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Okfuskee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,191, its county seat is Okemah. The county is named for a former Muscogee town in present Cleburne County, that in turn was named for the Okfuskee, a Muscogee tribe; the area now covered by Okfuskee County was occupied by the Quapaw and Osage tribes until 1825, when they ceded the land to the United States government. The Creeks moved here in the early 1830s and built two towns and Thlopthlocco. During the Civil War, Thlopthlocco served as headquarters for Confederate Col. Douglas H. Cooper. Greenleaf was where Chief Opothleyahola camped while he tried to retain unity among the Creeks, before leading over 5000 Creeks to Kansas to avoid the war. After the war, the Creeks were required to free their African American slaves. Many of these people founded all-black communities; these towns included Boley, Clearview and Rusk. Okfuskee, a Creek town, grew up around Samuel Checote's trading post after the Civil War.
The St. Louis and San Francisco Railway built a north-south line through this area during 1901-03; the Fort Smith and Western Railroad constructed an east-west line in 1903. Okfuskee County was created at statehood from the former Creek Nation, Okemah was designated as the county seat. Oil and gas production began in the county in 1914, when the Prairie Oil and Gas Company completed a well near Paden. Other wells followed elsewhere in the county, creating a population boom that peaked in 1930. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 629 square miles, of which 619 square miles are land and 10 square miles are covered by water; the county lies within the Sandstone Hills physiographic region. The northeastern part is drained by the Deep Fork of the Canadian River, while the southern part is drained by the North Canadian River. Interstate 40 U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 75 State Highway 48 State Highway 56 Creek County Okmulgee County McIntosh County Hughes County Seminole County Pottawatomie County Lincoln County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 12,191 people residing in the county.
64.4% were White, 19.7% Native American, 8.3% Black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% of some other race and 6.5% of two or more races. 2.9 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,814 people, 4,270 households, 2,971 families residing in the county; the population density was 7/km². There were 5,114 housing units at an average density of 3/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 65.46% White, 10.41% Black or African American, 18.20% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.57% from other races, 5.27% from two or more races. 1.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 92.5 % spoke 3.5 % Muskogee, 2.1 % Spanish and 1.3 % German as their first language. There were 4,270 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.10% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 106.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,324, the median income for a family was $30,325. Males had a median income of $24,129 versus $17,819 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,746. About 17.30% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.60% of those under age 18 and 17.50% of those age 65 or over. The following sites in Okfuskee County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Boley Historic District, Boley Okemah Armory, Okemah Okfuskee County Courthouse, Okemah Weleetka Town Hall and Jail, Weleetka Okfuskee was the home county of American folk icon Woody Guthrie, born in Okemah.
Guthrie refers to Okfuskee in one of his lost lyrics, "Way Over Yonder In the Minor Key." The lyrics were set to music by Billy Wilco for their 1998 collaboration, Mermaid Avenue. Lynching of Laura and L. D. Nelson
Okemah is the largest city in and the county seat of Okfuskee County, United States. It is the birthplace of folk music legend Woody Guthrie. Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, a federally recognized Muscogee Indian tribe, is headquartered in Okemah; the population was 3,223 at the 2010 census, a 6.1 percent increase from 3,038 in 2000. In that census, about 26.6 percent of the residents identified themselves as Native American. Occupied by the Osage and Quapaw, who ceded their lands to the United States by 1825, the area was assigned to the Creek Nation and the Thlopthlocco Tribal Town after Indian Removal of tribes from the Southeast United States in the 1830s. Okemah was named after a Kickapoo Indian chief. In March 1902, Chief Okemah built a bark house in his tribe's traditional fashion, he had come to await the opening of the townsite, which took his name on April 22, 1902. In the Kickapoo language, okemah means "things up high," such as placed person or town or high ground. In preparation for Oklahoma's statehood, the Dawes Commission was authorized in 1896 to work with the Five Civilized Tribes to enroll their members for allotments of tribal land to individual households.
Registration of tribal members lasted from 1898 to 1906. After allotment, the government was going to declare the remaining tribal lands "surplus" and sell them to European-American settlers. Okemah was platted by a group of Shawnee residents in March 1902 on land belonging to Mahala and Nocus Fixico, full-blood Creek; the Fixicos had no legal right at the time to sell their holding, as enrollment of tribal members on the Dawes Roll continued until 1906, no land sales were to take place by Indians until it was completed. That did not appear to affect the development of the town. On April 22, 1902, the formal opening launched the town. A post office opened on May 16, the town was incorporated in 1903. In the spring of 1904, Commission restrictions on the sale of townsite lots were removed; the Department of the Interior trustees of land held by American Indians paid the Fixicos $50 an acre for their land, gave legal deeds to the purchasers who claimed title. In the town's first week, the following stores were established: four general merchandise, two hardware, one 5 & 10 cent store, three drugstores, four groceries, three wagon yards, four lumberyards, three cafes, one bakery, two millineries, four livery barns, three blacksmiths, two dairies, two cotton gins and two weekly newspapers.
Eight doctors settled there, four lawyers, two walnut log buyers, one Chinese laundryman. Two hotels were put up, including the three-story Broadway hotel, which set the city apart as an important town in early Oklahoma. Okfuskee County had been organized at the time of statehood in 1907. Okemah was chosen as county seat in a county election held August 27, 1908; the townsite was selected by two railroad surveyors, Perry Rodkey and H. R. Dexter. Dexter is credited with choosing the town name, they picked the site believing that two railroads, the Fort Smith and Western Railroad and the Ozark and Cherokee Central Railway would intersect there. While the former did build a line through the site, the latter never did; the town's first state-chartered bank began business the day of the opening, April 22, 1902, in a tent on the northwest corner of the present Fifth and Broadway. C. J. Benson was president. W. H. Dill was vice president and served as cashier, it became the First National Bank in 1903, but was liquidated in 1939, having failed due to the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression.
J. E. Galloway was the first mayor; the first church in the city was the North Methodist, at Sixth and Ash, but the first church service Baptist, presided over by the Rev. Black; the editor Charles Barnclaw published the first newspaper. Although a police force was organized in the town soon after its founding, vigilantes were active during Okemah's early years. Law enforcement and justices of the peace were located some distance away; the vigilantes appeared to have had complete freedom of action. In 1911, a black woman, 35-year-old Laura Nelson, her teenage son, L. D. were lynched by a mob of white men. Accused of killing a police officer in an altercation at their home near Paden, they were kidnapped after being held at the jail and the county courthouse and hanged from a suspension bridge over the North Canadian River. Okemah is located at 35°25′52″N 96°18′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.7 square miles, of which 2.6 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,038 people, 1,242 households, 763 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,170.5 people per square mile. There were 1,506 housing units at an average density of 580.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.09% White, 2.37% African American, 22.84% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.46% from other races, 5.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.94% of the population. There were 1,242 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Boley is a town in Okfuskee County, United States. The population was 1,184 at the 2010 census, a gain of 5.2 percent from 1,126 in 2000. Boley was established in 1903 as a predominantly Black pioneer town with persons having Native American ancestry among its citizens. Boley is home to barbeque equipment maker, Smokaroma and the John Lilley Correctional Center; the Boley Public School District closed the high school in 2007 and the elementary in 2010 due to declining enrollment. The Boley Historic District is a National Historic Landmark. Boley hosts The Annual Boley Rodeo & Bar-B-Que Festival; this area was settled by Creek Freedmen, whose ancestors had been held as slaves of the Creek at the time of Indian Removal in the 1830s. After the American Civil War, the United States negotiated new treaties with tribes that allied with the Confederacy, it required them to give them membership in the tribes. Those slaves were called the Creek Freedmen. At the time of allotments to individual households under the Dawes Commission, Creek Freedmen were registered as such on the Dawes Rolls Creek Freedmen set up independent townships, of which Boley was one.
The town was established on the land allotted to Abigail Barnett, daughter of James Barnett, a Creek freedman. The coming of the Fort Smith & Western Railroad allowed agricultural land to be more profitably used as a townsite. Property owned by the Barnett family, among other Creek Freedmen, was midway between Paden and Castle, ideal for a station stop. With the approval of the railroad management, Creek Nation, Indian Territory was incorporated in 1905, it was named for J. B. Boley, an official of the railroad. There were no other Negro towns nearby, it became a center of regional business. During the early part of the 20th century, Boley was one of the wealthiest Negro towns in the US, it boasted the first nationally chartered bank owned by blacks, its own electric company. The town had over 4,000 residents by 1911, was the home of two colleges: Creek-Seminole College, Methodist Episcopal College; the Masonic Lodge was called "the tallest building between Okmulgee and Oklahoma City," when it was built in 1912.
Booker T. Washington visited Boley in 1905, was so impressed that he included Boley in his speeches. Boley's development paralleled that of the railroad. After World War I, a fall in agricultural prices and the bankruptcy of the railroad caused Boley's failure, it went bankrupt in 1939 during the Great Depression. Before World War II, Boley's population had declined to about 700. With the Second Great Migration underway, by 1960 most of the population had left for other urban areas. So far the New Great Migration has not benefited Boley. 1903 Founding 1905 Booker T. Washington tours the newly incorporated Boley. Newspaper The Boley Progress starts publication. 1907 Oklahoma becomes a state. Although by 1897 Oklahoma law required black children to be educated separately from white children, with statehood the legislature passed Jim Crow laws similar to those in much of the South. Oklahoma was no longer a refuge for colored people from Jim Crow. 1911 Facts about Boley, Okla. the largest and wealthiest exclusive Negro city in the world.
(Boley, OK: Commercial Club, 1911 1922 "Produced in the All-Colored City of Boley, Okla." The Crimson Skull. 1925, State Training School for Incorrigible Negro Boys was located in Boley. 1926 The Boley Progress ceases publication. 1932 Armed citizens of Boley thwart a bank robbery attempt by members of Pretty Boy Floyd's gang. 1934 30th Anniversary Celebration 1939 Fort Smith & Western Railroad and Boley go bankrupt. 1959 Smokaroma founded. 1961 First of the Annual Boley Rodeo & Bar-B-Que Festivals. 1970 Oklahoma: OSSAA Boys Basketball State Champions 1974 Oklahoma: OSSAA Boys Basketball State Champions 1975 Oklahoma: OSSAA Boys Basketball State Champions 1975 Boley National Historic District given landmark status. 1976 Oklahoma: OSSAA Boys Basketball State Champions 2007 Boley High School closes 2010 Boley Elementary closes 2016 Adopted a code of ordinances Boley, Oklahoma Est. August 1903 - Inc. May 1905 Boley, Creek Nation, I. T. Established as all black town on land of Creek Indian Freedwoman Abigail Barnett.
Organized by T. M. Haynes first townsite manager. Named for J. B. Boley, white roadmaster, who convinced Fort Smith & Western Railroad that blacks could govern themselves; this concept soon boosted population to 4,200. Declared National Historic Landmark District by Congress 5-15-1975. Oklahoma Historical Society Part of Boley was declared as Boley Historic District and a National Historic Landmark in 1975; the District is bounded by Seward Avenue and Cedar Streets, the southern city limits of Boley. "They have recovered something of the knack for trade that their fore-parents in Africa were famous for"."Boley, Indian Territory, is the youngest, most enterprising, in many ways the most interesting of the Negro towns in the US." In the 2016 presidential election, the city gave over 78% of the vote to the Democratic Party candidate Hillary Clinton. Cardell Camper, major league baseball player Pumpsie Green - baseball player, first African American to play for the Boston Red Sox Zenobia Powell Perry - composer Nate Quinn-, Basketball Player and Coach, Inducted into Missouri Sports Hall of Fame 2016 http://mosportshalloffame.com/inductees/nate-quinn/ Nathaniel E. Quinn-Basketball Coach, Inducted into Oklahoma Coaches Hall of Fame 1981 http://www.oklahomacoaches.org/ind