Pedernales Electric Cooperative
Pedernales Electric Cooperative is a not-for-profit rural electric distribution, utility cooperative headquartered in Johnson City, Texas. The cooperative was organized in 1938; the cooperative, the nation's largest distribution electric cooperative, is owned by more than 300,000 cooperative members in Central Texas and serves an area of 8,100 square miles. Pedernales Electric Cooperative is led by Julie Caruthers Parsley, who joined the cooperative as chief executive officer in 2017. Parsley was a partner at the law firm Parsley Coffin Renner. Additionally, Parsley is a former Commissioner of the Public Utility Commission of Texas and focused her law practice on energy-related legal and consulting services in Texas and the Southwest, she is a former Solicitor General of Texas, is board certified in civil appellate law and was an adjunct professor of law teaching appellate practice and procedure at the University of Texas School of Law. As a cooperative, PEC is owned and governed by the members it serves, members are democratically elected to serve on the cooperative's board of directors.
In 2016, the cooperative adopted a single-member district voting methodology in which members vote every three years for their district's director seat. Pedernales Electric Cooperative
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Mason County Courthouse (Texas)
The Mason County Courthouse is an historic courthouse building located in Mason, Texas. Built in 1909 to 1910 at a cost of $39,786, it was designed by Georgia-born American architect Edward Columbus Hosford, noted for the courthouses and other buildings that he designed in Florida and Texas. Mutual Construction Company of Louisville, Kentucky built it of Fredericksburg granite and rusticated stone. There are gable front porticoes on all four sides, each or, supported by four 2-story Doric columns; the building is a contributing property in the Mason Historic District, added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 17, 1974. National Register of Historic Places listings in Mason County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Mason County List of county courthouses in Texas Glasscock County Courthouse designed by Hosford. Mason County website Protection of Texas County Courthouses National Register listings for Mason County, Texas A Walking Tour of Mason's Courthouse Square Texas Escapes - Mason County Courthouse Nostalgiaville page on Mason, Texas
Lipan Apache people
Lipan Apache are Southern Athabaskan Native Americans whose traditional territory included present-day Texas, New Mexico and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas prior to the 17th century. Present-day Lipan live throughout the U. S. Southwest, in Texas, New Mexico and the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona, as well as with the Mescalero tribe on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico. On March 18, 2009, the State of Texas legislature passed resolutions HR 812 and SR 438 recognizing the Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas, they are members of the National Congress of American Indians as a state-recognized tribe under court of claims. The Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas is headquartered in Texas; the name Lipán is a Spanish adaption of their self-designation as Lépai-Ndé reflecting their migratory story. The Lipan are known as Querechos, Pelones, Nde buffalo hunters, Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Ipande, Ipandes, Lipanes, Lipanis, Lapane, Lapanas, Lipaw, Apaches Lipan, Apacheria Lipana, Lipanes Llaneros.
The first recorded name is Ypandes. By 1750, the Lipan Apache were driven from the Southern Great Plains by the Comanche and their allies, the so-called Norteños; the Lipan divided into the following groups or bands: Eastern Lipan Tséral tuétahä, Tséral tuétahäⁿ: merged with the Tche shä and Tsél tátli dshä, lived south of the Nueces River in Texas, about 1884 extinct. Tche shä, Tche shäⁿ: lived from San Antonio, south to the Rio Grande. Canneci N'de, Chawnechi Nde': made up of many bands and family groups that joined together after being forced into and escaping slavery. Lived from Louisiana to East Texas along the Red River. Sharing a kinship with the Kune Tsa Ndé. Kó'l kukä'ⁿ, Kó´l Kahäⁿ, Cuelcahen Ndé: lived on the Central Plains of Texas along the upper Colorado River and its tributaries southward to the Pecos River. Tchó'kanä, Tchóⁿkanäⁿ: merged with the Tcha shka-ózhäye, lived west of Fort Griffin, along the upper Colorado River towards the western side of the Rio Grande, about 1884 extinct.
Kóke metcheskó lähä, Kóke metcheskó lähäⁿ: lived south of San Antonio as far as northern Mexico. Tsél tátli dshä, Tsél tátli dshäⁿ: merged with Kóke metcheskó lähä, lived east of the Rio Grande along the lower Guadalupe River and Nueces River in Texas. Ndáwe qóhä, Ndáwe qóhäⁿ, Ndáwe ɣóhäⁿ: lived southeast of Fort Griffin, along the Colorado, San Saba and Llano Rivers towards the upper Nueces River and its tributaries the Frio River and Atascosa River in Texas. Shá i'a Nde, Shá'i'ánde, Nde'Shini, Shä-äⁿ: most northern group of the Lipan, sharing contacts with the Kiowa-Apache, they were forced to relocate 1884, when 300 people were moved to the Washita Agency in Oklahoma) Tsés tsembai: lived between the upper Brazos River and the Colorado River towards the west. Te'l kóndahä, Te'l kóndahäⁿ: lived west of Fort Griffin in Texas, along the upper Colorado River and its tributaries, were renowned and fierce warriors. Western Lipan Tu'tssn Ndé, Tùn Tsa Ndé, Tú sis Ndé, Kúne tsá, Konitsaii Ndé: a Natage band, they lived in the Gulf Coastal Plains towards both sides of the Rio Grande into Coahuila.
Their territory stretched deep into Coahuila, was called Konitsąąįį gokíyaa. Magoosh's band Tu' sis Nde would merge with the Mescalero as the "Tuintsunde". Tsésh ke shéndé, Tséc kecénde: lived former along the upper Brazos River moved down to live near Lavón, about 1884 extinct. Tindi Ndé, Tú'e Ndé, Tüzhä'ⁿ, Täzhä'ⁿ: lived along the upper Rio Grande, in southern New Mexico and in northern Mexico. Tcha shka-ózhäye, Tchaⁿshka ózhäyeⁿ: lived along the eastern shore of the Rio Pecos in Texas, were close allies of the Nadahéndé or Natage. Twid Ndé, Tú’é'diné Ndé: moved north and therefore away from the gulf area they lived between the Rio Grande and the Pecos River, near the juncture of the two. There they became much mixed with the Mescalero and merged as Tuetinini with the Mescalero; the Tú sis Ndé, who tried to remain nearer their old territory on the Gulf but who were driven over into Mexico, are sometimes quite critical of the Twid Ndé because of their apostasy and mixture and classify them as a Mescalero or part-Mescalero group.
Zit'is'ti Nde, Tséghát’ahén Nde, Tas steé be glui Ndé: wearing a red turban-like headdress like the neighboring Mescalero, lived in the deserts of northern Mexico. In addition the following bands were recorded: Bi'uhit Ndé, Buii gl un Ndé: lived in the deserts and high plains of New Mexico and northern Mexico. Ha'didla'Ndé, Goschish Ndé: lived from the lowe
San Saba County, Texas
San Saba County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in western Central Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,131, its county seat is San Saba. The county is named after the San Saba River. United Confederate Veterans organized a chapter known as the "William P. Rogers Camp" in San Saba County after the death in 1889 of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Rogers, a hero of the Battle of Corinth in Mississippi, was a native of Georgia, he did not live in San Saba, but his daughter, married one of Rogers' officers, George Harris, who moved there in 1880. A former county judge, Harris served as a commander of Rogers Camp, named for his father-in-law; the veterans' organization lasted until the early 1930s. During the 1880s, a vigilante mob, organized like a fraternal lodge, killed a number of San Saba County settlers. In 1896, the Texas Rangers began an investigation. Uluth M. Sanderson, editor of the San Saba County News, ran editorials against the mob; the mob was broken by the Ranger Captain Bill McDonald and District Attorney W.
C. Linder. Many of the mob executions committed throughout Texas in the time following the Civil War were racially motivated and committed by members of the Ku Klux Klan, which formed in Shelby County, Texas. Most of the people killed by vigilante mobs in the five years after the war were "suspected slave rebels and white abolitionists". Although the KKK in Texas was less active by the 1870s, lives continued to be taken each year. In 1885, for the state of Texas, "...an estimated twenty-two mobs lynched forty-three people, including nineteen blacks and twenty-four whites, one of whom was female". "The San Saba County lynchers, the deadliest of the lot, claimed some twenty-five victims between 1880 and 1896. Vigilante lynching died out in the 1890s, but other varieties of mobs continued." Early Native American inhabitants included Tonkawa, Caddo and Comanche. 1732 - Governor of Spanish Texas, Juan Antonio Bustillo y Ceballos, arrived on the feast day of sixth-century monk St. Sabbas, named the river Río de San Sabá de las Nueces.
1757 - Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission was established. 1788 - José Mares led an expedition from San Antonio to Santa Fe. 1828 - Twenty-eight people from Stephen F. Austin's group passed through. A portion of the county was included in Austin’s grants from the Mexican government. 1842 - The Fisher–Miller Land Grant contains most of land deeds. 1847 - The Meusebach–Comanche Treaty was signed in San Saba County. 1854 - The Harkey family settled at Wallace and Richland Creeks. The David Matsler family moved from Burnet County to Cherokee Creek. 1856 - San Saba County was organized from Bexar County and named for the San Saba River. San Saba was selected as the county seat. 1858 - The Seventh Texas Legislature confirmed the boundaries of the county. 1860 - The population was 913, which included 98 slaves. 1867 - The County was divided into 10 school districts. 1874 - Edmund E. Risen devoted his work to improving local nuts, in particular the pecan. San Saba billed itself as the Pecan Capital of the World.
1880s-1896 - Mob rule not only whipped and forced out numerous people in towns throughout Texas, but took 140 lives in Texas following the Civil War. San Saba County saw the worst of the violence, with 25 lives taken by lynching from 1880-1896. Mob killings in Texas in the years after the war were racially motivated crimes committed by members of the Ku Klux Klan against suspected slave rebels and white abolitionists. An investigation led to the Texas Rangers restoring order. 1882 - The San Saba Male and Female Academy was founded. 1889 - United Confederate Veterans William P. Rogers Camp No. 322 was established, named for Col. William P. Rogers. 1895 - West Texas Normal and Business College was organized by Francis Marion Behrns. 1896 - The parallel-wire suspension Beveridge Bridge was built across the San Saba River by Flinn, Moyer Bridge Co. 1911 - The Lometa-Eden branch of the Gulf and Santa Fe Railway was built through San Saba County. San Saba County brick and sandstone courthouse is erected.
Architect Chamberlin & Co. 1930 - Half of the county farms were tenant farmed. Uncle Billy Gibbons gave the Boy Scouts of America a 99-year lease to campgrounds along Brady Creek on his ranch. 1938 - San Saba River floods caused county-wide devastation. One-third of the town of San Saba was under water. 1940 - The Town of San Saba was incorporated. 1953-56 - Prolonged drought brought hardship to the county agricultural economy. 1960 - The San Saba County News merged with the San Saba Star. 1965 - A historical marker was erected to honor pioneer doctor Edward D. Doss. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,138 square miles, of which 1,135 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 16 Farm to Market Road 45 Mills County Lampasas County Burnet County Llano County Mason County McCulloch County Brown County As of the census of 2010, 6,131 people, 2,289 households, 1,616 families resided in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile.
The 2,951 housing units averaged 3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.50% White, 2.73% Black or African American, 1.07% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 10.52% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. About 21.6% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 2,289 households, 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were not families. About 27.5% of all households were made up of ind