Special Air Service
The Special Air Service is a special forces unit of the British Army. The SAS was founded in 1941 as a regiment, reconstituted as a corps in 1950; the unit undertakes a number of roles including covert reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, direct action and hostage rescue. Much of the information and actions regarding the SAS is classified, is not commented on by the British government or the Ministry of Defence due to the sensitivity of their operations; the corps consists of the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment, the regular component under operational command of United Kingdom Special Forces, as well as the 21st Special Air Service Regiment and the 23rd Special Air Service Regiment, which are reserve units under operational command of the 1st Intelligence and Reconnaissance Brigade. The Special Air Service traces its origins to the Second World War, it was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947, named the 21st Special Air Service Regiment. The 22nd Special Air Service Regiment, part of the regular army, gained fame and recognition worldwide after its televised rescue of all but one of the hostages held during the 1980 Iranian Embassy siege.
The Special Air Service was a unit of the British Army during the Second World War, formed in July 1941 by David Stirling and called "L" Detachment, Special Air Service Brigade—the "L" designation and Air Service name being a tie-in to a British disinformation campaign, trying to deceive the Axis into thinking there was a paratrooper regiment with numerous units operating in the area. It was conceived as a commando force to operate behind enemy lines in the North African Campaign and consisted of five officers and 60 other ranks, its first mission, in November 1941, was a parachute drop in support of the Operation Crusader offensive. Due to German resistance and adverse weather conditions, the mission was a disaster, its second mission was a major success. Transported by the Long Range Desert Group, it attacked three airfields in Libya, destroying 60 aircraft with the loss of 2 men and 3 jeeps. In September 1942, it was renamed 1st SAS, consisting at that time of four British squadrons, one Free French, one Greek, the Folboat Section.
In January 1943, Colonel Stirling was captured in Tunisia and Paddy Mayne replaced him as commander. In April 1943, the 1st SAS was reorganised into the Special Raiding Squadron under Mayne's command and the Special Boat Squadron was placed under the command of George Jellicoe; the Special Raiding Squadron fought in Sicily and Italy along with the 2nd SAS, formed in North Africa in 1943 in part by the renaming of the Small Scale Raiding Force. The Special Boat Squadron fought in the Aegean Islands and Dodecanese until the end of the war. In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS and the Belgian 5th SAS, it was tasked with parachute operations behind the German lines in France and carried out operations supporting the Allied advance through France, the Netherlands, into Germany. As a result of Hitler's issuing of the Commando Order on 18 October 1942, the members of the unit faced the additional danger that they would be summarily executed if captured by the Germans.
In July 1944, following Operation Bulbasket, 34 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans. In October 1944, in the aftermath of Operation Loyton another 31 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans. At the end of the war the British government saw no further need for the force and disbanded it on 8 October 1945; the following year it was decided there was a need for a long-term deep-penetration commando unit and a new SAS regiment was to be raised as part of the Territorial Army. The Artists Rifles, raised in 1860 and headquartered at Dukes Road, took on the SAS mantle as 21st SAS Regiment on 1 January 1947. In 1950, a 21 SAS squadron was raised to fight in the Korean War. After three months of training in Britain, it was informed that the squadron would no longer be required in Korea and so it instead volunteered to fight in the Malayan Emergency. Upon arrival in Malaya, it came under the command of "Mad Mike" Mike Calvert, forming a new unit called the Malayan Scouts.
Calvert had formed one squadron from 100 volunteers in the Far East, which became A Squadron—the 21 SAS squadron became B Squadron. The Rhodesians were replaced by a New Zealand squadron. By this time the need for a regular army SAS regiment had been recognised. In 1959 the third regiment, the 23rd SAS Regiment, was formed by renaming the Reserve Reconnaissance Unit, which had succeeded MI9 and whose members were experts in escape and evasion. Since serving in Malaya, men from the regular army 22 SAS Regiment have taken part in covert reconnaissance and surveillance by patrols and some larger scale raiding missions in Borneo. An operation against communist guerillas included the Battle of Mirbat in the Oman, they have taken part in operations in the Aden Emergency, Northern Ireland, Gambia. Their Special projects team assisted the West German counterterrorism group GSG 9 at Mogadishu; the SAS counter terrorist wing famously took part in a hostage rescue operation dur
The 12-hour clock is a time convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods: a.m. and p.m.. Each period consists of 12 hours numbered: 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11; the 24 hour/day cycle starts at 12 midnight, runs through 12 noon, continues to the midnight at the end of the day. The 12-hour clock has been developed from the middle of the second millennium BC to the 16th century AD; the 12-hour time convention is common in several English-speaking nations and former British colonies, as well as a few other countries. The natural day-and-night division of a calendar day forms the fundamental basis as to why each day is split into two cycles. There were two cycles; this would evolve into the two 12-hour periods that started at midnight and noon which are used today. Noon itself is abbreviated today, but if it is, it is denoted M; the 12-hour clock can be traced back as far as ancient Egypt. Both an Egyptian sundial for daytime use and an Egyptian water clock for night-time use were found in the tomb of Pharaoh Amenhotep I.
Dating to c. 1500 BC, these clocks divided their respective times of use into 12 hours each. The Romans used a 12-hour clock: daylight was divided into 12 equal hours and the night was divided into four watches; the first mechanical clocks in the 14th century, if they had dials at all, showed all 24 hours, used the 24-hour analog dial, influenced by astronomers' familiarity with the astrolabe and sundial, their desire to model the Earth's apparent motion around the Sun. In Northern Europe these dials used the 12-hour numbering scheme in Roman numerals, but showed both a.m. and p.m. periods in sequence. This is known as the double-XII system, can be seen on many surviving clock faces, such as those at Wells and Exeter. Elsewhere in Europe in Italy, numbering was more to be based on the 24-hour system, reflecting the Italian style of counting the hours; the 12-hour clock was used throughout the British empire. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the 12-hour analog dial and time system became established as standard throughout Northern Europe for general public use.
The 24-hour analog dial was reserved for more specialized applications, such as astronomical clocks and chronometers. Most analog clocks and watches today use the 12-hour dial, on which the shorter hour hand rotates once every 12 hours and twice in one day; some analog clock dials have an inner ring of numbers along with the standard 1-to-12 numbered ring. The number 12 is paired either with a 00 or a 24, while the numbers 1 through 11 are paired with the numbers 13 through 23, respectively; this modification allows the clock to be read in the 24-hour notation. This kind of 12-hour clock can be found in countries. In several countries the 12-hour clock is the dominant written and spoken system of time, predominantly in nations that were part of the former British Empire, for example, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Malaysia and others follow this convention as well such as Egypt and the former American colony of the Philippines. In most countries, the 24-hour clock is the standard system used in writing.
Some nations in Europe and Latin America use a combination of the two, preferring the 12-hour system in colloquial speech but using the 24-hour system in written form and in formal contexts. The 12-hour clock in speech uses phrases such as... in the morning... in the afternoon... in the evening, and...at night. In the United Kingdom, these descriptive phrases are still used. Rider's British Merlin almanac for 1795 and a similar almanac for 1773 published in London used them. Other than English-speaking countries, the terms a.m. and p.m. are used and unknown. In most countries, computers by default show the time in 24-hour notation. Most operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and Unix-like systems such as Linux and macOS, activate the 12-hour notation by default for a limited number of language and region settings; this behavior can be changed by the user, such as with the Windows operating system "Region and Language" settings. The Latin abbreviations a.m. and p.m. are used in Spanish.
The equivalents in Greek are π.μ. and μ.μ. and in Sinhala පෙ.ව. for පෙරවරු and ප.ව. for පස්වරු. However, noon is abbreviated in any of these languages, noon being written in full. In Portuguese, there are two official options and many other used, for example, using 21:45 pm: 21h45 or 21h45min or 21:45 or 9:45 p.m. In Irish, a.m. and i.n. are used, standing for ar iarnóin respectively. Most other languages lack formal abbreviations for "before noon" and "after noon", their users use the 12-hour clock only orally and informally. However, in many languages, such as Russian and Hebrew, informal designations are used, such as "9 in the morning" or "3 in the night"; when abbreviations and phrases are omitted, one may rely on sentence context and societal norms to reduce ambiguity. For example, if one commutes to work at "
Royal Air Force of Oman
The Royal Air Force of Oman is the air arm of the Armed Forces of Oman The Sultan of Oman's Air Force was formed with British personnel and aircraft in March 1959. The first aircraft were two Scottish Aviation Pioneers transferred from the Royal Air Force; the first armed aircraft was the Percival Provost T52. In 1968 the SOAF received the first of 24 BAC Strikemaster jet trainer and light strike aircraft for operation against insurgents in the Dhofar region. In 1974 the SOAF was expanded with orders for the Britten Norman Defender, BAC One-Eleven, BAC VC10 and 32 Hawker Hunter ground attack aircraft. In 1977 Jaguar International joined the SOAF, followed in the 1980s by the BAe Hawk. In 1990 the SOAF was renamed the Royal Air Force of Oman. In 1993 and 1994 the RAFO replaced its Hawker Hunters with four BAE Hawk Mk 103 fighter-trainers and 12 single-seat Hawk Mk 203, equipped with Westinghouse APG-66H radar, as light ground attack/interceptors. In September 1997 after the evaluation of new combat aircraft the RAFO decided to upgrade and extend the service lives of its remaining 17 SEPECAT Jaguar ground attack fighters until the second decade of the 21st century.
A contract was placed with the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence to upgrade the avionics of the Jaguar aircraft for $40 million. In 2005 deliveries started of the F-16, equipped with improved GPS/INS; the aircraft can carry a further batch of advanced missiles. Block 50 aircraft are powered by the F110-GE-129 while the Block 52 jets use the F100-PW-229. On 3 August 2010 the USA Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified the Congress of a possible sale of 18 F-16 Block 50/52 to Oman in a contract worth 3.5 Billion USD. In addition to the new fighters, the contract included upgrading existing 12 F-16 C/D in the RAFO inventory. On 14 December 2011 it was announced that Oman had agreed to buy an additional 12 F-16C/D Block 50s to join the 12 F-16s C/Ds in service. Oman was considering the purchase of either Eurofighter Typhoon or JAS 39 Gripen aircraft, but on 21 December 2012 a £2.5 billion deal was signed in Muscat to supply RAFO with 12 Eurofighter Typhoon fighter jets and 8 BAE Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer aircraft, the delivery was complete in 2018...
Previous aircraft flown by the Air Force included the SEPECAT Jaguar S/B, Hawker Hunter, BAC Strikemaster, Douglas DC-8, Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander, Skyvan 3M, BAe BAC-1-11, Scheibe Super-Falke, the Bell 214B helicopter The first Omani to command the Air Force was Air Vice-Marshal Talib bin Meran bin Zaman Al-Raeesi, appointed in June 1990. The Sultan’s Armed Forces mentioning the Royal Air Force of Oman World aircraft information files Brightstar publishing File 330 Sheet 1
USS Peacock (1813)
USS Peacock was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the War of 1812. The Peacock was authorized by Act of Congress 3 March 1813, laid down 9 July 1813, by Adam and Noah Brown at the New York Navy Yard, launched 19 September 1813, she served in the War of 1812. Subsequently, she served in the Mediterranean Squadron, in the "Mosquito Fleet" suppressing Caribbean piracy, she patrolled the South American coast during the colonial wars of independence. She was decommissioned in 1827 and broken up in 1828 to be rebuilt as the USS Peacock, intended as an exploration ship, she sailed as part of the United States Exploring Expedition in 1838. The Peacock ran aground and broke up on the Columbia Bar without loss of life in 1841. During the War of 1812, the Peacock made three cruises under the command of Master Commandant Lewis Warrington. Departing New York 12 March 1814, she sailed with supplies to the naval station at St. Mary's, Georgia. Off Cape Canaveral, Florida 29 April, she captured her an enemy warship, the British brig HMS Epervier, which the Peacock sent to Savannah, which the United States Navy took into service as the USS Epervier.
The Peacock departed Savannah on 4 June on her second cruise. She captured 14 enemy vessels of various sizes during this journey. On 14 August the Peacock captured the William, master, of Bristol, scuttled her; the Peacock departed New York 23 January 1815 with the Hornet and Tom Bowline and rounded the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean, where she captured three valuable prizes. On 30 June she captured the 16-gun brig Nautilus, under the command of Lieutenant Charles Boyce of the Bombay Marine of the British East India Company in the Straits of Sunda, in the final naval action of the war. Boyce informed Warrington. Warrington ordered Boyce to surrender; when Boyce refused, Warrington opened fire, killing one seaman, two European invalids, three lascars, wounding Boyce as well as mortally wounding the first lieutenant, wounding five lascars. American casualties amounted to some five men wounded; when Boyce provided documents proving that the Treaty of Ghent ending the war had been ratified, Warrington released his victims, though at no point did he in any way inquire about the Boyce's condition or that of any of the injured on the Nautilus.
The Peacock returned to New York on 30 October. A court of inquiry in Boston a year exonerated Warrington of all blame. In his report on the incident, Warrington reported that the British casualties had only been lascars; the Peacock left New York on 13 June 1816, bound for France, with the Honorable Albert Gallatin and party aboard. After pulling into Havre de Grâce 2 July, she proceeded to join the Mediterranean Squadron, but for a year of Mediterranean–United States—and return transits, 15 November 1818 – 17 November 1819, the sloop remained with this squadron until 8 May 1821, when she departed for home. Pirates were ravaging West Indian shipping in the 1820s and on 3 June 1822, the Peacock became flagship of Commodore David Porter’s West India Squadron, that rooted out the pirates; the Peacock served in the expedition that included the Revenue Marine schooner Louisiana and the British schooner HMS Speedwell. The trio broke up a pirate establishment at 28 -- 30 September capturing four vessels.
They burnt two and prize crews took the other two to New Orleans. Eighteen of the captured pirate crew members were sent to New Orleans for trial; the Peacock captured the schooner Pilot on 10 April 1823 and another sloop 16 April. In September, "malignant fever" necessitated a recess from activities, the Peacock pulled into Norfolk, Virginia on 28 November. In July 1823, the sloop was involved in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo and Mr. Peter Storms decided to join the Independentist cause, who won their independence on 3 August. In March 1824, the sloop proceeded to the Pacific and for some months cruised along the west coast of South America, where the colonies were struggling for independence. In September 1825, the Peacock under the command of Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones, sailed to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, where a treaty of friendship and navigation was negotiated. From 24 July 1826 until 6 January 1827, the sloop visited other Pacific islands to protect American commerce and the whaling industry.
Returning to South America from Hawaii, the ship was struck by a whale. She reached Callao, from which she departed 25 June for New York; the Peacock returned to New York in October 1827 to be decommissioned, broken up and rebuilt in 1828 for a planned expedition of exploration. Her size and configuration stayed about the same, but her guns were reduced to ten: eight long 24-pounders and two long 9-pounders; when plans for the exploratory voyage stalled in Congress, she re-entered regular service in the West Indies from 1829–31. Following refit, both the Peacock and the newly commissioned Boxer, a 10-gun schooner, were ordered to assist the frigate Potomac, which had just sailed on the first Sumatran Expedition; the two ships were charged with diplomatic missions. Boxer left Boston Harbor about the middle of February 1832, with orders to proceed to Liberia and from thence to join the Peacock off the coast of Brazil; the Peacock conveyed Mr. Francis Baylies and family to the United Provinces of the River Plate to assume the post of United States chargé d’affaires in the wake of the USS Lexington raid on the Falkland Islan
Iran hostage crisis
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U. S. Embassy in Tehran, it stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history. Western media described the crisis as an "entanglement" of "vengeance and mutual incomprehension." American President Jimmy Carter called the hostage-taking an act of "blackmail" and the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy." In Iran it was seen as an act against the U. S. and its influence in Iran, including its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution and its longstanding support of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, overthrown in 1979. After Shah Pahlavi was overthrown, he was admitted to the U. S. for cancer treatment. Iran demanded his return in order to stand trial for crimes that he was accused of committing during his reign.
He was accused of committing crimes against Iranian citizens with the help of his secret police. Iran's demands were rejected by the United States, Iran saw the decision to grant him asylum as American complicity in those atrocities; the Americans saw the hostage-taking as an egregious violation of the principles of international law, such as the Vienna Convention, which granted diplomats immunity from arrest and made diplomatic compounds inviolable. The crisis reached a climax. Carter ordered the U. S. military to attempt a rescue mission—Operation Eagle Claw—using warships that included the USS Nimitz and USS Coral Sea, which were patrolling the waters near Iran. The attempt failed on April 24, 1980, resulting in the accidental deaths of eight American servicemen and one Iranian civilian after one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft. United States Secretary of State Cyrus Vance resigned his position following the failed rescue attempt. Six American diplomats who had evaded capture were rescued by a joint CIA–Canadian effort on January 27, 1980.
The Shah left the United States in December 1979 and was granted asylum in Egypt, where he died from complications of cancer at age 60 on July 27, 1980. In September 1980 the Iraqi military invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War; these events led the Iranian government to enter negotiations with the U. S. with Algeria acting as a mediator. The crisis is considered a pivotal episode in the history of Iran–United States relations. Political analysts cited the standoff as a major factor in the continuing downfall of Carter's presidency and his landslide loss in the 1980 presidential election. In Iran the crisis strengthened the prestige of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the political power of theocrats who opposed any normalization of relations with the West; the crisis led to American economic sanctions against Iran, which further weakened ties between the two countries. In February 1979, less than a year before the crisis, the Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown during the Iranian Revolution. For several decades before that, the United States had supported the Shah.
During World War II, Allied powers Britain and the Soviet Union occupied Iran to force the abdication of first Pahlavi monarch Reza Shah Pahlavi, in favor of his eldest son, Crown Prince Mohammad. The Allies feared that Reza Shah intended to align his petroleum-rich country with Nazi Germany, but Reza Shah's earlier declaration of neutrality, his refusal to allow Iranian territory to be used to train or supply Soviet troops against Germany, were the strongest motives for the Allied invasion of Iran; because of its importance in the Allied victory, Iran was subsequently called "The Bridge of Victory" by Winston Churchill. By the 1950s Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was engaged in a power struggle with Iran's prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh, an immediate descendant of the preceding Qajar dynasty. Mosaddegh led a general strike on behalf of impoverished Iranians, demanding a share of the nation's petroleum revenue from Britain's Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. However, he lost revenue from the British. In 1953, the British and American spy agencies helped Iranian royalists depose Mosaddegh in a military coup d'état codenamed Operation Ajax, allowing the Shah to extend his power.
The Shah appointed himself an absolute monarch rather than a constitutional monarch, his position before the 1953 crisis, with the aim of assuming complete control of the government and purging the disloyal. The U. S. continued to support and fund the Shah after the coup, with the Central Intelligence Agency training the government's SAVAK secret police. In the subsequent decades of the Cold War, various economic and political issues united opposition against the Shah and led to his overthrow. Months before the revolution, on New Year's Eve 1977, President Carter further angered anti-Shah Iranians with a televised toast to Pahlavi, declaring how beloved the shah was by his people. After the revolution culminated in February 1979 with the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini from France, the American Embassy was occupied and its staff held hostage briefly. Rocks and bullets had broken so many of the embassy's front-facing windows that they had been replaced with bulletproof glass; the embassy's staff was reduced to just over 60 from a high of nearly one thousand earlier in the decade.
The Carter administration tried to mitigate
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su