A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size. Juveniles sometimes look different from the adult form in colour. In many organisms the juvenile has a different name from the adult; some organisms reach sexual maturity such as eclosion in many insects. For others, the transition from juvenile to mature is a more prolonged process—puberty, for example. In such cases, juveniles during this transformation are sometimes called subadults. Many invertebrates, on reaching the adult stage, are mature and their development and growth stops, their juveniles are nymphs. In vertebrates and some invertebrates, larval forms are considered a development stage of their own, "juvenile" refers to a post-larval stage, not grown and not sexually mature. In amniotes and most plants, the embryo represents the larval stage. Here, a "juvenile" is an individual in the time between hatching/birth/germination and reaching maturity. For animal larval juveniles, see larva
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
National Geographic is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded, it contains articles about science, geography and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by The Walt Disney Company since 2019; the magazine is published monthly, additional map supplements are included with subscriptions. It is available through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued; as of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Goldberg is Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to CEO of National Geographic Partners; the first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, became well known for this style; the June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.
National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was closed. In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine, it was sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation; the magazine prevailed in the dispute, in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was updated to make more recent issues available, the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers. On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.
In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners. The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief"; the list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980. John Hyde Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor John Oliver LaGorce Melville Bell Grosvenor Frederick Vosburgh Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Wilbur E. Garrett William Graves William L. Allen Chris Johns Susan Goldberg During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain; the magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.
There were many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. There were articles about biology and science topics. In years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, chemical pollution, global warming, endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, food crop, o
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks and swans. Most modern species in the order are adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. With the exception of screamers, all have phalli, a trait, lost in the Neoaves. Due to their aquatic nature, most species are web-footed. Anseriformes are one of two types of modern bird thought to be confirmed present during the mesozoic alongside the other dinosaurs, in fact were among the few birds to survive their extinction, along with their cousins the galliformes; these two groups only occupied ecological niches during the mesozoic, living in water and on the ground, while the toothed enantiornithes were the dominant birds that ruled the trees and air. But the fireball, thought to have ended the era of the dinosaurs destroyed all trees as well as animals in the open, a condition that took years to recover.
The anseriformes and galliformes are thought to have survived in the cover of burrows and water, not to have needed trees for food and reproduction. The earliest cretaceous anseriform found so far is vegavis, a goose-like waterfowl thought to have lived as long as 99 million years ago; some members surviving the KT extinction event, including presbyornithids, thought to be the common ancestors of ducks, geese and screamers, the last group once thought to be galliformes, but now genetically confirmed to be related to geese. The first known duck fossils start to appear about 34 million years ago; the Anseriformes and the Galliformes are the most primitive neognathous birds, should follow ratites and tinamous in bird classification systems. Together they belong to the Galloanserae. Several unusual extinct families of birds like the albatross-like pseudotooth birds and the giant flightless gastornithids and mihirungs have been found to be stem-anseriforms based on common features found in the skull region, beak physiology and pelvic region.
The genus Vegavis for a while was found to be the earliest member of the anseriform crown group but a recent 2017 paper has found it to be just outside the crown group in the family Vegaviidae. Below is the general consensus of the phylogeny of their stem relatives. Anatidae systematics regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not resolved. See the Anatidae article for more information, for alternate taxonomic approaches. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anserinae; the Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Mikko's Phylogeny Archive and John Boyd's website. Order Anseriformes †Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987? †Conflicto Claudia P. Tambussi et al. 2019? †Naranbulagornis Zelenkov 2019 Sub Order Anhimae Wetmore & Miller 1926 Genus †Chaunoides de Alvarenga 1999 Family Anhimidae Stejneger 1885 Genus Anhima Brisson 1760 Genus Chauna Illiger 1811 Sub Order Anseres Superfamily Anseranatoidea Family Anseranatidae Sclater 1880 Genus †Anserpica Mourer-Chauviré, Berthet & Hugueney 2004 Genus †Eoanseranas Worthy & Scanlon 2009 Genus †Anatalavis Olson & Parris 1987 Genus Anseranas Lesson 1828 Superfamily Anatoidea Family †Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926 ^ Genus †Teviornis Kuročkin, Dyke & Karhu 2002 Genus †Telmabates Howard 1955 Genus †Headonornis Harrison & Walker 1976 Genus †Presbyornis Wetmore 1926 Genus †Wilaru Boles et al. 2013 Family †Paranyrocidae Miller & Compton 1939 Genus †Paranyroca Miller & Compton 1939 Family Anatidae Leach 1820 Subfamily †Romainvilliinae Lambrecht 1933 Genus †Romainvillia Lebedinský 1927 Genus †Saintandrea Mayr & De Pietri 2013 Subfamily Dendrocygninae Reichenbach 1849–50 Genus Dendrocygna Swainson 1837 Genus Thalassornis Eyton 1838 Subfamily †Dendrocheninae Livezey & Martin 1988 Genus †Dendrochen Miller 1944 Genus †Manuherikia Worthy et al. 2007 Genus †Mionetta Livezey & Martin 1988 Subfamily Stictonettinae Genus Stictonetta Reichenbach 1853 Subfamily Anserinae Vigors 1825 sensu Livezey 1996 Genus †Anserobranta Kuročkin & Ganya 1972 Genus †Asiavis Nesov 1986 Genus †“Chenopis” De Vis 1905 Genus †Cygnavus Lambrecht 1931 Genus †Cygnopterus Lambrecht 1931 Genus †Eremochen Brodkorb 1961 Genus †Megalodytes Howard 1992 Genus †Paracygnus Short 1969 Genus †Presbychen Wetmore 1930 Genus †Cnemiornis Owen 1866 Genus Coscoroba Reichenbach 1853 Genus Cereopsis Latham 1801 Genus Cygnus Garsault 1764 Genus †Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart et al. 2005 Genus Branta Scopoli 1769 Tribe Anserini Vigors 1825 Genus Anser Brisson 1760 [Chen Boie 1822.
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia referred to as UGA or Georgia, is a public flagship research university with its main campus in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1785, it is one of the oldest public universities in the United States; the Center for Measuring University Performance ranks the University of Georgia among the top research universities in the nation and the university is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a Research I university. It classifies the student body as "more selective," its most selective admissions category, while the ACT Assessment Student Report places UGA student admissions in the "highly selective" category, the highest category. Incoming students include those from 47 countries around the world; the university is ranked as one of the "Best National Universities for Undergraduate Teaching", tied for 13th overall among all public national universities in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, is a Kiplinger's and Princeton Review top ten in value.
The university is organized into 17 constituent schools and colleges offering more than 140 degree programs. The university's historic North Campus is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district; the contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the contiguous campus is the university's 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees, several additional historic buildings. Athens has ranked among America's best college towns due to its vibrant restaurant and music scenes. In addition to the main campus in Athens with its 460 buildings, the university has two smaller campuses located in Tifton and Griffin; the university has two satellite campuses located in Lawrenceville. The university operates several outreach stations spread across the state; the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres.
The university owns a residential and research center in Washington, D. C. and three international residential and research centers located at Oxford University in Oxford, England, at Cortona, at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over 750 student organizations including academic associations, honor societies, cultural groups and intramural athletics, religious groups, social groups and fraternities and community service programs, philanthropic groups are integral parts of student life; the University of Georgia's intercollegiate sports teams known by their Georgia Bulldogs nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. UGA served as a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more than 120-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 45 national championships, 264 individual national championships, 170 conference championships, 45 Olympic medals; the Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the official marching band of the university, performs at athletic and other events.
In 1784, Lyman Hall, a Yale University graduate and one of three doctors to sign the Declaration of Independence, as Governor of Georgia persuaded the Georgia legislature to grant 40,000 acres for the purposes of founding a "college or seminary of learning." Besides Hall, credit for founding the university goes to Abraham Baldwin who wrote the original charter for University of Georgia. From Connecticut, Baldwin graduated from and taught at Yale University before moving to Georgia; the Georgia General Assembly approved Baldwin's charter on January 27, 1785 and UGA became the first university in the United States to gain a state charter. Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Baldwin would represent Georgia in the 1786 Constitutional Convention that created the Constitution of the United States and go on to be President pro tempore of the United States Senate; the task of creating the university was given to the Senatus Academicus, which consisted of the Board of Visitors – made up of "the governor, all state senators, all superior court judges and a few other public officials" – and the Board of Trustees, "a body of fourteen appointed members that soon became self-perpetuating."
The first meeting of the university's Board of Trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13, 1786. The meeting installed Baldwin as the university's first president. For the first sixteen years of the school's history, the University of Georgia only existed on paper. By the new century, a committee was appointed to find suitable land to establish a campus. Committee member John Milledge purchased 633 acres of land on the west bank of the Oconee River and gifted it to the university; this tract of land, now a part of the consolidated city–county of Athens-Clarke County, was part of Jackson County. As of 2013, 37 acres of that land remained as part of the North Campus; because Baldwin was elected to the U. S. Senate, the school needed a new president. Baldwin chose his former fellow professor at Yale, Josiah Meigs, as his replacement. Meigs became the school's president, as well as the only professor. After traveling the state to recruit a few students, Meigs opened the school with no building in the fall of 1801.
The first school building patterned after Yale's Connecticut Hall was built the year later. Yale's early influence on the new university extended into the classical curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. By 1803, the students