The Shona are a Bantu ethnic group native to Zimbabwe and neighboring countries. The people are divided into five major clans and adjacent to other groups of similar culture and languages; this name came into effect in the 19th century due to their skill of disappearing and hiding in caves when attacked. Hence Mzilikazi the great king called them amaShona meaning "those who just disappear." When the white settlers came to Mashonaland, they banned the Shona people from staying near caves and kopjes because of their hiding habits. This explanation is. There are various interpretations whom to subsume to the Shona proper and whom only to the Shona family; the Shona people are divided into various tribes in the east regions of Zimbabwe. It is important not to mistake the Bukalanga tribe of Matabeleland as these are a distinct clan of the Lozwi-Moyo Empire. Ethnologue notes that the language of the Bukalanga is mutually intelligible with the main dialects of the Eastern Shona as well as other Bantu languages in central and east of Africa, but counts them separately.
Sure members:Karanga or Southern Shona Duma Njiva Jena Mhari Ngova Nyubi Govera Rozvi, sharing the Karanga dialect Zezuru or Central Shona Budya Gova Tande Tavara Nyongwe Pfunde Shan Gwe Korekore or Northern Shona Shawasha Gova Mbire Tsunga Kachikwakwa Harava Nohwe Njanja Nobvu Kwazwimba narrow Shona Toko Hwesa Members or close relatives: Manyika in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. In Desmond Dale's basic Shona dictionary special vocabulary of Manyika dialect is included. Kalanga, in South-Western Zimbabwe, rather integrated in the Nguni culture, therefore little identification with the other Shona and Botswana: Dhalaunda/Batalaote Lilima Baperi Banyai, speaking Nambya in Zimbabwe and Botswana, sometimes subsumed to the Western Shona Ndau in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, their language is only intelligible with the main Shona dialects and comprises some click sounds that do not occur in standard ChiShona. When the term Shona was invented during the Mfecane in late 19th century by the Ndebele king Mzilikazi, it was a pejorative for non-Nguni people.
On one hand, it is claimed that there was no consciousness of a common identity among the tribes and peoples now forming the Shona of today. On the other hand, the Shona people of Zimbabwe highland always had in common a vivid memory of the ancient kingdoms identified with the Monomotapa state; the terms "Karanga"/"Kalanga"/"Kalaka", now the names of special groups, seem to have been used for all Shona before the Mfecane. Dialect groups are important in Shona. Although'standard' Shona is spoken throughout Zimbabwe, the dialects not only help to identify which town or village a person is from but the ethnic group with which the person identifies; each Shona dialect is specific to a certain ethnic group, i.e. if one speaks the Manyika dialect, they are from the Manyika group/tribe and observe certain customs and norms specific to their group. As such, if one is Zezuru, they speak the Zezuru dialect and observe those customs and beliefs that are specific to them. In 1931, during the process of trying to reconcile the dialects into the single standard Shona, Professor Clement Doke identified six groups, each with subdivisions: The Korekore or Northern Shona, including Taυara, Korekore proper, Goυa, the Korekore of Urungwe, the Korekore of Sipolilo, Nyongwe of "Darwin", Pfungwe of Mrewa.
The influx of immigrants, into the country from bordering countries, has contributed to the variety. There are more than ten million people who speak a range of related dialects whose standardized form is known as Shona; the Shona are traditionally agricultural. Their crops were sorghum, beans, African groundnuts, not before the 16th century, pumpkins. Sorghum and maize are used to prepare the main dish, a thickened porridge called sadza, the traditional beer, called hwahwa; the Shona keep cattle and goats, in history as transhumant herders. The livestock had a special importance as a food reserve in times of drought; the precolonial Shona states received a great deal of their revenues from the export of mining products gold and copper. In their traditional homes, called musha, they had separate round huts for the special functions, such as kitchen and lounging around a yard cleared from ground vegetation; the Shona are known for the high quality of their stone sculptures. Traditional pottery is of a high level.
Traditional textile production was expensive and of high quality. People preferred to wear skins or imp
Gonarezhou National Park
Gonarezhou National Park is a national park located in south-eastern Zimbabwe. It is situated in a remote corner of Masvingo Province, south of Chimanimani along the Mozambique border. Owing to its vast size, rugged terrain and its location away from main tourist routes, large tracts of Gonarezhou remain as pristine wilderness. At 5,053 km2, Gonarezhou is the country's second largest game reserve after Hwange National Park. Gonarezhou is a Shona name meaning "The Place of Elephants" It forms part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, a peace park that links Gonarezhou with the Kruger National Park in South Africa and the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. Animals can move between the three sanctuaries; the north-eastern end of the park is located within the Zambezian and Mopane woodlands, while the southwest is located within the Southern Africa bushveld ecoregion. The Gonarezhou National Park was formed in 1975, by uniting former hunting areas and tsetse fly control corridors; the park was closed to the public during the Rhodesian War and again during much of the Mozambique civil war but was re-opened in 1994.
The park is part of the international Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. The park is a lowveld region of baobabs and sandstone cliffs; the park has been a habitat for the endangered Cape wild dog. It is thought that the cross-border link to national parks in Mozambique would be the best opportunity to restore or preserve the viability of this species in adjacent national parks in South Africa and Mozambique. Other mammals that inhabit the park are elephant, hippopotamus, Cape buffalo, wildebeest and white rhinoceros, leopard and hyena. Swimuwini Rest Camp - managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Authority, this is self-catering accommodation on the Mwenezi River. Chiredzi District Chiredzi River Malilangwe
Maranda, locally known as "No. 1", is a small business center on the northern edge of Mwenezi, Zimbabwe. It is the home town of Dr. Love, the former popular musician and Nikita Mangena, Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army military leader during the Second Chimurenga war, it is a center of trade in the district, with people coming to sell their cattle in week-long trade fairs. The centre has a government agriculture and water offices. Maranda is surrounded by granite mountains such as Bangwe and Nemande; these are the source of the Mushawe River, which flows through the business centre and supplies the centre with water. The water is abstracted from the alluvial aquifer below the Mushawe River, is available year-roundRainfall is erratic and the vegetation is savanna dominated by grasses and Mopane trees. In the days of old, the villagers used to plant millet and sorghum but these days most villagers plant maize on account of the high yields associated with it. No. 1 is a popular destination in the district during the week-long market days when residents from the surrounding villagers descend on the business center to sell their merchandise.
Most people sell their cattle, while other just come to the market to dance to sungura music from singers like Alick Macheso and Khiama Boys. Maranda is in the newly created House of Assembly seat of Mwenezi West. Mwenezi District Manyuchi Dam Mushawe River Mwenezi River
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
Zvishavane is a mining town in Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. Surrounded by low hills, it lies 97 kilometres west on the main Bulawayo-Masvingo road. Other roads lead from Zvishavane to Gweru, 121 kilometres north, Mberengwa, 27 kilometres south-west, it is on direct rail links to Gweru and Beit Bridge which link up with Harare and Bulawayo in Zimbabwe and to Maputo in Mozambique, Pretoria in South Africa. It has a private airport serving the city. Zvishavane was called Shabanie or Shabani; the name "Shabanie" has been said to be derived from "shavani", a Ndebele word meaning "finger millet", or "trading together". Zvishavane is a Shona name, said to be derived from "zvikomo zvishava", which means "red hills"; the name means "reddish or'reddened' hills", referring to the many surrounding low hills that are characterised by red soil. The town developed as a residential centre for Shabani Mine, which started operations in 1916 to supply asbestos during the First World War. Growth was slow due to poor communications until the railway reached the town in 1928.
Although the asbestos mine is the biggest producer of the mineral in Zvishavane, gold, chromite, iron ore at Buchwa and huge deposits of diamond at Murowa are mined in the area. The surrounding area is dominated by cattle ranching, while peasant agriculture is practiced in the nearby communal lands of Mberengwa and Buchwa; the administration of Zvishavane has developed over the years to keep pace with its growth. A Village Management Board was set up in 1921 and replaced with a Town Management Board in 1930, it was granted municipal status in 1968. The population of Zvishavane has grown in recent decades due to a boom in mining activity. According to the 1982 Population Census, the town had a population of 26,758. By 1992 this had risen to 32,984; the population grew further to 35,128 in 2002 and 45,325 by 2012. Mimosa Mining Company Shabanie Mine Sabi Gold Mine Murowa Diamonds Pote Holdings Zvishavane is the home to 2 major football clubs which are: FC Platinum Shabanie Mine Football Club Alumni of Shabani Primary School include Philip Matyszak, Judith Todd, George Zambellas.
Gift Amuli, musician Mbizvo Chirasha, poet Judy Croome, novelist Emmerson Mnangagwa, President of Zimbabwe Cephas Msipa, governor of Midlands province Lewis Matutu, Member of the ZANU-PF central committee, Deputy Secretary for Youth Affairs, Entrepreneur. Elliot Mujaji, Paralympics gold medalist Clement Chimuti, Agrobusiness Entrepreneur of the year and renowned golfer, 2015, 2016, 2017Musavengana Hove, Journalist Tafadzwa Mawarire and former African and National motocross champion, Mechanical Engineering TechnicianPetros Muponda Samaringa Nyere
Chiredzi is a small town in Masvingo province in south-east Zimbabwe. It is located near the Runde River, which has a tributary called the'Chiredzi'; as the administrative center for Chiredzi District, it is where both the rural and district councils are based. Chiredzi is served by a small international airport at Buffalo Range called "Buffalo Range Airport," or "BFO." The non-profit organization, Elias Fund, has its Zimbabwean base of operations in Chiredzi. The Mashoko / Hippo Valley Christian Mission had headquarters in Chiredzi, from which it oversees two orphanages and a number of schools and churches throughout the province; the Hippo Valley Estates is located here, with its A-school and private school, Hippo Valley Primary school. South Eastern College is located in Chiredzi, serves as the only A-rated private high school in the area. Hippo Valley Hospital is one of a number of centers for the treatment of HIV or AIDS in the province; the census of 2002 recorded the population of the town at 26,129.
Chiredzi has Gonarezhou National Park with Malilangwe. The two places have been visited by celebrities and support tourism, they enclose the wildlife consisting of carnivorous and omnivorous animals, such as the red-billed quelea and Zimbabwean cheetah. Chiredzi F. C. Masvingo Province
Asbestos is a set of six occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their asbestiform habit: i.e. long, thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. The minerals are chrysotile, crocidolite, tremolite and actinolite. Asbestos has been mined for over 4,000 years, but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century, when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties; some of those properties are sound absorption, average tensile strength and resistance to fire and electricity. It was used in such applications as electrical insulation for hotplate wiring and in building insulation; when asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. These desirable properties led to asbestos being used widely until the late 20th century. Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause serious and fatal illnesses including lung cancer and asbestosis.
Asbestos is estimated to cause 255,000 deaths per year. Concern for asbestos-related illness began in the 20th century and escalated during the 1920s and 1930s. By the 1980s and 1990s, asbestos trade and use were restricted, phased out, or banned outright in an increasing number of countries. Many developing countries still support the use of asbestos as a building material, mining of asbestos is ongoing, with the top producer Russia producing around one million metric tonnes in 2015. Despite the severity of asbestos-related diseases, the material has widespread use in many areas. Continuing long-term use of asbestos after harmful health effects were known or suspected, the slow emergence of symptoms decades after exposure ceased, made asbestos litigation the longest, most expensive mass tort in U. S. history though a much lesser legal issue in most other countries involved. Asbestos-related liability remains an ongoing concern for many manufacturers and reinsurers; the word "asbestos", first used in the 1600s derives from the Ancient Greek ἄσβεστος, meaning “unquenchable” or “inextinguishable”.
The name reflects use of the substance for wicks. It was adopted via the Old French abestos, which in turn got the word from Greek via Latin, but in the original Greek, it referred to quicklime, it is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to have been wrongly used by Pliny for asbestos, who popularized the misnomer. Asbestos was referred to in Greek as amiantos, meaning "undefiled", because it was not marked when thrown into a fire; this is the source for the word for asbestos such as the Portuguese amianto. It had been called "amiant" in English in the early 15th century, but this usage was superseded by "asbestos"; the word is pronounced or. People have used asbestos for thousands of years to create flexible objects, such as napkins, that resist fire. In the modern era, companies began producing asbestos consumer goods on an industrial scale. Now people recognize the health hazard that asbestos poses, it is banned or regulated around the world. Asbestos use dates back at least 4,500 years, when the inhabitants of the Lake Juojärvi region in East Finland strengthened earthenware pots and cooking utensils with the asbestos mineral anthophyllite.
One of the first descriptions of a material that may have been asbestos is in Theophrastus, On Stones, from around 300 BC, although this identification has been questioned. In both modern and ancient Greek, the usual name for the material known in English as "asbestos" is amiantos, adapted into the French as amiante and into Spanish and Portuguese as amianto. In modern Greek, the word ἀσβεστος or ασβέστης stands and for lime; the term asbestos is traceable to Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder's manuscript Natural History, his use of the term asbestinon, meaning "unquenchable". While Pliny or his nephew Pliny the Younger is popularly credited with recognising the detrimental effects of asbestos on human beings, examination of the primary sources reveals no support for either claim. Wealthy Persians amazed guests by cleaning a cloth by exposing it to fire. For example, according to Tabari, one of the curious items belonging to Khosrow II Parviz, the great Sassanian king, was a napkin that he cleaned by throwing it into fire.
Such cloth is believed to have been made of asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush. According to Biruni in his book, any cloths made of asbestos were called shostakeh; some Persians believed the fiber was the fur of an animal, called the samandar, which lived in fire and died when exposed to water, where the former belief that the salamander could tolerate fire originated. Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos. Marco Polo recounts having been shown, in a place he calls Ghinghin talas, "a good vein from which the cloth which we call of salamander, which cannot be burnt if it is thrown into the fire, is made..."Some archaeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, prevent them being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials used in funeral pyres. Others assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks for other lamps.
A famous example is the golden lamp asbestos lychnis, which the sculptor Callimachus made for the Erech