The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Palmeral of Elche
The Palmeral or Palm Grove of Elche is the generic name used to designate a system of date palm orchards in the city of Elche. In the urban area of Elche there are a total of 97 different orchards containing about 70,000 date palms in the east bank of the Vinalopó; this number does not include other large plantations located around the city proper. All together, the number may be close to 200,000 palms; the Palm Grove covers over 3.5 km2, including 1.5 km2 within the city of Elche. It is the only palm grove of its type anywhere in Europe,the northernmost of its kind and one of the largest in the world, surpassed in size only by some in Arab countries; the first date palms in Elche could have been planted as early as the 5th century BC by Carthaginians who settled in south-east Spain. The Romans introduced the first elaborated forms of agricultural water management. Under the Moors the city of Elche moved from its Roman location 7 km away to its current location; the Moors further developed the irrigation system with the brackish water of the Vinalopó, the same as the one still in use for the palm orchards.
The formal landscape of the palmeral that still exists today was created when the city was under Moorish control between the 7th and 10th century. Following the Reconquista by the Christians, a local handicraft developed involving desiccated palms and their weaving for processional use in Palm Sunday. Improvements were added by the new settlers, such as the construction in the 17th century of Elche's dam in the Vinalopo, some 6 km upstream of Elche, for a better management of the Palm Grove irrigation. Laws were passed to protect the plantation; the palm groves form a rather compact group in the eastern part of the town. The boundaries of the plots are rectilinear, so they are square or rectangular in plan, they were bounded by –nowadays uncommon– cascabots, or by plastered walls of undressed stone 1-2 m high, which are still present. The plots contain the houses of the tenants or owners of the land, although these are nowadays in a ruinous condition, since most of them have been purchased by the local council and nobody is living there anymore.
The trees are planted in single or double rows, following the lines of the ancient –and still functioning– irrigation canals, which are of special interest to the UNESCO as an integral part of the Palm Grove. Seen from the air, the different plots form an irregular grid pattern; the orchards were dedicated to the production of dates for human and livestock feeding. The terraces created within the plots have traditionally been dedicated to agricultural production with more valuable species such as pomegranate or vegetables which benefitted from the shade created by the palm trees around; this enhanced agriculture in a region where summer temperatures are above 30 °C and annual rainfall is only about 250 mm. As the town spread in the 17th century, some of the orchards were cut down; this process was exacerbated with the industrial revolution and the arrival of the railway in the 19th century. The agricultural role was progressively abandoned. By the second half of the 20th century the date harvesting had become an anecdotal activity for domestic or local consumption.
However, the orchards had the affection of locals and were kept after their economic function had ended. Progressively, some of them were turned into public gardens; the Palm Grove´s role is more as a landscape and a cultural asset than as an agricultural site. The latter function focuses on the production of "white palms": desiccated palm leaves for decoration and processional use on Palm Sunday which are sold throughout Spain and abroad; the palms are a part of the local identity, so have been represented in the town's coat of arms. Individual specimens present in the Palm Grove can grow to a height of more than 30 metres and be up to 300 years old. A famous palm is the one known with 7 stems in the shape of a candelabra, it was named after Elisabeth, known as Sissi, the Empress consort of Franz Joseph, who visited the plantation in 1894 and to whom it was dedicated. By 2014 the Imperial Palm was estimated to be about 170 years old. By the 1920s the danger to the groves was recognized, by the 1930s the first legislating efforts attempted to ensure the continuance of what remained.
Protection of the Palm Grove remained unregulated until 1986, when the Valencian regional government issued the current Law on the Protection of the Elche Palm Grove, regulating the traditional uses and protecting the Palm Grove from any changes affecting its traditional layout and maintenance. In 2000, the UNESCO designated the Palm Grove as a World Heritage Site citing the transfer of landscape and agricultural practices from one culture and continent to another. In 2005, it was discovered that the larvae of the red palm weevil had infested some trees, laying its eggs inside the stems; the Palm Grove is under management to avoid the spread of the pest using a combination of biological pest control, pheromone traps and approved specific pesticides. Palmeral of Elche from UNESCO El Palmeral de Elche - A Cultural
Sound art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilised as a primary medium. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art may be interdisciplinary in nature, or be used in hybrid forms. Sound art can be considered as being an element of many areas such as acoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media, found or environmental sound, explorations of the human body, architecture, film or video and other aspects of the current discourse of contemporary art. In Western art, early examples include Luigi Russolo's Intonarumori or noise intoners, subsequent experiments by Dadaists, the Situationist International, in Fluxus happenings; because of the diversity of sound art, there is debate about whether sound art falls within the domains of visual art or experimental music categories, or both. Other artistic lineages from which sound art emerges are conceptual art, site-specific art, sound poetry, electro-acoustic music, spoken word, avant-garde poetry, experimental theatre; the earliest documented use of the term in the U.
S. is from a catalogue for a show called "Sound/Art" at The Sculpture Center in New York City, created by William Hellermann in 1983. The show was sponsored by "The SoundArt Foundation," which Hellerman founded in 1982; the artists featured in the show were: Vito Acconci, Connie Beckley and Mary Buchen, Nicolas Collins, Sari Dienes and Pauline Oliveros, Richard Dunlap, Terry Fox, William Hellermann, Jim Hobart, Richard Lerman, Les Levine, Joe Lewis, Tom Marioni, Jim Pomeroy, Alan Scarritt, Carolee Schneeman, Bonnie Sherk, Keith Sonnier, Norman Tuck, Hannah Wilke, Yom Gagatzi. The following is an excerpt from the catalogue essay by art historian Don Goddard: "It may be that sound art adheres to curator Hellermann's perception that "hearing is another form of seeing,' that sound has meaning only when its connection with an image is understood... The conjunction of sound and image insists on the engagement of the viewer, forcing participation in real space and concrete, responsive thought rather than illusionary space and thought."
Sound art always takes place in an acoustic context, which may influence interpretation as much as if not more than any associated imagery. Installations of sound art rely on the acoustics of the spaces and reproduction technologies employed as can be exemplified by current practitioners such as Chris Watson; the Klankenbos of Provinciaal Domein Dommelhof is the biggest sound art collection in public space in Europe. In the forest there are 15 sound installation pieces by artists such as Pierre Berthet, Paul Panhuysen, Geert Jan Hobbijn, Hans van Koolwijk, others. Yearly in Kortrijk there is the sound art festival Wilde Westen. In Brussels there are QO2 and Overtoon, two organisations that run artist-in-residence programs and organize events. Logos Foundation from Ghent is a sound art org run by Godfried-Willem Raes. In Zadar there is the Sea Organ which plays music by way of sea waves and tubes located underneath a set of large marble steps. From Amsterdam, but moved to Berlin is Staalplaat, a record label focused on sound art and experimental music.
Transmediale is a yearly festival focused on media art, covering many sound art performances and installations. The Dutch sound art tradition started more or less in the Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium where Dick Raaijmakers worked in the 60s. Paul Panhuysen and Remko Scha developed many early sound art pieces in the 70s and 80s and set up the Apollohuis in Eindhoven. STEIM. WORM, Extrapool are active organisations. Polderlicht was a sound art festival running from 2000–2015. Iii ) aka www. SoundArtist.ru – largest sound and new media arts community in post-ussr region PS-fest aka Podgotovlenniye Sredy – the sound art festival based in Moscow New Interfaces for Musical Expression List of sound artists List of topics related to Sound Art Acousmonium Acoustic ecology Work of art Audium Electronic music Fluxus Installation art Intermedia NIME Noise Music Performance art Radio art Sonification Sound effect Sound installation Sound poetry Sound sculpture Soundscape Video game music Visual music Sound map Hellerman and Don Goddard.
1983. Catalogue for "Sound/Art" at The Sculpture Center, New York City, May 1–30, 1983 and BACA/DCC Gallery June 1–30, 1983. Kahn, Douglas. 2001. Noise, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-61172-4. Licht, Alan. 2007. Sound Art: Beyond Music, Between Categories. New York: Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 0-8478-2969-3. Attali, Jacques. 1985. Noise: The Political Economy of Music, translated by Brian Massumi, f
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A firecracker is a small explosive device designed to produce a large amount of noise in the form of a loud bang. They have fuses, are wrapped in a heavy paper casing to contain the explosive compound. Firecrackers, along with fireworks, originated in China; the predecessor of the firecracker was a type of heated bamboo, used as early as 200 BC, that exploded when heated continuously. The Chinese name for firecrackers, 爆竹（baozhu) means "exploding bamboo." After the invention of gunpowder, gunpowder firecrackers had a shape that resembled bamboo and produced a similar sound, so the name "exploding bamboo" was retained. In traditional Chinese culture, firecrackers were used to scare off evil spirits. Firecrackers are made of cardboard or plastic, with flash powder, smokeless powder, or black powder as the propellant; this is not always the case, however. Anything from match heads, kerosene to lighter fluid have been used in making firecrackers; the key to loud firecrackers, although in part lying in the propellant substance, is pressure.
The entire firecracker must be tightly packed in order for it to work best. Flash powder, does not need to be packed and should not be. James Dyer Ball, in his book Things Chinese, has a detailed description about the process and material used for making firecrackers at the end of the 19th century. At that time, firecrackers were made by female and child workers, using straw paper to make the body of the firecracker, while the fuse was made of bamboo paper imported from Japan stiffened with buckwheat paste; the bamboo paper was cut into strips of 14 inches long and 1⁄3 inch wide, laid on a table. The firecracker tubes were made from pieces of straw paper wrapped around iron rods of various diameters and tightened with a special tool. 200 to 300 firecrackers were tied up in a bunch red clay was spread at the bottom of the bunch and forced into each end of the firecracker with a punch. Firecrackers are used in celebration of holidays or festivals, such as Halloween, Independence Day in the United States, Diwali in India, Eid al-Fitr in Southeast Asia, Tihar in Nepal, Day of Ashura in Morocco, Guy Fawkes Night or Bonfire Night in the United Kingdom, Halloween in Ireland, Bastille Day in France, Spanish Fallas, in every cultural festival of Sri Lanka, New Year's Eve and New Year's Day, in the celebration of Chinese New Year by Chinese communities around the world.
In Wales the slang term for a firecracker used on Guy Fawkes Night, is a "jacky-jumper". Firecrackers, as well as other types of explosives, are subject to various laws in many countries, although firecrackers themselves are not considered illegal contraband material, it is the manufacture, sale and use of firecrackers that are subject to laws including safety requirements for manufacture, the requirement of a permit to sell or store, or restrictions on the use of firecrackers. The use of firecrackers, although a traditional part of the celebration, has over the years led to many injuries and deaths. There have been incidents every year of users being blinded, losing body parts, or suffering other injuries during festivities that customarily involve firecrackers such as Chinese New Year season. Hence, many governments and authorities have enacted laws banning the sale or use of firecrackers, or banning the use of firecrackers in the street because of safety or environmental reasons; these rules require a permit from the local government, as well as any relevant local bodies such as maritime or aviation authorities and hospitals, etc. within a certain range.
Canada — Firecrackers are not authorized under the Explosives Act, thus making importation, transportation, storage, or manufacturing illegal in Canada. Canada banned firecrackers on September 27, 1972, after media reports that two children were killed and three others burned when some older children were playing with firecrackers outside their tent, it came out that the children inside the tent had been smoking and, not wanting to tell their parents, had told them they had been playing with firecrackers. Fireworks are still legal to buy for anyone 18 years of age or over. Croatia - The use of firecrackers is regulated by the Law on Explosive Substances and the Production and Trading of Weapons. According to the Law, firecrackers are divided into three classes: Class 1 Pyrotechnics - pyrotechnic articles for fireworks which represent a low risk, have negligible noise level and are intended for use in restricted areas, including fireworks intended for use within residential buildings. Class 1 Pyrotechnics can be sold all year round to people over the age of 14 in general stores and newsstands, while Class 2 and 3 Pyrotechnics can only be sold between 15 December and 1 January each year at gun shops and stores with special permits to the people over the age of 14 or over the age of 18.
Use of Class 2 and 3 Pyrotechnics i
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is a historic Mediterranean port; the population of the city of Alicante proper was 330,525, estimated as of 2016, ranking as the second-largest Valencian city. Including nearby municipalities, the Alicante conurbation had 452,462 residents; the population of the metropolitan area was 757,085 as of 2014 estimates, ranking as the eighth-largest metropolitan area of Spain. The name of the city echoes the Arabic name Laqant or Al-Laqant, which in turn reflects the Latin Lucentum; the area around Alicante has been inhabited for over 7000 years. The first tribes of hunter-gatherers moved down from Central Europe between 5000 and 3000 BC; some of the earliest settlements were made on the slopes of Mount Benacantil. By 1000 BC Greek and Phoenician traders had begun to visit the eastern coast of Spain, establishing small trading ports and introducing the native Iberian tribes to the alphabet and the pottery wheel.
The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca established the fortified settlement of Akra Leuka, in the mid-230s BC, presumed to have been on the site of modern Alicante. Although the Carthaginians conquered much of the land around Alicante, the Romans would rule Hispania Tarraconensis for over 700 years. By the 5th century AD, Rome was in decline and the Roman predecessor town of Alicante, known as Lucentum, was more or less under the control of the Visigothic warlord Theudimer and thereafter under Visigothic rule from 400 to 700 A. D; the Goths did not put up much resistance to the Arab conquest of Medina Laqant in the beginning of the 8th century. The Moors ruled eastern Spain until the 13th century Reconquista. Alicante was taken in 1247 by the Castilian king Alfonso X, but it passed soon and definitively to the Kingdom of Valencia in 1296 with King James II of Aragon, it gained the status of Royal Village with representation in the medieval Valencian Parliament. After several decades of being the battlefield where the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Aragon clashed, Alicante became a major Mediterranean trading station exporting rice, olive oil and wool.
But between 1609 and 1614 King Felipe III expelled thousands of Moriscos who had remained in Valencia after the Reconquista, due to their cooperation with Barbary pirates who continually attacked coastal cities and caused much harm to trade. This act cost the region dearly. Things got worse in the early 18th century; the end of the 19th century witnessed a sharp recovery of the local economy with increasing international trade and the growth of the city harbour leading to increased exports of several products. During the early 20th century, Alicante was a minor capital that enjoyed the benefit of Spain's neutrality during World War I, that provided new opportunities for local industry and agriculture; the Rif War in the 1920s saw numerous alicantinos drafted to fight in the long and bloody campaigns in the former Spanish protectorate against the Rif rebels. The political unrest of the late 1920s led to the victory of Republican candidates in local council elections throughout the country, the abdication of King Alfonso XIII.
The proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was much celebrated in the city on 14 April 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936. Alicante was the last city loyal to the Republican government to be occupied by General Franco's troops on 1 April 1939, its harbour saw the last Republican government officials fleeing the country. Vicious air bombings were targeted on Alicante during the three years of civil conflict, most notably the bombing by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria of the Mercado de Abastos on 25 May 1938 in which more than 300 civilians perished; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the onset of a lasting transformation of the city by the tourist industry. Large buildings and complexes rose in nearby Albufereta and Playa de San Juan, with the benign climate being the biggest draw to attract prospective buyers and tourists who kept the hotels reasonably busy. New construction benefited the whole economy, as the development of the tourism sector spawned new businesses such as restaurants and other tourist-oriented enterprises.
The old airfield at Rabassa was closed and air traffic moved to the new El Altet Airport, which made a more convenient and modern facility for charter flights bringing tourists from northern European countries. When Franco died in 1975, his successor Juan Carlos I played his part as the living symbol of the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy; the governments of regional communities were given constitutional status as nationalities, their governments were given more autonomy, including that of the Valencian region, the Generalitat Valenciana. The Port of Alicante has been reinventing itself since the industrial decline the city suffered in the 1980s. In recent years