Video game music
Video game music is the soundtrack that accompanies video games. Early video game music was once limited to simple melodies of early sound synthesizer technology; these limitations inspired the style of music known as chiptunes, which combines simple melodic styles with more complex patterns or traditional music styles, became the most popular sound of the first video games. With advances in technology, video game music has grown to include the same breadth and complexity associated with television and film scores, allowing for much more creative freedom. While simple synthesizer pieces are still common, game music now includes full orchestral pieces and popular music. Music in video games can be heard over a game’s title screen, options menu, bonus content, as well as during the entire gameplay. Modern soundtracks can change depending on a player's actions or situation, such as indicating missed actions in rhythm games. Video game music can be one of two options: original or licensed. In order to create or collect this music, teams of composers, music directors, music supervisors must work with the game developers and game publishers.
Many of the most notable original sophie game composers have been from Japan, including Nobuo Uematsu, Koji Kondo, Yuzo Koshiro, Yoko Shimomura, Junichi Masuda, Hip Tanaka, Masato Nakamura, Koichi Sugiyama, Yasunori Mitsuda, Michiru Yamane, Yuu Miyake, Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Manabu Namiki, Shinji Hosoe, Hiroshi Kawaguchi. Notable Western game composers working today include Jeremy Soule, Jesper Kyd, Marty O' Donnell, Jason Graves, Austin Wintory, James Hannigan, Garry Schyman, Peter McConnell, some of whom work in film and television alongside video games. Today, original composition has included the work of film composers Harry Gregson-Williams, Trent Reznor, Hans Zimmer, Mark Rutherford, Josh Mancell, Steve Jablonsky, Michael Giacchino; the popularity of video game music has expanded education and job opportunities, generated awards, allowed video game soundtracks to be commercially sold and performed in concert's. At the time video games had emerged as a popular form of entertainment in the late 1970s, music was stored on physical medium in analog waveforms such as compact cassettes and phonograph records.
Such components were expensive and prone to breakage under heavy use making them less than ideal for use in an arcade cabinet, though in rare cases, they were used. A more affordable method of having music in a video game was to use digital means, where a specific computer chip would change electrical impulses from computer code into analog sound waves on the fly for output on a speaker. Sound effects for the games were generated in this fashion. An early example of such an approach to video game music was the opening chiptune in Tomohiro Nishikado's Gun Fight. While this allowed for inclusion of music in early arcade video games, it was monophonic, looped or used sparingly between stages or at the start of a new game, such as the Namco titles Pac-Man composed by Toshio Kai or Pole Position composed by Nobuyuki Ohnogi; the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's Space Invaders, released by Taito in 1978. It had four descending chromatic bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player.
The first video game to feature continuous, melodic background music was Rally-X, released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. The decision to include any music into a video game meant that at some point it would have to be transcribed into computer code by a programmer, whether or not the programmer had musical experience; some music was original, some was public domain music such as folk songs. Sound capabilities were limited; as advances were made in silicon technology and costs fell, a definitively new generation of arcade machines and home consoles allowed for great changes in accompanying music. In arcades, machines based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and accompanying various Yamaha YM programmable sound generator sound chips allowed for several more tones or "channels" of sound, sometimes eight or more; the earliest known example of this was Sega's 1980 arcade game Carnival, which used an AY-3-8910 chip to create an electronic rendition of the classical 1889 composition "Over The Waves" by Juventino Rosas.
Konami's 1981 arcade game Frogger introduced a dynamic approach to video game music, using at least eleven different gameplay tracks, in addition to level-starting and game over themes, which change according to the player's actions. This was further improved upon by Namco's 1982 arcade game Dig Dug, where the music stopped when the player stopped moving. Dig Dug was composed by Yuriko Keino, who composed the music for other Namco games such as Xevious and Phozon. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive featured a chiptune rendition of Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Rydeen". Home console systems had a comparable upgrade in sound ability beginning with the ColecoVision in 1982 capable of four channels. However, more notable was the Japanese release of the Famicom in 1983, released in the US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, it was capable of one being capable of simple PCM sampled sound. The home computer Commodore 64 released in 1982 was capable of early forms of filtering effects, different types of waveforms and the undocumented abilit
Sonic the Hedgehog (2006 video game)
Sonic the Hedgehog referred to as Sonic'06, is a 2006 platform game developed by Sonic Team and published by Sega. It was produced in commemoration of the Sonic series' 15th anniversary, intended as a reboot for the seventh generation video game consoles. Players control Sonic and new character Silver, who battle Solaris, an ancient evil pursued by Doctor Eggman; each playable character has his own campaign and abilities, must complete levels, explore hub worlds and fight bosses to advance the story. In multiplayer modes, players can work cooperatively to collect Chaos Emeralds or race to the end of a level. Development began in 2004, led by Sonic co-creator Yuji Naka. Sonic Team sought to create an appealing game in the vein of superhero films like Batman Begins, hoping it would advance the series with a realistic tone and multiple gameplay styles. Problems developed after Naka resigned to form Prope; the team split to work on the Wii game Sonic and the Secret Rings, resulting in Sonic the Hedgehog being rushed for the holiday season.
It was released for Xbox 360 for PlayStation 3 the following month. Versions for Wii and Windows were canceled. Downloadable content featuring new single-player modes was released in 2007. Sonic the Hedgehog received praise in prerelease showings, as journalists believed it could return to the series' roots after years of mixed reviews. However, it was a critical failure. Reviewers criticized its loading times, camera system, story and controls, it has been described as one of the worst games in the series. In 2010, Sega delisted Sonic the Hedgehog from retailers, following its decision to remove all Sonic games with below-average Metacritic scores to increase the value of the brand, its failure led to a rethinking of the series' direction. Sonic the Hedgehog is a 3D platformer with role-playing elements. Like Sonic Adventure, the single-player navigates through open-ended hub worlds where they can converse with townspeople and perform missions to advance the story; the main gameplay takes place in linear levels.
The main playable characters are three hedgehogs: Sonic and Silver, who feature in separate campaigns titled "stories". A bonus "Last Story", which involves all three hedgehogs and concludes the storyline, is unlocked upon completing the first three. Sonic's story focuses on the speed-based platforming seen in previous Sonic games, with some sections having him run at full speed while dodging obstacles or riding a snowboard. Another character, Princess Elise, must be escorted in some stages, she can use a special barrier to guard Sonic. Shadow's sections are speedy, albeit more combat-oriented, with some segments having him ride vehicles. In contrast, Silver's levels are slower and revolve around his use of telekinesis to defeat enemies and solve puzzles. In certain areas, control is switched with their own abilities. Although each character traverses the same levels, their unique abilities allow the player to access different areas of each stage and prevent them from accessing certain items.
Scattered through each level are golden rings, which serve as a form of health. The rings can protect a character from a single hit by an enemy or obstacle, at which point they will be scattered and blink before disappearing; the game begins with Sonic and Silver each assigned a limited number of lives. These lives are successively lost whenever, with no rings in their possession, the characters are hit by an enemy or obstacle or encounter other fatal hazard; the game ends. Every few levels, players will encounter a boss stage. Upon completion of a level or mission, players are given a grade depending on their performance, with an "S" rank being the best and a "D" rank being the worst. Players are given money for completing missions; this money can be used to buy upgrades for the player character. Certain upgrades are required to complete the game; the game features two multiplayer modes: "Tag", a cooperative mode where two players must work together to clear levels and collect Chaos Emeralds, "Battle", a player versus player mode where two players race against each other.
In the land of Soleanna and his sidekick Tails protect Princess Elise from her kidnapper Doctor Eggman. Meanwhile and his fellow agent Rouge accidentally release an evil spirit, Mephiles; the spirit transports them to a post-apocalyptic future ravaged by Iblis. When Mephiles meets survivors Silver and Blaze, he fools them into thinking Sonic is the cause of this destruction and sends them to the present to kill him. Though at first Silver stalks Sonic and impedes his attempts to save Elise, Shadow reveals to him that Sonic is not the cause of his world's suffering but rather Mephiles, trying to erase the past for his own evil purposes. Throughout the story and friends travel between the past and future in their efforts to stop Mephiles and Iblis and protect Elise from Doctor Eggman, they learn that Mephiles seeks to bond with Iblis, as they are the two halves of Soleanna's omnipotent god, Solaris. Mephiles succeeds, but Sonic and Silver use the power of the Chaos Emeralds to transform into their super forms and defeat Solaris.
After finishing Billy Hatcher and the Giant Egg, Sonic Team began to plan its next project. Among the ideas the team was considering was a game with a realistic tone and an advanced physics engine; when Sega reassigned the team to start working on a new game in
Super Smash Flash
Super Smash Flash is a series of fighting browser games published by indie website McLeodGaming, led by Gregory McLeod under the alias Cleod9. It is based on the Super Smash Bros series; the original Super Smash Flash is based on Super Smash Bros. Melee. Like in the official Super Smash Bros. titles, the player's objective is to knock opponents off of the screen. Players are given a percentage counter instead of a health bar. A higher damage percentage means that attacks will send the player farther, which may lead to a KO; the games are not direct clones of the official titles, as they feature adjusted mechanics and playable content, both stages and characters, not present in the original Super Smash Bros. series by virtue of being a fanmade project. In the original Super Smash Flash, characters only have a total of five attacks each, activated by pressing the "P" key along with an arrow key, some characters had an extra attack while jumping; the reboot, Super Smash Flash 2, offers control much more similar to that of the official games.
Along with the option to use a keyboard like its predecessor, 2 adds support for USB Game controllers and other gaming devices that can be used for computers. As with the official Super Smash Bros. games, both Super Smash Flash and Super Smash Flash 2 include several single-player modes, such as campaigns to defeat a series of computer-controlled opponents, events that have specific goals to clear, mini-games to test the player, etc. Players are awarded with other collectibles by clearing single-player modes; the original game features three single-player modes. In Regular Match, players can choose between Adventure Modes. In Stadium, several mini-games and challenges are pitched to the player such as destroying eight targets using each characters's own abilities in Target Test or defeating grey-shaded versions of the playable roster in Multi-Man Melee. In Training Mode, players can tune up their playing skills by setting several parameters of their own; the reboot expands the single-player experience.
Classic Mode, for instance, has a greater variety of opponents. For Stadium, Target Test has been renamed Target Smash and features two modes: the first is a general system that features several levels and difficulties with a set pattern for targets on each level, the second one is more similar to the original's system, in which each character has a specifically-designed, individual level that tests the character's own abilities to destroy the targets. Multi-Man Melee is now called Multi-Man Smash and the player now confronts black-palette versions of Mario, Link and Pikachu, all whom have limited movesets and high stamina. A missing Stadium sub-mode from the official games, absent from the original SSF gets reincorporated: Home-Run Contest, where the objective is to launch as far as possible the Sandbag by racking up its damage, players are able to enable a disable a protective barrier that prevents the sandbag of getting out of the main platform, unless launched strong enough to break it.
An Event Mode was implemented, where players have to complete specific missions or defeat certain characters to accomplish the event. Both Super Smash Flash and Super Smash Flash 2 feature standard multiplayer battles, both against other players on the same machine and against computer-controlled characters with configurable difficulty levels; the original game was limited by its software Flash capacity. The camera was only able to follow player one. SSF2 expanded the multiplayer mode by introducing four player-entries controlled by human players and a dynamic camera system. Version 0.9b introduced Special Smash, a mode similar to the official Super Smash Bros. titles in which certain "game modifiers" like Mini, Turbo, or Super Smash Flash can be applied to matches. The Beta version introduced an original mode called Arena Mode, which enabled players to participate is some mini-games playing with the existing physics and characters in unorthodox-for-the-series ways using the Sandbag, much like Stadium on single-player mode.
There are two sub-modes known. The first is called Sandbag Soccer, in which players are pitched in an enclosed stage sorted to two teams and blue, have to get the Sandbag into the opposing team's goal; the first team that reaches the number of goals set prior to the match wins. The other is called Sandbag Basketball and features a similar premise to the latter, except players now have to get the Sandbag to pass through the opposing team's hoop to score. Since demo version 0.9b, players can fight against opponents online through a proprietary system dubbed the "McLeodGaming Network". Connections use the proprietary Adobe RTMFP technology unless the "high latency" setting is chosen, which hands the players off to a server rather than using a P2P connection; the original Super Smash Flash features 30 characters. These characters represent a wide variety of media, spanning not only video games but manga, animated film, fan-made creations. Like in the Super Smash Bros. series, a nu
Do You Dreams Come True?
Do You Dreams Come True? is Dreams Come True's fifteenth studio album. It was released on March 21, 2009, which coincides with the release of their debut single in 1989, it was released in three formats: Regular edition, limited edition A and limited edition B. The album reached the top spot on the weekly albums chart despite having been on sale for only four days, giving them their twelfth number-one album and setting the record for most number-one albums by a female vocal group. On its third week the album rose back to their first album in fourteen years to do so; the album was certified Triple Platinum for shipment of 750,000 copies. It is the first DCT album to be released under Nayutawave Records, a sub-label of Universal Music Japan
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC