithful.' "Yazid ibn Salit has related a similar narration from the seventh Imam when he met him on his way to Mecca: "Ali, whose name is the same as the First and the fourth Imam, is the Imam after me." Said the Imam. However, due to the extreme choking atmosphere and pressure prevailed in the period of Musa al-Kazim, he added, "What I said must remain up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one of our friends and companions." The same is narrated from Ali bin Yaqtin, from Imam Musa al-Kazim who has said "Ali is the best of my children and I have conferred on him my epithet" According to Wāqedī in his youth, Ali al-Ridha would transmit Hadith from his father and his uncles and gave Fatwa in the mosque of Medina. Ali al-Ridha was not looked upon favorably by Hārūn Rashīd. According to Donaldson he was twenty or twenty-five years old when he succeeded his father as Imam in Medina, it was about eighteen years when the Caliph Al-Ma'mun "undertook to ingratiate himself with the numerous Shia parties by designating Ali ar-Ridha as his successor to the Caliphate."
After the death of Harun al-Rashid in 809, Harun's two sons began fighting for control of the Abbasid Empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun faced many insurrections from the followers of Muhammad's family in many areas; the Shia of al-Ma'mun's era, like the Shia of today, who made a large population of al-Ma'mun's Iran, regarded the Imams as their leaders who must be obeyed in all aspects of life and terrestrial, as they believed in them as the real caliphs of Muhammad. The Abbasids, like the Umayyads before them, realized this as a big threat to their own caliphate, since the Shias saw them as usurpers of al-Ma'mun, far from the sacred status of their Imams. Allamah Tabatabaei writes in his book Shi'ite I
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Catholic Church. An archdeacon is responsible for administration within an archdeaconry, the principal subdivision of the diocese; the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church has defined an archdeacon as "A cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese." The office has been described metaphorically as that of oculus episcopi, the "bishop's eye". In the Latin Catholic Church, the post of archdeacon an ordained deacon, was once one of great importance as a senior official of a diocese; the duties are now performed by officials such as auxiliary or coadjutor bishops, the vicar general, the episcopal vicars.
The title remains. The term "archdeacon" appears for the first time in Optatus of Mileve's history of Donatism of about 370, in which he applies it to someone who lived at the beginning of that century. From the office of the diaconus episcopi, a deacon whom the bishop selected to administer the church's finances under the bishop's personal direction, the office of archdeacon developed, as certain functions were reserved to him by law; these functions included not only financial administration but the discipline of the clergy, examination of candidates for priesthood. From the 8th century, there was in the West a further development of the authority of the archdeacon, who now enjoyed a jurisdiction independent of the bishop. Large dioceses had several archdeaconries, in each of which the archdeacon, had an authority comparable to that of the bishop, they were appointed not by the bishop but by the cathedral chapter or the king. However, from the 13th century, efforts were made to limit their authority.
This was effected in part by the institution of the new office of vicar general, who would be a priest rather than a deacon. In 1553, the Council of Trent removed the independent powers of archdeacons. Those, in charge of different parts of the diocese ceased to be appointed. Only the archdeacon associated with the cathedral chapter continued to exist as an empty title, with duties entirely limited to liturgical functions; the title of archdeacon is still conferred on a canon of various cathedral chapters, the word "archdeacon" has been defined in relation to the Latin Catholic Church as "a title of honour conferred only on a member of a cathedral chapter". However, Eastern Catholic Churches still utilize archdeacons. Archdeacons serve the church within a diocese by taking particular responsibility for buildings, including church buildings, the welfare of clergy and their families and the implementation of diocesan policy for the sake of the Gospel within an archdeaconry. An archdeaconry is a territorial division of a diocese.
This type of dual role has only existed in the Bishop suffragan of Ludlow. An archdeacon is styled The Venerable instead of the usual clerical style of The Reverend. In the Church of England the position of an archdeacon can only be held by a priest, ordained for at least six years. In the Church of England, the legal act by which a priest becomes an archdeacon is called a collation. If that archdeaconry is annexed to a canonry of the cathedral, the archdeacon will be installed at that cathedral. In some other Anglican churches archdeacons can be deacons instead of priests; the Anglican ordinal presupposes that the functions of archdeacons include those of examining candidates for ordination and presenting them to the ordaining bishop. In some parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be consecrated as bishops, the position of archdeacon is the most senior office a female cleric can hold: this being the current situation, for example, in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney. "lay archdeacons" have been appointed, most notably in the case of the former Anglican Communion Observer to the United Nations, Archdeacon Taimalelagi Fagamalama Tuatagoloa-Leota, who retained her title after having served as Archdeacon of Samoa.
In the Eastern Christian churches, an archdeacon is the senior deacon within a diocese and has responsibility for serving at hierarchical services. He has responsibility for ensuring the smooth running of the service by directing the clergy and servers as appropriate; as such, he travels with the ruling bishop to various parts of the diocese, will sometimes act as his secretary and cell attendant, ensuring that he is able to balance his monastic life with his hierarchical duties. The archdeacon wears the double orarion, twice the length of the usual orarion, wraps under the right arm as well as hanging from the left shoulder. An archdeacon may come from either the married clergy. A protodeacon w
The Jewish Encyclopedia
The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day is an English-language encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history and state of Judaism up to the early-20th century. The encyclopedia's managing editor was Isidore Singer and the editorial board was chaired by Isaac K. Funk and Frank H. Vizetelly; the work's scholarship is still regarded: the American Jewish Archives deemed it "the most monumental Jewish scientific work of modern times", Rabbi Joshua L. Segal said "for events prior to 1900, it is considered to offer a level of scholarship superior to either of the more recent Jewish encyclopedias written in English."It was published in 12 volumes between 1901 and 1906 by Funk & Wagnalls of New York, reprinted in the 1960s by KTAV Publishing House. It is now in the public domain. Singer conceived of a Jewish encyclopedia in Europe and proposed creating an Allgemeine Encyklopädia für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums in 1891.
He envisioned 12 volumes, published over 10-to-15 years, at a cost of 50 dollars as a set. They would contain unbiased articles on ancient and modern Jewish culture; this proposal received good interest from the Brockhaus publishing company. However, after the House of Rothschild in Paris, consulted by Zadoc Kahn, offered to back the project with only 8 percent of the minimum funds requested by Brockaus, the project was abandoned. Following the Dreyfus affair and associated unpleasantness, Singer emigrated to New York City. Believing that American Jews could do little more than provide funding for his project, Singer was impressed by the level of scholarship in the United States, he wrote a new prospectus, changing the title of his planned encyclopedia to Encyclopedia of the History and Mental Evolution of the Jewish Race. His radical ecumenism and opposition to orthodoxy upset many of his Jewish readers. Funk agreed to publish the encyclopedia on the condition that it remain unbiased on issues which might seem unfavorable for Jews.
Singer accepted and was established in an office at Funk & Wagnalls on 2 May 1898. Publication of the prospectus in 1898 created a severe backlash, including accusations of poor scholarship and of subservience to Christians. Kaufmann Kohler and Gotthard Deutsch, writing in American Hebrew, highlighted Singer's factual errors, accused him of commercialism and irreligiosity. Now considering that the project could not succeed with Singer at the helm, Funk & Wagnalls appointed an editorial board to oversee creation of the encyclopedia. Funk & Wagnalls assembled an editorial board between October 1898 and March 1899. Singer toned down his ideological rhetoric, indicated his desire to collaborate, changed the work's proposed title to The Jewish Encyclopedia. Despite their reservations about Singer, rabbi Gustav Gottheil and Cyrus Adler agreed to join the board, followed by Morris Jastrow, Frederick de Sola Mendes, two published critics of the project: Kauffmann Kohler and Gotthard Deutsch Theologian and Presbyterian minister George Foot Moore was added to the board for balance.
Soon after work started, Moore was replaced by Baptist minister Crawford Toy. Last was added the elderly Marcus Jastrow for his symbolic imprimatur as America's leading Talmudist. In March 1899, the Central Conference of American Rabbis, contemplating a competing project, agreed to discuss collaborating with Funk & Wagnalls—thus securing the position of the Jewish Encyclopedia as the only major project of its kind. Shuly Rubin Schwartz describes the payment scheme arranged at this time as follows: Members of the local executive committee, exclusive of Singer and, of course, would receive one thousand dollars per annum, while the rest of the department editors would receive five hundred. All collaborators, editors included, would be paid five dollars per printed page of about one thousand English words. If the article was written in a foreign language, payment would be only $3.50 per page. Singer's compensation was forty dollars a week, his salary was considered an advance, since Singer alone was to share with the company in the profits.
Other editors participating in all 12 volumes were Gotthard Deutsch, Richard Gottheil, Joseph Jacobs, Kaufmann Kohler, Herman Rosenthal, Crawford Howell Toy. Morris Jastrow, Jr. and Frederick de Sola Mendes assisted with volumes I to II. William Popper served as assistant revision editor and chief of translation for volumes IV through XII; the editors plunged into their enormous task and soon identified and solved some inefficiencies with the project. Article assignments were shuffled around and communication practices were streamlined. Joseph Jacobs was hired as a coordinator, he wrote four hundred articles and procured many of the encyclopedia's illustrations. Herman Rosenthal, an authority on Russia, was added as an editor. Louis Ginzberg joined the project and became head of the rabbinical literature department; the board faced many difficult editorial questions and disagreements. Singer wanted specific entries for every Jewish community in the world, with detailed information about, for example, the name and dates of the first Jewish settler in Prague.
Conflict arose over what types of Bible interpretation should be included
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Medicine in the medieval Islamic world
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization. Islamic medicine preserved and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity, including the major traditions of Hippocrates and Dioscorides. During the post-classical era, Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world, integrating concepts of ancient Greek and Persian medicine as well as the ancient Indian tradition of Ayurveda, while making numerous advances and innovations. Islamic medicine, along with knowledge of classical medicine, was adopted in the medieval medicine of Western Europe, after European physicians became familiar with Islamic medical authors during the Renaissance of the 12th century. Medieval Islamic physicians retained their authority until the rise of medicine as a part of the natural sciences, beginning with the Age of Enlightenment, nearly six hundred years after their textbooks were opened by many people.
Aspects of their writings remain of interest to physicians today. Medicine was a central part of medieval Islamic culture. Responding to circumstances of time and place/location, Islamic physicians and scholars developed a large and complex medical literature exploring and synthesizing the theory and practice of medicine Islamic medicine was built on tradition, chiefly the theoretical and practical knowledge developed in Arabia and was known at Muhammad's time, ancient Hellenistic medicine such as Unani, ancient Indian medicine such as Ayurveda, the ancient Iranian Medicine of the Academy of Gundishapur; the works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates and Dioscorides had a lasting impact on Islamic medicine. Ophthalmology has been described as the most successful branch of medicine researched at the time, with the works of Ibn al-Haytham remaining an authority in the field until early modern times; the adoption by the newly forming Islamic society of the medical knowledge of the surrounding, or newly conquered, "heathen" civilizations had to be justified as being in accordance with the beliefs of Islam.
Early on, the study and practice of medicine was understood as an act of piety, founded on the principles of Imaan and Tawakkul. The Prophet not only instructed sick people to take medicine, but he himself invited expert physicians for this purpose. Muhammad's opinions on health issues, habits with regard to leading a healthy life, were collected early on, edited as a separate corpus of writings under the title Ṭibb an-Nabī. In the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun, in his work Muqaddimah provides a brief overview over what he called "the art and craft of medicine", separating the science of medicine from religion: You'll have to know that the origin of all maladies goes back to nutrition, as the Prophet – God bless him! – says with regard to the entire medical tradition, as known by all physicians if this is contested by the religious scholars. These are his words: "The stomach is the House of Illness, abstinence is the most important medicine; the cause of every illness is a poor digestion." The Sahih al-Bukhari, a collection of prophetic traditions, or hadith by Muhammad al-Bukhari refers to a collection of Muhammad's opinions on medicine, by his younger contemporary Anas bin-Malik.
Anas writes about two physicians who had treated him by cauterization and mentions that the prophet wanted to avoid this treatment and had asked for alternative treatments. On, there are reports of the caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān fixing his teeth with a wire made of gold, he mentions that the habit of cleaning one's teeth with a small wooden toothpick dates back to pre-islamic times. The "Prophetic medicine" was mentioned by the classical authors of Islamic medicine, but lived on in the materia medica for some centuries. In his Kitab as-Ṣaidana from the 10./11. Century, Al-Biruni refers to collected poems and other works dealing with, commenting on, the materia medica of the old Arabs; the most famous physician was Al-Ḥariṯ ben-Kalada aṯ-Ṯaqafī, who lived at the same time as the prophet. He is supposed to have been in touch with the Academy of Gondishapur he was trained there, he had a conversation once with Khosrow I Anushirvan about medical topics. Most the Arabian physicians became familiar with the Graeco-Roman and late Hellenistic medicine through direct contact with physicians who were practicing in the newly conquered regions rather than by reading the original or translated works.
The translation of the capital of the emerging Islamic world to Damascus may have facilitated this contact, as Syrian medicine was part of that ancient tradition. The names of two Christian physicians are known: Ibn Aṯāl worked at the court of Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty; the caliph abused his knowledge. Abu l-Ḥakam, responsible for the preparation of drugs, was employed by Muawiah, his son and great-grandson were serving the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphate. These sources testify to the fact that the physicians of the emerging islamic society were familiar with the classical medical traditions at the times of the Umayyads; the medical knowledge arrived from Alexandria, was transferred by Syrian scholars, or translators, finding its way into the Islamic world. Few sources provide information about how the expanding Islamic society received any medical knowledge. A physician called Abdalmalik ben Abgar al-Kinānī from Kufa in Iraq is supposed to have worked at the medical school of Alexandria before he joined ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz's court
Isa is a unisex given name originating from a variety of sources. The name is most derived from the عيسى ‘Isa, an Arabic translation of Jesus, itself having a Hebrew origin. However, it is not the only translation. Meanwhile, Arabic-speaking Christians would use يسوع Yasū‘, a more phonetic translation of Jesus; the origin of the Quranic Isa is detailed below. Isa was used in the Frisian language for both males and females and was a short form of Germanic names beginning with the element "is", meaning ice and iron; the English form of the name "Jesus" is derived from the Latin Iēsus, which in turn comes from the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek is a Hellenized form of the Hebrew name Yēšua, in turn a shortened form of Hebrew Yehōšua or "Joshua" in English. Aramaic and East Syriac, which are ancestral to West Syriac, render the pronunciation of the same letters as ܝܫܘܥ ishoʕ /iʃoʕ/; the Aramaic Bible or the Peshitta preserve this same spelling. The Encyclopedia of the Qur'an by Brill Publishers quotes scholarship that notes that the Greek name Iesous, Ἰησοῦς is known to have represented many different Biblical Hebrew names "Josephus used the Greek name lesous to denote three people mentioned in the Bible whose Hebrew names were not Yeshua', Y'hoshua' or Y'hoshua'.
They were Saul's son Yishwi, the Levhe AbTshua' and Yishwah the son of Asher.... Josephus furnishes important evidence for the wide variety of Hebrew names represented in Greek by Iesous"Also, the classical theologians Clement of Alexandria and Cyril of Jerusalem both stated that the Greek name Iesous was Jesus' original name itself and that the name was not a transliteration of a Hebrew form. There is a major discrepancy between the Hebrew/Aramaic and Muslim Arabic forms of this name, since the Hebrew form of this name has the voiced pharyngeal ʿAyin ע or ʿAyn ع consonant at the end of the name, while the Muslim Arabic form عيسى ʿīsā has the ʿAyn at the beginning of the name. For this reason, some state the Arabic name Isa is related to the Biblical name Esau. Scholars have been puzzled by the use of ʿĪsā in the Qur'an since Christians in Arabia used yasūʿ before and after Islam, itself derived from the Syriac form Yēshūaʿ by a phonetic change; the Encyclopedia of the Qur'an by Brill Publishers states this has come about because many Western scholars have held a "conviction that Jesus' authentic Hebrew name is Yeshua'" and because of this they "have been puzzled by the Qur'an's reference to him as'Isa".
Brill's Encyclopedia of the Qur'an further states "It is not certain that Jesus' original name was Yeshua'" However, the early Syriac/Aramaic form of the name Yeshua, the etymological link with'salvation' in Matthew 1:21, all of the correspondences of Ἰησοῦς in the Greek OT and Second Temple Jewish writings, the common attestation of Yeshua among 1st century Jewish names have led to a consensus among scholars of the gospels that Yeshua was "Jesus"'s original name. "Esau" is not a realistic possibility. With all this in mind, some scholars have proposed a number of explanations. James A. Bellamy of the University of Michigan suggested that the Quranic name is a corruption of Masīḥ itself derived from yasūʿ, suggesting that this resulted from a copyist error and an attempt to conceal the Arabic verb sāʿa/yasūʿu which has obscene connotations. Josef Horovitz on the other hand holds that the Quranic form is meant to parallel Mūsā. Similar pairs are frequently found in the Quran as well which supports this theory.
For example, compare Ismā‘īl and Ibrāhīm or Jālūt and Tālūt. It is thus possible that the Arabs referred to him as Yasaʿ, but the Quran reversed the letters so as to parallel Mūsā. Another explanation given is that in ancient Mesopotamia divine names were written in one way and pronounced in another, thus it is possible. Another explanation is. However, there is no evidence that the Jews have used Esau to refer to Jesus, if Muhammad had unwittingly adopted a pejorative form his many Christian acquaintances would have corrected him. A fourth explanation is that prior to the rise of Islam, Christian Arabs had adopted this form from Syriac. According to the Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, "Arabic employs an initial'ayn in words borrowed from Aramaic or Syriac and the dropping of the final Hebrew'ayin is evidenced in the form Yisho
Yuhanna ibn Masawaih written Ibn Masawaih, in Latin Mesue, Mesue Major and Mesue the Elder was a Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur. According to The Canon of Medicine for Avicenna and'Uyun al-Anba for the medieval Arabic historian Ibn Abi Usaybi'a, Masawaiyh's father was Assyrian and his mother was Slavic. Born in 777 CE as the son of a pharmacist and physician from Gundishapur, he came to Baghdad and studied under Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, he became director of a hospital in Baghdad, was personal physician to four caliphs. He composed medical treatises on a number of topics, including ophthalmology, leprosy, melancholia, the testing of physicians, medical aphorisms, it was reported that Ibn Masawayh held an assembly of some sort, where he consulted with patients and discussed subjects with pupils. Ibn Masawayh attracted considerable audiences, having acquired a reputation for repartee, he was the teacher of Hunain ibn Ishaq. He wrote his own work in Arabic.
Apes were supplied to him by the caliph al-Mu'tasim for dissection. Many anatomical and medical writings are credited to him, notably the "Disorder of the Eye", the earliest Systematic treatise on ophthalmology extant in Arabic and the Aphorisms, the Latin translation of, popular in the Middle Ages, he died in Samarra in 857 CE. Aegyptiacum For his life and writings, see: Liber primus, seu methodus medicamenta purgantia simplicia. Bernuz, Caesaraugustae 1550 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf De re medica. Rouillius / Rolletius, Lugduni 1550 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf J.-C. Vadet, "Ibn Masawayh" in, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, ed. by H. A. R. Gibbs, B. Lewis, Ch. Pellat, C. Bosworth et al. 11 vols. vol. 3, pp. 872–873 Manfred Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abteilung I, Ergänzungsband vi, Abschnitt 1, pp. 112–115 Fuat Sezgin, Medizin-Pharmazie-Zoologie-Tierheilkunde bis ca 430 H. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Band 3, pp. 231–236.
Elgood, Cyril. A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate: From the Earliest Times Until the Year A. D. 1932. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 94–. ISBN 978-1-108-01588-2. Retrieved 23 May 2011. Withington, Edward Theodore. Medical history from the earliest times: a popular history of the healing art; the Scientific Press, Ltd. pp. 141–. Retrieved 23 May 2011. Ophthalmology in medieval Islam