Lukunga is one of the four districts that make up the capital city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes the communes of Barumbu, Kinshasa, Lingwala, Mont Ngafula and Ngaliema; the district takes its name from the Lukunga River. This is a critical source of water for the district, compromised by silting; the national deputy for the district as of 2012 was Oscar Gema di Mageko, a member of the CDF parliamentary group
The Pool Malebo Stanley Pool known as Lake Nkunda by local indigenous people in pre-colonial times, is a lake-like widening in the lower reaches of the Congo River. The former name Stanley Pool was named after early European explorer and journalist Henry Morton Stanley. In the late 19th century it was known as Stanley Pool. A railway was constructed traversing nearby. A plaque was installed to commemorate the rail line connecting Matadi to Stanley-Pool; the Pool Malebo is 23 km wide and 500 km2 in surface area. Its central part is occupied by M'Bamou or Bamu Island, Republic of the Congo territory; the pool is shallow with depths of 3–10 m, while water levels vary by as much as 3 m over the course of a year at an average altitude of 272 m. The capitals of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo—Kinshasa and Brazzaville, respectively—are located on opposite shores of Pool Malebo; these are the two closest capital cities in the world. The Pool is the beginning of the navigable part of the Congo River upstream to the cities of Mbandaka and Bangui.
Downstream, the river descends hundreds of meters in a series of rapids known as the Livingstone Falls to reach sea level at the port of Boma after a trajectory of 300 km. There are many palm and papyrus swamps along the edges of the river and pool, movement of floating mats of Eichhornia plants. Most fish endemic to the area are catfishes, including the mountain catfish, L. brieni, Leptoglanis mandevillei, L. bouilloni and Atopochilus chabanaudi, an upside-down catfish. The area has over 200 fish species documented, with Mormyrids as the most common with over 40 species, with the highest diversification. Pombeiros
Kinshasa is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The city is situated alongside the Congo River. Once a site of fishing and trading villages, Kinshasa is now a megacity with an estimated population of more than 11 million, it faces Brazzaville, the capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo, which can be seen in the distance across the wide Congo River, making them the world's second-closest pair of capital cities after Rome and Vatican City. The city of Kinshasa is one of the DRC's 26 provinces; because the administrative boundaries of the city-province cover a vast area, over 90 percent of the city-province's land is rural in nature, the urban area occupies a small but expanding section on the western side. Kinshasa is Africa's third-largest urban area after Lagos, it is the world's largest Francophone urban area, with French being the language of government, newspapers, public services, high-end commerce in the city, while Lingala is used as a lingua franca in the street.
Kinshasa hosted the 14th Francophonie Summit in October 2012. Residents of Kinshasa are known as Kinshasans; the indigenous people of the area include the Teke. The city was founded as a trading post by Henry Morton Stanley in 1881, it was named Léopoldville in honour of King Leopold II of the Belgians, who controlled the Congo Free State, the vast territory, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, not as a colony but as a private property. The post flourished as the first navigable port on the Congo River above Livingstone Falls, a series of rapids over 300 kilometres below Leopoldville. At first, all goods arriving by sea or being sent by sea had to be carried by porters between Léopoldville and Matadi, the port below the rapids and 150 km from the coast; the completion of the Matadi-Kinshasa portage railway, in 1898, provided an alternative route around the rapids and sparked the rapid development of Léopoldville. In 1914, a pipeline was installed so that crude oil could be transported from Matadi to the upriver steamers in Leopoldville.
By 1923, the city was elevated to capital of the Belgian Congo, replacing the town of Boma in the Congo estuary. The town, nicknamed "Léo" or "Leopold", became a commercial centre and grew during the colonial period. After gaining its independence on 30 June 1960, following riots in 1959, the Republic of the Congo elected its first prime minister, Patrice Lumumba. Lumumba's determination to have full control over Congo's resources to improve the living conditions of his people was perceived as a threat to Western interests; this being the height of the Cold War, the U. S. and Belgium did not want to lose control of the strategic wealth of the Congo, in particular its uranium. Less than a year after Lumumba's election, the Belgians and the U. S. bought the support of his Congolese rivals and set in motion the events that culminated in Lumumba's assassination. In 1965, with the help of the U. S. and Belgium, Joseph-Désiré Mobutu seized power in the Congo. He initiated a policy of "Authenticity" the names of places in the country.
In 1966, Léopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, for a village named Kinshasa that once stood near the site, today Kinshasa. The city grew under Mobutu, drawing people from across the country who came in search of their fortunes or to escape ethnic strife elsewhere, thus adding to the many ethnicities and languages found there. In the 1990s, a rebel uprising began. Kinshasa suffered from Mobutu's excesses, mass corruption and the civil war that led to his downfall, it is still a major cultural and intellectual centre for Central Africa, with a flourishing community of musicians and artists. It is the country's major industrial centre, processing many of the natural products brought from the interior; the city has had to fend off rioting soldiers, who were protesting the government's failure to pay them. Joseph Kabila, president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 2001, is not overly popular in Kinshasa. Violence broke out following the announcement of Kabila's victory in the contested election of 2006.
The announcement in 2016 that a new election would be delayed two years led to large protests in September and in December which involved barricades in the streets and left dozens of people dead. Schools and businesses were closed down. Kinshasa is a city of sharp contrasts, with affluent residential and commercial areas and three universities alongside sprawling slums, it is located along the south bank of the Congo River, downstream on the Pool Malebo and directly opposite the city of Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of the Congo. The Congo river is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile, has the continent's greatest discharge; as a waterway it provides a means of transport for much of the Congo basin. The river is an important source of hydroelectric power, downstream from Kinshasa it has the potential to generate power equivalent to the usage of half of Africa's population; the older and wealthier part of the city is located on a flat area of alluvial sand and clay near the river, while many newer areas are found on the eroding red soil of surrounding hills.
Older parts of the city were laid out on a geometric pattern, with de facto racial segregation becoming de jure in 19
A wetland is a distinct ecosystem, inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, support of plants and animals. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.
Wetlands occur on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh and fen. Many peatlands are wetlands; the water in wetlands is either brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be non-tidal; the largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff, they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a rain storm would not be considered a "wetland" though the land is wet. Wetlands have unique characteristics: they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level and on the types of plants that live within them. Wetlands are characterized as having a water table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants.
A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil and hydrophytes. Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. Mitsch and Gosselink write that wetlands exist "...at the interface between terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, making them inherently different from each other, yet dependent on both."In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is "an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic and aerobic processes, which, in turn, forces the biota rooted plants, to adapt to flooding." There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen. Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types; the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, static or flowing, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres."
Article 2.1: " may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands." Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county and region tends to have its own definition for legal purposes. In the United States, wetlands are defined as "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands include swamps, marshes and similar areas"; this definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act. Some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal government's. In the United States Code, the term wetland is defined "as land that has a predominance of hydric soils, is inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of hydrophytic vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions and under normal circumstances supports a prevalence of such vegetation."
Related to this legal definitions, the term "normal circumstances" are conditions expected to occur during the wet portion of the growing season under normal climatic conditions, in the absence of significant disturbance. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season. Wetlands can be dry during the dry season and abnormally dry periods during the wet season, but under normal environmental conditions the soils in a wetland will be saturated to the surface or inundated such that the soils become anaerobic, those conditions will persist through the wet portion of the growing season; the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding. The duration of flooding or prolonged soil saturation by groundwater determines whether the resulting wetland has aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation
Tshangu is one of the four districts that make up the capital city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes the communes of Kimbanseke, Masina and Nsele; the district is south of the Congo River, east of the Ndjili River, a tributary of the Congo that separates it from Mont Amba District and west of the N'djili airport, the main international airport serving the city
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Laurent-Désiré Kabila, or Laurent Kabila, was a Congolese revolutionary and politician who served as the third President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 16, 2001. He was succeeded eight days by his 29-year-old son Joseph. Kabila was born to a member of the Luba people in Baudoinville, Katanga Province, in the Belgian Congo, his father was a Luba and his mother was a Lunda. It is claimed that he studied abroad but no proof has been found or provided. Shortly after the Congo achieved independence in 1960, Katanga seceded under the leadership of Moïse Tshombe. Kabila organised the Baluba in an anti-secessionist rebellion in Manono. In September 1962 a new province, North Katanga, was established, he became a member of the provincial assembly and served as chief of cabinet for Minister of Information Ferdinand Tumba. In September 1963 he and other young members of the assembly were forced to resign, facing allegations of communist sympathies.
Kabila established himself as a supporter of hard-line Lumumbist Prosper Mwamba Ilunga. When the Lumumbists formed the Conseil National de Libération, he was sent to eastern Congo to help organize a revolution, in particular in the Kivu and North Katanga provinces. In 1965, Kabila set up a cross-border rebel operation from Kigoma, across Lake Tanganyika. Che Guevara assisted Kabila for a short time in 1965. Guevara had appeared in the Congo with 100 men who planned to bring about a Cuban-style revolution. Guevara judged Kabila as "not the man of the hour" he had alluded being too distracted. This, in Guevara's opinion, accounted for Kabila showing up days late at times to provide supplies, aid, or backup to Guevara's men; the lack of cooperation between Kabila and Guevara contributed to the suppression of the revolt that same year. In Guevara's view, of all of the people he met during his campaign in Congo, only Kabila had "genuine qualities of a mass leader". After the failure of the rebellion, Kabila turned to smuggling timber on Lake Tanganyika.
He ran a bar and brothel in Tanzania. In 1967, Kabila and his remnant of supporters moved their operation into the mountainous Fizi – Baraka area of South Kivu in the Congo, founded the People's Revolutionary Party. With the support of the People's Republic of China, the PRP created a secessionist Marxist state in South Kivu province, west of Lake Tanganyika; the PRP state came to an end in 1988 and Kabila disappeared and was believed to be dead. While in Kampala, Kabila met Yoweri Museveni, the future president of Uganda. Museveni and former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere introduced Kabila to Paul Kagame, who would become president of Rwanda; these personal contacts became vital in mid-1990s, when Uganda and Rwanda sought a Congolese face for their intervention in Zaire. Kabila returned in October 1996, leading ethnic Tutsis from South Kivu against Hutu forces, marking the beginning of the First Congo War. With support from Uganda and Burundi, Kabila pushed his forces into a full-scale rebellion against Mobutu as the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire.
He used children in the conflict and it was estimated that up to 10,000 children served under him. By mid-1997, the ADFL had completely overrun the country and the remains of Mobutu's army. Only the country's decrepit infrastructure slowed Kabila's forces down. Following failed peace talks held on board of the South African ship SAS Outeniqua, Mobutu fled into exile on 16 May; the next day, from his base in Lubumbashi, Kabila proclaimed himself president. Kabila suspended the Constitution, changed the name of the country from Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the country's official name from 1964 to 1971, he made his grand entrance into Kinshasa on 20 May and was sworn in on 31 May commencing his term as president. Kabila had been a committed Marxist, but his policies at this point were a mix of capitalism and collectivism, he declared that elections would not be held for two years, since it would take him at least that long to restore order. While some in the West hailed Kabila as representing a "new breed" of African leadership, critics charged that Kabila's policies differed little from his predecessor's, being characterised by authoritarianism and human rights abuses.
As early as late 1997, Kabila was being denounced as "another Mobutu". Kabila was accused of self-aggrandizing tendencies, including trying to set up a personality cult, with the help of Mobutu's former minister of information, Dominique Sakombi Inongo. Sakombi Inongo branded Kabila as "the Mzee", posters reading "Here is the man we needed" appeared all over the country. By 1998, Kabila's former allies in Uganda and Rwanda had turned against him and backed a new rebellion of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, the Second Congo War. Kabila found new allies in Angola and Zimbabwe, managed to hold on in the south and west of the country and by July 1999, peace talks led to the withdrawal of most foreign forces. Kabila was shot and killed in his office on 16 January 2001; the DRC's authorities managed to keep power, despite Kabila's assassination. The exact circumstances are still disputed. Kabila died on the spot, according to DRC's health minister Leonard Mas