Goma is the capital of North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is located on the northern shore of Lake Kivu, next to the Rwandan city of Gisenyi; the lake and the two cities are in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift system. Goma lies only 13–18 km south of the active Nyiragongo Volcano; the recent history of Goma has been dominated by the volcano and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, which in turn fuelled the First and Second Congo Wars. The aftermath of these events was still having effects on the city and its surroundings in 2010; the city was captured by rebels of the March 23 Movement during the M23 rebellion in late 2012, but has since been retaken by government forces. The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 was perpetrated by the provisional Rwandan government on the Tutsi population and Hutu moderates. In response the Rwandan Patriotic Front, formed by Tutsi refugees in Uganda, which controlled large areas of northern Rwanda following its 1990 invasion and the ongoing Civil War, overthrew the Hutu government in Kigali and forced it out.
One of the many UN missions attempted to provide a safe zone in the volatile situation and provided safe passage for the refugees. From 13 June to 14 July 1994, 10,000 to 12,000 refugees per day crossed the border to Goma; the massive influx created a severe humanitarian crisis, as there was an acute lack of shelter and water. However, the Zaïrean government took it upon itself to garner attention for the situation. Shortly after the arrival of nearly one million refugees. A deadly cholera outbreak claimed thousands of lives in the Hutu refugee camps around Goma. RPF aligned forces actors in the conflict, crossed the border and in acts of revenge claimed several lives. Hutu militias and members of the Hutu provisional government were among the refugees, they set up operations from the camps around Goma attacking ethnic Tutsis in the Kivus and Rwandan government forces at the border. For political reasons the Kinshasa government of the Zaire led by Joseph Mobutu did not prevent the attacks, so the Rwandan government and its Ugandan allies threw their support behind the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Zaire, a rebel movement led by Laurent Kabila against Mobutu.
Rwandan forces stormed the camps at Goma, resulting in thousands of additional deaths, with their help and that of Uganda, Kabila went on to overthrow Mobutu's regime in the First Congo War, which ended in 1997. Within a year Kabila had quarrelled with his former allies, in 1998 the Rwandan government backed a Goma-based rebel movement against Kabila, the Congolese Rally for Democracy made of Banyamulenge people, related to the Tutsis, they captured Bukavu and other towns, the Second Congo War began. The Goma refugee camps, in which the Hutu had created a militia called the FDLR, were again attacked by Rwandan government forces and the RCD; the Second Congo War was unprecedented in Africa for the loss of civilian life in massacres and atrocities. By 2003 the Banyamulenge had become tired of the friction emerged between them and Rwanda. In 2002 and 2003 a fragile negotiated peace emerged between the many sides involved in the war. There have been numerous outbreaks of violence since 2003; the Hutu FDLR remains in the forests and mountains north and west of Goma, carrying out attacks on the Rwandan border and on the Banyamulenge.
The Congolese defence forces are unable or unwilling to stop them, as a consequence Rwanda continues to support Banymulenge rebels such as the RCD and General Nkunda, to carry out incursions into North Kivu in pursuit of the FDLR. In September 2007 large-scale fighting threatened to break out again as the 8,000-strong militia of General Nkunda, based around Rutshuru, broke away from integration with the Congolese army and began attacking them in the town of Masisi north-west of Goma. MONUC began airlifting Congolese troops into Goma and transferring them by helicopter from Goma International Airport to Masisi. On October 27, 2008, the Battle of Goma broke out in the city between the Congolese army, supported by MONUC, Nkunda's CNDP rebels. On 3 November 2012 there was a clash between Congolese and Rwandan troops on the border just north of Goma. Goma was seized by the M23 movement on November 20, 2012. "Tens of thousands" of civilians fled the area. See also: List of governors of North Kivu provinceGoma is represented in the National Assembly by six deputies: Désiré Konde Jason Luneno Butondo Muhindo Naasson Kubuya Ndoole Elvis Mutiri Dieudonné Kambale Francois-Xavier Nzabara Masetsa, circa 1994??
Roger Rachid Tumbala, circa 2009? Jean Busanga Malihaseme, 2011-? Kubuya Ndoole Naso, 2012-? Dieudonné Malere, 2015–present The Great Rift Valley is being pulled apart, leading to earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes in the area. In January 2002, Nyiragongo erupted, sending a stream of lava 200 metres to one kilometre wide and up to two metres deep through the center of the city as far as the lake shore. Agencies monitoring the volcano were able to give a warning and most of the population of Goma evacuated to Gisenyi; the lava destroyed 40% of the city. There were some fatalities caused by the lava and by emissions of carbon dioxide, which causes asphyxiation; the lava covered over the northern 1 km of the 3-kilometre runway of Goma International Airport, isolating the terminal and apron which were at that end. The lava can be seen in satellite photographs, aircraft can be seen using the 2-km
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is acidified, adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation; the solids are pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced, their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents; the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, chives or cranberries. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, high content of fat, protein and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese. Speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese; the long storage life of some cheeses when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, the outside has a layer of wax; this specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine; the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived; the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The word cheese comes from cīese or cēse. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages—West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi—all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kāsī, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin; the Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from "Old English cyse, cese...from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus "cheese"." The Online Etymological Dictionary states. Compare fromage.
Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius "broth, juice.'"When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that the French fromage, standard Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, Occitan fromatge are derived. Of the Romance languages, Portuguese, Romanian and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus; the word cheese itself is employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense; the term "cheese" is used as a noun and adjective in a number of figurative expressions. Cheese is an ancient food. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, whether in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.
Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend—wit
The Albertine Rift is the western branch of the East African Rift, covering parts of Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Tanzania. It extends from the northern end of Lake Albert to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika; the geographical term includes the surrounding mountains. The Albertine Rift and the mountains are the result of tectonic movements that are splitting the Somali Plate away from the rest of the African continent; the mountains surrounding the rift are composed of uplifted Pre-Cambrian basement rocks, overlaid in parts by recent volcanic rocks. The northern part of the rift is crossed by two large mountain ranges, the Rwenzori Mountains between Lake Albert and Lake Rutanzige and the Virunga Mountains between Lake Rutanziga and Lake Kivu; the Virungas form a barrier between the Nile Basin to the north and east and the Congo Basin to the west and south. Lake Rutenzige is fed by several large rivers, the Rutshuru River being one, drains to the north through the Semliki River into Lake Albert.
The Victoria Nile flows from Lake Victoria into the northern end of Lake Albert and exits as the White Nile from a point to the west, flowing north to the Mediterranean. South of the Virungu, Lake Kivu drains to the south into Lake Tanganyika through the Ruzizi River. Lake Tanganyika drains into the Congo River via the Lukuga River, it seems that the present hydrological system was established quite when the Virunga volcanoes erupted and blocked the northward flow of water from Lake Kivu into Lake Edward, causing it instead to discharge southward into Lake Tanganyika. Before that Lake Tanganyika, or separate sub-basins in what is now the lake, may have had no outlet other than evaporation; the Lukuga has formed recently, providing a route through which aquatic species of the Congo Basin could colonize Lake Tanganyika, which had distinct fauna. From north to south the mountains include the Lendu Plateau, Rwenzori Mountains, Virunga Mountains and Itombwe Mountains; the Ruwenzori mountains have been identified with Ptolemy's "Mountains of the Moon".
The range covers an area 65 kilometres wide. This range includes Mount Stanley at 5,119 metres, Mount Speke at 4,890 metres and Mount Baker at 4,843 metres; the Virunga Massif along the border between Rwanda and the DRC consists of eight volcanoes. Two of these and Nyiragongo, are still active. Isolated mountain blocks further to the south include Mount Bururi in southern Burundi, the Kungwe-Mahale Mountains in western Tanzania, Mount Kabobo and the Marungu Mountains in the DRC on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. Most of the massifs rise to 3,500 metres; the Albertine Rift montane forests are important eco-regions. Transitional forests, intermediate between lowland and montane forest, are found at elevations from around 1,000 metres to 1,750 metres. Montane forest covers the slopes from around 1,600 metres to 3,500 metres. Above 2,400 metres there are areas of elfin forest. Heather and grasses predominate above 3,500 metres; the ecology is threatened by deforestation. Illegal timber extraction is another problem, artisanal gold mining causes some local damage.
Mukura Forest Reserve
March 23 Movement
The March 23 Movement abbreviated as M23 and known as the Congolese Revolutionary Army, was a rebel military group based in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo operating in the province of North Kivu. The 2012 M23 rebellion against the DRC government led to the displacement of large numbers of people. On 20 November 2012, M23 took control of Goma, a provincial capital with a population of one million people, but was requested to evacuate it by the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region because the DRC government had agreed to negotiate with them. In late 2013 Congolese troops, along with UN troops, retook control of Goma and M23 announced a ceasefire, saying it wanted to resume peace talks. A United Nations report found that Rwanda commanded the M23 rebel group. Rwanda ceased its support following international pressure as well as the military defeat by the DRC and the UN in 2013. On 23 March 2009, the National Congress for the Defence of the People signed a peace treaty with the DRC government, where it became a political party, the M23 soldiers integrated into the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
M23 takes its name from the date of these peace accords. The armed wing of the group is led by General Makenga Sultani, who has served as acting president of the group since the 28 February 2013 removal of Bishop Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero, a former CNDP member; the M23 was formed on 4 April 2012 when nearly 300 soldiers - the majority of them former members of the National Congress for the Defence of the People - turned against the DRC government, citing poor conditions in the army and the government's unwillingness to implement the 23 March 2009 peace deal. General Bosco Ntaganda known as "The Terminator", was accused by the Government of Kinshasa of leading the group, President Kabila called for his arrest on 11 April 2012; the government had threatened to redeploy former CNDP soldiers away from North Kivu before the full implementation of the peace agreement, which prompted many of them to defect from the army and create the M23. The M23 is made up of Tutsis and opposes the Hutu Power militia Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda as well as area Mai-Mai.
To be able to upstaff the troops, occupied villages were asked to deliver youngsters for the formation of village defence committees. This way, a larger number of more experienced soldiers could be stationed on the battlefield. However, this approach backfired when M23 troops tried to extort from the local population, since the armed youngsters defended their own villagers. Following military successes, M23 rebels made additional demands, citing issues of human rights, democracy, as well as good governance, they have accused President Kabila of cheating in the November 2011 elections. The rebels have threatened to depose the president; the rebels were active in North Kivu province, fighting government forces in the Rutshuru and Masisi territories. On 6 June 2012 a Congolese spokesman reported that 200 M23 soldiers had died in the mutiny and that over 370 soldiers had surrendered to FARDC, including 25 Rwandan citizens. On 8 July 2012, Colonel Sultani Makenga announced that a government offensive to dislodge the group from their hideouts had failed, that they had in turn captured several towns towards Goma, the provincial capital.
March 23 Movement forces had advanced to the outskirts of Goma by 18 November 2012 and warned the UN peacekeepers not to support government troops. Congolese government spokesman Lambert Mende accused Rwanda of backing the rebels. "The DRC has "not yet declared war. This is our country, our duty". M23 rebels advanced on Goma 20 November, the Congolese Army retreated with little fighting. M23 forces paraded through the city, some residents turned out to welcome them. Congolese customs officers abandoned their posts. United Nations peacekeepers watched the occupation without intervening, stating that their mandate was limited to protecting the safety of civilians. Jeune Afrique reported that M23 rebels acquired as well as six artillery pieces ~20 shipping containers filled with arms and ammunitions of various caliber, all of which were abandoned by the FARDC during their retreat from Goma. DR Congo president Joseph Kabila urged Goma's citizens to "resist" the M23 takeover. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon criticized the M23 for alleged human rights violations during the takeover, including "intimidation of journalists", abduction of women and children.
Noting that the First Congo War had begun with fighting in the same region, the New York Times described the takeover of Goma as "raising serious questions about the stability of Congo as a whole". On 21 November 2012, during the siege more than 2,000 Congolese soldiers and 700 policemen defected to M23. On 22 November, the FARDC, in cooperation with local Mai-Mai elements, routed the M23 rebels from the nearby town of Sake, 27 kilometers from Goma, as they marched towards Bukavu. 22 November, Kabila suspended General Gabriel Amisi's FARDC commission because of an inquiry into his alleged role in arms sales to various rebel groups, including the FDLR, in the eastern part of the country, so it implicated M23. On 23 November, M23 rebels retook Sake from the FARDC after an intense four-hour battle and reinforced their position in the town, as they moved toward Kirotshe to the
The Virunga Mountains are a chain of volcanoes in East Africa, along the northern border of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda. The mountain range is a branch of the Albertine Rift Mountains, which border the western branch of the East African Rift, they are located between Lake Kivu. The name "Virunga" is an English version of the Kinyarwanda word ibirunga, which means "volcanoes"; the mountain range consists of eight major volcanoes. Most of them are dormant, except Mount Nyiragongo 3,462 metres and Mount Nyamuragira 3,063 metres, both in the DRC. Recent eruptions occurred in 2006 and in January 2010. Mount Karisimbi is the highest volcano at 4,507 metres; the oldest mountain is Mount Sabyinyo. The Virunga Mountains are home of the critically endangered mountain gorilla, listed on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species due to habitat loss, poaching and war; the Karisoke Research Center, founded by Dian Fossey to observe gorillas in their native habitat, is located between Mount Karisimbi and Mount Bisoke.
Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Uganda Michael Crichton's novel Congo is set in the Virunga region. Gorillas in the Mist, the novel of the same name, document the work and death of primatologist Dian Fossey; the camp from which she operated, Karisoke Research Center, still exists in the Virunga Mountains. George Schaller Earl Denman Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mfumbiro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Official Virunga National Park website - Virunga Mountains Profile Kwita Izina - Conservation is life Map of Virunga Mountains - Virunga Volcanoes Travel Portal
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or MONUSCO, an acronym based on its French name, is a United Nations peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, established by the United Nations Security Council in resolutions 1279 and 1291 of the United Nations Security Council to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict. The mission was known as the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo or MONUC, an acronym of its French name Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo, until 2010; the initial UN presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, before the passing of Resolution 1291, was a force of military observers to observe and report on the compliance on factions with the peace accords, a deployment authorised by the earlier Resolution 1258. Resolution 2348 provides the authority for the current MONUSCO mandate.
Since 1999, about US$8.74 billion has been spent to fund the UN peacekeeping effort in DRC. As of October 2017, the total strength of UN peacekeeping troops in DRC is 18,300. More than thirty nations have contributed military and police personnel for peacekeeping effort, with India being the single largest contributor. In June 2011, it was reported that India is preparing to scale back its military commitment to MONUSCO; the origin of this second United Nations military presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is found in the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement on 17 July 1999 and the following United Nations Security Council Resolution 1258 of 6 August 1999, authorizing the deployment of a maximum of 90 officers. The first liaison officers arrived in the DRC on 3 September 1999. In November 1999 the number of liaison officers totaled 39, distributed in the capitals of the warring countries including 24 who were stationed in Kinshasa. In January 2000 they reached the number of 79 and they were spread over the whole territory of DRC.
Their mission was to liaise with all the warring factions, give a technical assistance and prepare the deployment of military observers. On 24 February 2000 with the resolution 1291, the U. N. Security Council authorized the deployment of a maximum of 5537 military personnel in the DRC, including 500 military observers. On 4 April 2000 the Senegalese Major General Mountago Diallo was appointed as the commander of MONUSCO's military force; the mandate is to monitor the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement and the redeployment of belligerent forces, to develop an action plan for the overall implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, to work with the parties to obtain the release of all prisoners of war, military captives and the return of the remains, to facilitate humanitarian assistance and to assist the Facilitator of the National Dialogue. Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the U. N. Security Council authorized MONUC to take the necessary action, in the areas of deployment of its infantry battalions, to protect UN personnel, facilities and equipment, ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel, to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.
In December 2000 there were 224 military personnel deployed, including 148 observers in 13 points around the country. The observers could only record the non-application of the Ceasefire, the violent fighting at Kisangani and in the Equateur and Katanga provinces as well as the presence of foreign troops in the DRC; the deployment of UN troops was impossible due to the security situation and the reluctance of the Congolese government. Though the beginning of 2001 was still hampered by sporadic combat, the military observers could fulfill their mission in regards with the disengagement of forces and the withdrawal of some of the Rwandan and Ugandan forces. In March 2001, the first Uruguayan guard unit arrived in Kalemie; the force was deployed in four sectors at Kananga, Kisangani and Mbandaka. In July 2001, the force strength was of 2366 soldiers, including 363 military observers distributed in 22 cities and 28 teams monitoring the disengagement of forces; the contingent soldiers totaled 1869.
They came from South Africa, Morocco and Tunisia. Guard units protected MONUC installations in Kinshasa, Kisangani, Kalemie and Mbandaka. A Uruguayan riverine unit and a South African air medical evacuation team were deployed; the deployed troops were only to protect the sites against looting and theft, the force had neither the mandate nor the strength to protect the civilian population, or to extract MONUC personnel. Following the Security Council Resolution 1355, the military observers, within their capacities, could contribute to the voluntary disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process of the armed groups. With Security Council Resolution 1376, the Security Council launched the third phase of the deployment of MONUC troops, in the East of DRC; the site for the logistical base was planned to be Kindu. In 2002, the 450 military observers, split in 95 teams, continued to monitor the Ceasefire along the ex-frontlines; the teams investigated violations of the Ceasefire. Foreign troops continued to leave the country.
The riverine units escorted the first ships on the Congo river, again open to commercial traffic. In June 2002 the UN troops' total number was 3804. Contingents from Ghana and Bolivia joined the force, of which more than a third of the soldiers were Uru
North Kivu is a province bordering Lake Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its capital is Goma. North Kivu borders the provinces of Ituri to the north, Tshopo to the northwest, Maniema to the southwest, South Kivu to the south. To the east, it borders the countries of Rwanda; the province consists of three cities—Goma and Beni—and six territories—Beni, Masisi, Rutshuru and Walikale. The province is home to the Virunga National Park, a World Heritage Site containing the endangered mountain gorillas; the region is politically unstable and since 1998 has been one of the flashpoints of the military conflicts in the region. North Kivu was a "sub-region" in the region of Kivu; the region was the scene of much fighting during the Second Congo War, the Kivu conflict. Laurent Nkunda was offered the rank of Brigadier General and command of the new Congo Government's FARDC Eighth Military Region, covering North Kivu, by DRC government decree 019/2003 of August 19, 2003. However, he refused to take up the post.
On May 26, 2004, General Obed Wibasira was named to the position. However, Wibasira was suspected of complicity with the soldiers in Goma who had triggered a mutiny in Bukavu in February 2004, on January 23, 2005, he was switched with Gabriel Amisi Kumba, at the time commander of the Fifth Military Region in Kasaï-Oriental. Gabriel Amisi Kumba was named as a Brigadier General. General Louis Ngizo, a former commander of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, was appointed a commander in November 2006; however he was of little influence compared to powerful military figures from Kinshasa, U. S. diplomats said in comments released via WikiLeaks. Brigadier General Vainqueur Mayala was transferred from command of the Ituri operational zone, promoted to Major General, appointed military region commander in May 2007. Ngizo left Goma on his next posting not being known at the time. During late 2008, the FARDC maintained its dismal record in combat against Laurent Nkunda's CNDP faction, losing the Rumangabo military camp to the rebels.
The dissident Mai-Mai 85th Brigade, commanded by Colonel Samy Matumo, controlled the cassiterite mine at Bisie, just north of Manoire in Walikale, in the south-east of North Kivu. The former RCD-K/ML has fighters in the province; the Effacer le tableau and Beni massacre occurred in the province. In October 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warned of an increasing number of internally displaced people in North Kivu related to the fighting there between the government army, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda rebels and renegade troops, including Laurent Nkunda's forces, a build-up of military supplies and forces, including the reported recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups across North Kivu; the UNHCR thought that there were over 370,000 people in North Kivu displaced since December 2006, is expanding its camps in the Mugunga area where over 80,000 IDPs were estimated. The brief capture of Goma, by M23 rebels caused "tens of thousands" of refugees.
The town of Sake was abandoned. List of governors of North Kivu Denis Tull, The reconfiguration of political order in Africa: a case study of North Kivu, Volume 13 of Hamburg African studies, Institut für Afrika-Kunde, GIGA-Hamburg, 2005, ISBN 3-928049-90-9, ISBN 978-3-928049-90-0, 342 pages Official website Map of North Kivu