Mare aux Songes
The Mare aux Songes swamp is a lagerstätte located close to the sea in south eastern Mauritius. Many subfossils of extinct animals have accumulated in the swamp, once a lake, some of the first subfossil remains of dodos were found there. In 1865, government schoolmaster at Mahébourg, George Clark found an abundance of subfossil dodo bones in the swamp of Mare aux Songes in Southern Mauritius, after searching for thirty years, having been inspired by Strickland & Melville's monograph about the bird. In 1866, Clark explained his procedure to The Ibis, an ornithology journal: After many fruitless visits to the spot... I resolved by sending some men into the centre of the marsh, where the water was about three feet deep and there, by feeling in the mud with their naked feet, they met with one entire tibia, a portion of another, a tarso-metatarsus; the Dodo bones were imbedded only in the mud at the bottom of the water in the deepest part of the marsh... Encouraged by success, I employed several hands to search in the manner described, but I met with but few specimens of dodo bones till I thought of cutting away a mass of floating herbage nearly two feet in thickness, which covered the deepest part of the marsh.
In the mud under this, I was rewarded by finding bones of many dodos. Remains of over 300 dodos were found in the swamp, but only few skull and wing bones among them, which may be explained by the upper bodies having been washed away or scavenged while the lower body was trapped, similar to the way many moa remains have been found in New Zealand marshes. In 1889, Théodor Sauzier was commissioned to find more dodo remains in the Mare aux Songes, he was successful, found remains of other extinct species. 26 museums worldwide have significant holdings of dodo material all found in the Mare aux Songes. In October 2005, after a hundred years of neglect, a part of the Mare aux Songes swamp was excavated by an international team of researchers. To prevent Malaria, the British had covered the swamp in hard core during their rule over Mauritius, which had to be removed. Many remains were found, including bones of dodos in various stages of maturity, several bones from the skeleton of one individual dodo, which have been preserved in their natural position.
These findings were made public in December 2005 in the Naturalis museum in Leiden. 63% of the fossils found in the swamp belonged to turtles of the extinct genus Cylindraspis, 7.1% belonged to dodos, deposited within several centuries, 4000 years ago. Subsequent excavations suggested that dodos, along with other animals, became mired in the Mare aux Songes while trying to reach water during a long period of severe drought about 4,200 years ago; the following animals have been identified from fossils in the Mare aux Songes
The red-knobbed coot or crested coot, is a member of the rail and crake bird family, the Rallidae. It is a resident breeder across much of Africa and in southernmost Spain on freshwater lakes and ponds, it builds a nest of dead reeds near the water's edge or more afloat, laying about 8 eggs. However, its behaviour towards its own young is so aggressive that only a few are to survive to adulthood; the red-knobbed coot is black except for the white frontal shield. It weighs 585 -- 1,085 g; as a swimming species, it has partial webbing on its long strong toes. The juvenile is paler than the adult, has a whitish breast, lacks the facial shield. A good view is necessary to separate this species from the Eurasian coot, with which its range overlaps. There are two tiny red knobs at the top of the facial shield, which are not visible at any great distance and are only present in the breeding season. In flight, the red-knobbed coot lacks the white trailing edge to the secondaries of the Eurasian coot; the habits of the red-knobbed coot are identical to those of the Eurasian coot.
It is much less secretive than most of the rail family. Where it is undisturbed it is to bully any intruder large birds such as Egyptian geese, if they do not defy its challenges, it can be seen walking across waterside grasslands. It is an aggressive species, territorial during the breeding season; the red-knobbed coot is reluctant to fly and when taking off runs across the water surface with much splashing. It does the same, but without flying, when travelling a short distance at speed, it bobs its head as it swims, makes short dives from a little jump. The red-knobbed coot is an omnivore, will take a variety of small live prey including the eggs of other water birds, its main food in most waters however comprises various waterweeds such as species of Potamogeton for which it dives. This is a noisy bird during mating, but its vocalisations are quite different from the Eurasian coot, it gives a fast kerrre like the little crake, a harsh ka-haa and a grunting hoot "oot oot" that suggests that the name "coot" might be onomatopoeia, but inspection of the etymology of "coot" decisively negates any such suggestion.
Rails by Taylor and van Perlo, ISBN 90-74345-20-4 Forsman, Dick Aspects of identification of Crested Coot Dutch Birding 13: 121-25 Red-knobbed coot - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds Red-knobbed coot videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection
The Eurasian coot known as the common coot, is a member of the rail and crake bird family, the Rallidae. It is found in Europe, Asia and parts of Africa; the scientific name is from Latin. There are two subspecies, only one of, extant: the Australian coot which can be found in Australia, New Guinea and New Zealand; the Eurasian coot is 32–42 cm long and weighs 585–1,100 g, is black except for the white frontal shield. As a swimming species, the coot has partial webbing on its long strong toes; the juvenile is paler than the adult, has a whitish breast, lacks the facial shield. This is a noisy bird with a wide repertoire of crackling, explosive, or trumpeting calls given at night; the coot breeds across much of the Old World on freshwater ponds. It occurs and breeds in Europe, Asia and Africa; the species has expanded its range into New Zealand. It is resident in the milder parts of its range, but migrates further south and west from much of Asia in winter as the waters freeze; the Eurasian coot is much less secretive than most of the rail family, can be seen swimming on open water or walking across waterside grasslands.
It is an aggressive species, territorial during the breeding season, both parents are involved in territorial defence. During the non-breeding season they may form large flocks related to predator avoidance, it is reluctant when taking off runs across the water surface with much splashing. It does the same, but without flying, when travelling a short distance at speed in territorial disputes; as with many rails, its weak flight does not inspire confidence, but on migration at night, it can cover large distances. It bobs its head as it swims, makes short dives from a little jump; this species builds a nest of dead reeds or grasses, but pieces of paper or plastic near the water's edge or on underwater obstacles protruding from the water, laying up to 10 eggs, sometimes 2 or 3 times per season. Only a few young survive, they are frequent prey for birds such as gulls. Chick mortality occurs due to starvation rather than predation. Most chicks died in the first 10 days after hatching, when they are most dependent on adults for food.
Coots can be brutal to their own young under pressure such as the lack of food. They will bite young that are begging for food and do this until it stops begging and starves to death. If the begging continues, they may bite so hard. Coots will lay their eggs in the nests of other coots when their environment or physical condition limits their ability to breed, or to lengthen their reproductive life; the coot is an omnivore, will take a variety of small live prey including the eggs of other water birds, as well as algae, vegetation and fruit. It shows considerable variation in the water. In the water it may upend in the fashion of a dive in search of food; the Eurasian coot is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. "Common Coot media". Internet Bird Collection. Eurasian coot photo gallery at VIREO Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze Feathers of Eurasian Coot BirdLife species factsheet for Fulica atra "Fulica atra".
Avibase. Audio recordings of Eurasian coot on Xeno-canto
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Masauji Hachisuka, 18th Marquess Hachisuka, was a Japanese ornithologist and aviculturist. He was the great grandson of the 11th shōgun Tokugawa Ienari and nephew of the last shōgun Prince Tokugawa, Hachisuka was born in Tokyo in 1903, he moved to England at the age of nineteen to complete his education and studied zoology for five years at Selwyn College, where his interest in birds grew much at the encouragement of Dr. Guillemard and A. H. Evans, culminating in his inclusion at the British Ornithologists' Union. Hachisuka went to expeditions in Iceland, North Africa and Belgian Congo. After graduating in Cambridge in 1927, he returned to Japan, travelling via the United States along Jean Delacour, with whom he visited China and Korea later. In 1928-9, he went to the Philippine Islands to study the distribution of the local avifauna; the study was published in 1932-3 in the two-volume set "Birds of the Philippine Islands" after returning to London and working his collection at the British Museum and at Tring.
He wrote extensively on the birds of Egypt, Iceland and Formosa. Although he intended to return to Japan after his father's death, as he was needed to take up his position as head of the family, an illness forced him to remain in California until 1938. There, he married Chirye Negamine, from Los Angeles, in March 7, 1939. After the war he worked on an account of the birds of the Mascarenes Islands, he died after a brief illness in 1953 in Atami and his work was published posthumously. He was working on a book about the birds of China when he died