Cusco spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province. In 2017, the city had a population of 428,450. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m; the site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO with the title "City of Cuzco", it has become a major tourist destination. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru; the indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language; the word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka, related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa flew to the site of the future city, they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him.
He returned and told Ayar Manco that from on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize, it is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave. The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics as Cuzco or, less Cozco. Cuzco was the standard spelling on official documents and chronicles in colonial times, though Cusco was used. Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-century Spanish, seems to have been a close approximation to the Cusco Quechua pronunciation of the name at the time.
As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation have evolved since the Spanish pronunciation of'z' is no longer close to the Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by'z' in "Cuzco". In 1976, the city mayor signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new one, Cusco, in municipality publications. Nineteen years on 23 June 1990, the local authorities formalized a new spelling related more to Quechan: Qosqo. There is no official spelling of the city's name. In English-language publications both "s" and "z" can be found. However, the Oxford Dictionary of English recognizes "Cuzco" but not "Cusco"; the city's international airport code is still CUZ, reflecting the earlier Spanish spelling. The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100; the Inca expanded and occupied the complex in the 13th century.
In March 2008, archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman. The temple covers some 2,700 square feet and contains 11 rooms thought to have held idols and mummies, establishing its religious purpose. Together with the results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress, this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility. Cusco was long an important center of indigenous people, it was the capital of the Inca Empire. Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the shape of a sacred animal. How Cusco was built, or how its large stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the city had two sectors: hanan; each was divided to encompass two of the four provinces, Antisuyu and Qullasuyu. A road led from each quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire; each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory.
After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Inca died, his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives. Each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his family to keep after his death. According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tawantinsuyu. Archaeological evidence, points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti; the city was constructed according to a definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have suggested; the city fell to the sp
The Sapa Inca, Sapan Inka or Sapa Inka known as Apu, Inka Qhapaq, or Sapa, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cuzco and the Emperor of the Inca Empire and the Neo-Inca State. While the origins of the position are mythical and tied to the legendary foundation of the city of Cusco it seems to have come into being around 1100; the position was hereditary, with son succeeding father. The emperor was viewed as a god; the principal wife of the Inca was known as the Coya. There were two known dynasties, led by the Hanan moieties respectively; the latter was in power at the time of Spanish conquest. The last effective Sapa Inca of Inca Empire was Atahualpa, executed by Francisco Pizarro and his conquistadors in 1533, but several successors claimed the title. Chronicles identify the Inca as the highest ruler in similitude of the European kings of the Middle Ages. However, the access to this position was not linked to the inheritance of the eldest son, but to the choice of the gods by means of rigorous ordeals, to which the physical and moral aptitudes of the pretender were tested.
These trials were accompanied by a complex ritual through which the Sun nominated the one who should assume the Inca position. Inti, if he agreed, gave the power of the rain to the future Inca. With the passage of time, Incas named their favorite son as co-governor with the intention of securing his succession, for example, Huiracocha Inca associated Inca Urco to the throne; the Sapan Inca accumulated in his person the political, social and economic direction of the State. They ordered and directed the construction of great engineering works, such as Sacsayhuaman, a fortress that took 50 years to complete, but their most important work was the network of roads that crossed the entire empire and allowed a rapid journey for the administrators and armies provided with hanging bridges and tambos. They had to be well cared for, they founded military colonies to expand their culture and control and ensure the maintenance of this network. At the religious level, they promoted the cult of Inti, regarded as their father, organized the calendar.
At the political level, they sent inspectors to oversee the loyalty and efficiency of civil servants. The monarchs promoted a unified and decentralized government in which Cuzco acted as the articulating axis of the different regions or Suyu, they appointed trusted governors. At the economic level, they decided, they knew. These were the intermediaries. Traditionally, every time an Emperor died or resigned, his successor was disinherited from his father inheritance and formed his own lineage royal clan or Panaka, his father's lands and servants were passed to his other children remaining on the previous Panaka; the new Sapan Inka had to obtain land and spoils to bequeath to his own descendants. Each time they subdued a people, they demanded that the defeated leader surrender part of their land to continue in command; the Inca was divinized, both in his emblems. In public he carried the topayauri, suntur páucar and the mascaipacha carried in a llauto, otherwise the mascapaicha could be carried on a amachana chuku.8 In religious ceremonies he was accompanied by the sacred white sacred flame, the napa, covered with a red blanket and adorned with gold earrings.
Little is known of the rulers of the first dynasty of Sapa Incas. Evidently, they were affiliated with the Hurin moiety and their rule did not extend beyond the Kingdom of Cusco, their origins are tied to the mythical establishment of Cusco and are shrouded in foundation myth. The dynasty was founded by Manco Cápac, considered the son of the sun god Inti; as a rough guide to the reputation of the early Sapa Incas, in years capac meant warlord and sinchi meant leader. The second dynasty was affiliated with the Hanan moiety and was founded under Inca Roca, the son of the last Hurin Sapa Inca, Cápac Yupanqui. After Cápac Yupanqui's death, another of his sons, Inca Roca's half-brother Quispe Yupanqui, was intended to succeed him. However, the Hanan installed Inca Roca instead. Ninan Cuyochi, Inca for only a few days in 1527, is sometimes left off the list of Sapa Incas because news of his death from smallpox arrived in Cusco shortly after he was declared Sapa Inca, he had been with Huayna Cápac. The death of Ninan, the presumed heir, led to the Inca Civil War between Huáscar and Atahualpa, a weakness that the Spanish exploited when they conquered the Inca Empire.
This last Sapa Inca must not be confused with Túpac Amaru II, leader of an 18th-century Peruvian uprising. Pachacutec, a resurrected Sapa Inca king, over 500 years old, plays a major role in James Rollins' novel Excavation. Muisca Confederation Kingdom of Cusco Inca Empire Neo-Inca State Panakas
The mountain caracara is a species of bird of prey in the family Falconidae. It is found in puna and páramo in the Andes, ranging from southern Ecuador, through Peru and Bolivia, to northern Argentina and Chile, it is uncommon to common. It resembles the related Carunculated Caracara and White-throated Caracara, but unlike those species, its chest is uniform black. Juveniles are far less distinctive than the red-faced pied adults, being overall brown with dull pinkish-grey facial skin. A medium-sized caracara with a faintly blue beak tip turning to bright orange contrasted by the jet-black feathers of its head and chest, its rump and uppertail and undertail coverts are pure white, changing from black to white between the belly and chest. Its black wings have small white shoulder patches and it has white spots on some of its outer primairies. In the 1960s, 17 individual birds were caught and measured and it was noted that the species wing length could range from 358 to 403 mm, giving them a medium-sized wing for a caracara, but a comparatively short tail.
Despite an important food source being carcasses, the Mountain Caracara's head and throat remain feathered, only its lores are kept naked. Its legs are yellow and the males and females look similar, while the juveniles are brown. Mountain Caracaras are endemic to South America and are found throughout several countries, including Bolivia, Chile and Argentina, they prefer unforested regions where they can perch on power poles or fence posts to overlook a large area. They are grouped near cities and along highways. A opportunistic bird seen walking on the ground, it feeds on both carrion and any small animal it can catch; those living in the high plains of northwestern Argentina seem to rely more on animal carcasses as a food source, while some studied in the Andes of South Central Chile left pellets that were composed of insect remains. These birds scratch and stamp at the dirt to scare up bugs from the ground and flip over rocks to find more arthropods and rodents. Group foraging behaviour has been observed and several birds are able to overturn rocks that would be impossible for a single bird to move on its own.
These groups are most formed by a couple of adults and a juvenile that combine their efforts in search of food. Small birds, such as the Plain-mantled Tit-spinetail fall prey to them. Lone Caracaras were recorded to follow human vehicles that would periodically throw out scraps of food. Being opportunistic feeders, they have adapted well to living near humans and are more concentrated near cities where they are more to be able to feast on carrion and refuse; the Caracara species are unique among the family Falconidae in that they build their own nests of sticks, though these can range from a bare minimum of materials to quite a substantial amount. Breeding season is from October to December and the nest will contain two eggs, rarely three, that hatch in December; the chicks have fledged and are independent by March, though they may stay with their parents for months afterward. It is still unknown. Though the hunting party may be able to overturn bigger rocks and cover more ground, the prey captured is not shared amongst the hunters and little to no benefit is received by the youngest in the group.
The Caracara that decides on the most rock to move is the bird who grabs and eats the prey, though if enough food is available, all members could receive a meal at some point during their forage. When group foraging, an adult who finds a rock worth turning over will call out to attract the rest of its nearby party. A flight call has been recorded; the Mountain Caracara is related to the other birds of the genus Phalcoboenus, a group which separated from the rest of the Caracaras around 1.9 million years ago. The White-throated Caracara is the Mountain Caracara's closest relative and there have been recordings of hybridization events between the two species, they differ by the colour of their plumage and by their habitat preference. It is supposed that the Phalcoboenus taxa diverged within themselves 0.6 million years ago when there was a large amount of glacial activity in the area. The feathers were used to decorate Mascapaicha, of the Sapa Inca. Beauty of Birds Xeno-canto
The Inca Empire known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival; the administrative and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century, its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia, its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, they lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor; the Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:... feudal, socialist The Inca empire functioned without money and without markets.
Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects; the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua, tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu whose corners met at the capital; the four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces; the Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family; the Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than the ruling class. As such, the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered; the Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations; the Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku, based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. Chuño, which can be stored for long periods, is made of potato dried at the freezing temperatures that are common at nighttime in the southern Peruvian highlands.
Such link between the Inca state and chuño may be questioned as potatoes and other crops such as maize can be dried with only sunlight. Troll did argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this same region, it is worth considering the maximum extent of the Inca Empire coincided with the greatest distribution of llamas and alpacas in Pre-Hispanic America. The link between the Andean biomes of puna and páramo and the Inca state is a matter of research; as a third point Troll pointed out irrigation technology as advantageous to the Inca state-building. While Troll theorized environmental influences on the Inca Empire he opposed environmental determinism arguing that culture lay at the core of the Inca civilization; the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves; the center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu. The other
An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o