John Harvard (statue)
John Harvard is a sculpture in bronze by Daniel Chester French in Harvard Yard, Massachusetts honoring John Harvard, whose deathbed bequest to the "schoale or Colledge" undertaken by the Massachusetts Bay Colony was so gratefully received that it was ordered "that the Colledge agreed upon to bee built at Cambridg shalbee called Harvard Colledge." There being nothing to indicate what John Harvard had looked like, French used a Harvard student collaterally descended from an early Harvard president as inspiration. The statue's inscription—JOHN HARVARD • FOUNDER • 1638—is the subject of an arch polemic, traditionally recited for visitors, questioning whether John Harvard justly merits the honorific founder. According to a Harvard official, the founding of the college was not the act of one but the work of many, John Harvard is therefore considered not the founder, but rather a founder, of the school, though the timeliness and generosity of his contribution have made him the most honored of these.
Tourists rub the toe of John Harvard's left shoe for luck, in the mistaken belief that doing so is a Harvard student tradition. The New York Times described the statue at its unveiling: The young clergyman is represented sitting, holding an open on his knee; the costume is the simple clerical garb of the seventeenth century... low shoes, silk hose, loose knee breeches, a tunic belted at the waist, while a long cloak, thrown back, falls in broad, picturesque folds. John Harvard's gift to the school was £780 and—perhaps more importantly—his 400-volume scholar's library: Partly under the chair, within easy reach, lie a pile of books; that he had died of tuberculosis, at about age thirty, was one of the few things known about John Harvard at the time of the statue's composition. Historian Laurel Ulrich suggests that John Harvard's general composition may have been inspired by Hendrik Goltzius' engraving of Clio, that the figure's collar, buttons and mustache may have been taken from a portrait of Plymouth Colony Governor Edward Winslow.
On June 27, 1883, at the Commencement Day dinner of Harvard alumni a letter was read from "a generous benefactor, General Samuel James Bridge, an adopted alumnus of the college": To the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Gentlemen, — I have the pleasure of offering you an ideal statue in bronze, representing your founder, the Rev. John Harvard, to be designed by Daniel C. French of Concord... I am assured that the same can be in place by June 1, 1884. Bridge specified an "ideal" statue because there was nothing to indicate what John Harvard had looked like. "In looking about for a type of the early comers to our shores," he wrote, "I chose a lineal descendant of them for my model in the general structure of the face. He has more of what I want than anybody I know." The commission weighed on French as the figure neared completion. "I am sometimes scared by the importance of this work. It is a subject that one might not have in a lifetime," wrote the sculptor—who thirty years would create the statue of Abraham Lincoln for the Lincoln Memorial—"and a failure would be inexcusable.
As a general thing, my model looks pretty well to me, but there are dark days."French's final model was ready the following May and realized in bronze by the Henry-Bonnard Bronze Company over the next several months. The cost was more than $20,000; the statue was installed—"looking wistfully into the western sky", said Harvard president Charles W. Eliot—at the western end of Memorial Hall on the triangular city block known as the Delta. At its October 15, 1884 unveiling Ellis gave "a singularly felicitous address, telling the story of the life of John Harvard, who passes so mysteriously across the page of our early history." In 1920 French wrote to Harvard president Abbott Lawrence Lowell desiring that the statue be relocated. That year the Lampoon imagined the frustrations of the metallic, immobile John Harvard surrounded by Harvard undergraduates— Great men arise / Before my eyes / From yonder pile I foundedWhile I must sit / Quite out of it / My jealousy unbounded —though twelve years David McCord portrayed the founder as satisfied in his stationarity: "Is that you, John Harvard?" / I said to his statue."Aye, that's me," said John, / "And after you're gone."
Sometime in the 1990s tour guides began encouraging visitors to emulate a "student tradition"—nonexistent—of rubbing the toe of John Harvard's left shoe for luck, so that while the statue as a whole is darkly weathered the toe now "gleams throbbingly bright, as though from an excruciating inflammation of the bronze." It is, traditional for seniors, as they process to gradu
Eliot House (Harvard College)
Eliot House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University. It is one of the seven original houses at the College. Opened in 1931, the house was named after Charles William Eliot, who served as president of the university for forty years. Before Harvard opted to use a lottery system to assign residences to upperclassmen, Eliot was known as a'prep' house, providing accommodation to the university's social elite, being known as "more Harvard than Harvard". Describing Eliot House in the late 1950s and early 1960s, author Alston Chase wrote, "lthough most Harvard houses in those days reflected the values of Boston Brahmin society... Eliot was more extreme"; the motto'Floreat Domus de Eliot' and'Domus' are traditional chants and greetings on Housing Day, when freshman find out their housing assignments. Some traditions of Eliot House are the charity event An Evening with Champions, the Eliot Boat Club, formal dinners such as the Charles Eliot Dinner, a strong sense of house pride, the annual Spring Fete.
Eliot's prominent belltower is featured including two screen shots in Old School. Eliot House is featured prominently in Love Story and The Social Network. Notable former residents of the house include: James Agee Leonard Bernstein Benazir Bhutto Ben Bradlee Archibald Cox John Harbison Rashida Jones Eduardo Saverin Ted Kaczynski Jack Lemmon Thomas Oliphant George Plimpton and Jay RockefellerIn 1951, roommates of Eliot House A-12 included Paul Matisse, grandson of French impressionist Henri Matisse, Stephen Joyce, grandson of novelist James Joyce, Sadruddin Aga Khan, lineal descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad; this caused master John Finley to brag to The New York Times, "where else would you find, in one room, the grandson of Matisse, the grandson of Joyce, the great-great-great-great-grandson of God?" Eliot House official site
Adams House (Harvard College)
Adams House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University, located between Harvard Square and the Charles River in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its name commemorates the services of the Adams family, including John Adams, the second president of the United States, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president; the residential halls of Adams House were private "Gold Coast" dormitories built from 1893-1902 to provide luxurious accommodation for rich Harvard undergraduates. They, along with the white clapboarded Apthorp House, one of the most distinguished Colonial residences of Cambridge—and now the faculty deans' residence—predate the rest of Harvard's Houses by several decades; when the House system was inaugurated in the 1930s, Old Russell was demolished and replaced with New Russell. A linking structure was added that contains the upper and lower common rooms, conservatory and dining areas. Although inaugurated in 1931, Adams was not completed until 1932; because of its centuries-long architectural history, Adams is considered Harvard's most historic undergraduate residence.
Given the House’s current appeal, Adams was not popular initially. Adams' location and its reputation for good food soon overcame any perceived architectural deficiencies. In fact, some of these same “deficiencies” turned out to be quite handy: students in the 1940s and 1950s wishing to avoid the College's strict nightly curfews and parietal rules came to value Adams' multiple and unguarded entries, unlike the central, monitored portals of the newer undergraduate residences. Today, of course, such stringent measures are long gone, the various buildings that comprise Adams House are considered some of the most interesting and architecturally significant structures in the University system. Adams is home to one of two Presidential Suite Memorials at Harvard. Franklin D. Roosevelt lived in Westmorly Court from 1900 to 1904; the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Foundation at Adams House has restored the 32nd president's Harvard quarters to their 1904 appearance, as the only memorial to FDR at Harvard, as well as a museum of early-20th-century Harvard student life.
The Suite is open by appointment to University members, members of the press, other accredited guests. Like all the other Houses at Harvard, Adams possesses its own coat of arms: Adams' is derived from an 1838 seal ring of John Quincy Adams. James Phinney Baxter, the House's first master, changed the background to gold to symbolize the Gold Coast, added four additional oak sprigs to the original one to represent the five buildings of Adams House, its official heraldic designation is: "Or, five sprigs of oak acorned in saltire, Gules." The House motto, "Alteri Seculo," is taken from Caecilius Statius, as quoted in Cicero's Tusculan Disputations: "He who plants trees labors for the benefit of future generations." Before Harvard College opted to use a system of randomization to assign living quarters to upperclassmen, students were allowed to list housing preferences, which led to the congregation of like-minded individuals at various Houses. At first, in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, Adams was the athletic house.
Under the aegis of Masters Bob and Jana Kiely Adams became an artistic and literary haven. Adams, under the Kielys, was the first Harvard House to become co-ed. Vestiges of that avant-garde reputation still remain today and promoted by the House's current masters and Sean Palfrey, embodied in many of the House's unique facilities, including the Pool Theater, a converted swimming pool. Adams boasts the Bow and Arrow Printing Press, located in the former house grill in B entry, the Adams Arts Space; the House has continued to uphold its most beloved traditions, including Halloween's Drag Night and Masquerade. House events, including Carpe Noctem, are coordinated weekly by the Adams House Committee. Effusive House spirit, architectural beauty, convenient location continue to make Adams a desirable r
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Elbridge Gerry was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814, he is known best for being the eponym of gerrymandering. Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British colonial policy in the 1760s, was active in the early stages of organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, he was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not include a Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural United States Congress, where he was involved in drafting and passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state liberties. Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.
He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France, treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts several times before winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the word "gerrymander". Chosen by Madison as his vice presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and a half into his term, he is the only signer of the Declaration of Independence, buried in Washington, D. C. Elbridge Gerry was born on July 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts, his father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating ships out of Marblehead, his mother, Elizabeth Gerry, was the daughter of a successful Boston merchant. Gerry's first name came from one of his mother's ancestors. Gerry's parents had eleven children in all. Of these, Elbridge was the third.
He was first educated by private tutors, entered Harvard College shortly before turning fourteen. After receiving a B. A. in 1762 and an M. A. in 1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest Massachusetts merchants, with trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, along the North American coast. Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the local militia. Gerry was from an early time a vocal opponent of Parliamentary efforts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War ended in 1763. In 1770 he sat on a Marblehead committee that sought to enforce importation bans on taxed British goods, he communicated with other Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, others. In May 1772 he won election to the General Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. There he worked with Samuel Adams to advance colonial opposition to Parliamentary colonial policies.
He was responsible for establishing Marblehead's committee of correspondence, one of the first to be set up after that of Boston. However, an incident of mob action prompted him to resign from the committee the next year. Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island. Gerry reentered politics after the Boston Port Act closed that city's port in 1774, Marblehead became a port to which relief supplies from other colonies could be delivered; as one of the town's leading merchants and Patriots, Gerry played a major role in ensuring the storage and delivery of supplies from Marblehead to Boston, interrupting those activities only to care for his dying father. He was elected as a representative to the First Continental Congress in September 1774, but refused, still grieving the loss of his father. Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted itself as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress after Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the body in October 1774.
He was assigned to its committee of safety, responsible for assuring that the province's limited supplies of weapons and gunpowder remained out of British Army hands. His actions were responsible for the storage of weapons and ammunition in Concord. During the Siege of Boston that followed, Gerry continued to take a leading role in supplying the nascent Continental Army, something he would continue to do as the war progressed, he leveraged business contacts in France and Spain to acquire not just munitions, but supplies of all types, was involved in the transfer of financial subsidies from Spain to Congress. He sent ships to ports all along the American coast, dabbled in financing privateering operations. Unlike some merchants, there is no evidence that Gerry profiteered from this activity (he spoke out against it, in favor
Cabot House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University. Cabot House derives from the merger in 1970 of Radcliffe College's South and East House, which took the name South House, until the name was changed and the House reincorporated in 1984 to honor Harvard benefactors Thomas Cabot and Virginia Cabot; the house is composed of six buildings surrounding Radcliffe Quadrangle. All six of these structures were women-only Radcliffe College dormitories until they were integrated in 1970. Along with Currier House and Pforzheimer House, Cabot is part of the Radcliffe Quad; the current Faculty Deans of Cabot House are his wife Stephanie Khurana. Prior Masters include then-Radcliffe President Mary Bunting and New Republic publisher Martin Peretz. In 1970, Harvard and Radcliffe began to experiment with co-educational housing. 150 Harvard students from the River Houses switched places with 150 Radcliffe students from the Quadrangle. Ten years the experiment was taken to its logical conclusion, as the last all-male dorm, Straus Hall in Harvard Yard, went co-ed.
Today, all Harvard dormitories, including the three Houses of the Quadrangle, house both men and women. In 1961 Radcliffe College began to organize the brick buildings of the Radcliffe Quad into residential colleges in the style of Harvard; these Houses were styled North and East, in reference to the cardinal directions of the building clusters. Cabot House was formed in 1970 when the original South House were merged. Anna Maria Abernathy held the title of Head of House, she and her husband Fred served as Cabot’s first House Masters. In 1971, Mary Bunting, President of Radcliffe, began her tenure as House Master. Bertram Hall, Radcliffe’s first permanent dormitory, was built in 1901 and donated by Mrs. David Pulsifer Kimball in memory of her son. In 1906, Eliot Hall donated by Mrs. Kimball, was built in honor of Grace Hopkinson Eliot, wife of Harvard President Charles W. Eliot. Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr, designed both Eliot Halls. Barnard Hall was named for Augusta Barnard and her husband.
Briggs Hall, named for Radcliffe’s second president, LeBaron Russell Briggs, was constructed in 1923, Cabot Hall, named in honor of Ella Lyman Cabot, member of the Radcliffe Governing Board from 1902 to 1934, followed in 1937. The sixth building, Whitman Hall, was completed in 1911 and named for Sarah Wyman Whitman, the creator of two of the stained glass windows in Memorial Hall and a member of the Radcliffe Governing Board for several years; the Faculty Deans’ residence is located at 107 Walker Street. A residential wood-frame house at 103 Walker Street is the Senior Tutor’s residence. While the outside of the brick dormitories has remained unchanged, renovations to the House 19 years ago and to the dining area in the summer of 2002 provide new facilities and newly configured suites more in line with the "vertical hallway" arrangements of the River dormitories; the Cabot House shield was adopted when South House became Cabot House, in 1984. The shield is the coat of arms used by the Boston Brahmin Cabots after whom the House is named, the shield is not their heraldic achievement.
Cabotoix have a unique affection for its red fish in particular. They are the inspiration for the common House cheer, "Go Fish!"—a play on the popular card game. Cabotoix feature their coat of arms on various apparel, including polo shirts, rugby shirts, hooded sweatshirts; the standard coloration is its inverse. The House Office has an antique copy of the Cabot Shield, hanging in the dining hall before the renovations. Oddly, this shield's colors are drastically different, although the shield still features the same general design and motto: the field is black and the perch are silver, the crest is a white scallop shell. While the origin of this scheme is unknown, hese colors are identical to those of Trumbull College, Cabot's sister college at Yale; the standard arms are described heraldically as follows: Or, three chabots, gules. Crest: an escallop, or; the Cabot family motto is'Semper Cor,' meaning'Always Heart'. The House colors and gold, are derived from the House shield. Cabot's Dining Hall is different from those at the River.
Unlike other House Dining Halls, Cabot's is not enormous, paneled in mahogany and decorated with oil paintings, marble busts, medieval tapestries. The dining hall—completed during the 1987 renovations of the Quad, replacing what is now the JCR as the House's cafeteria—is an intimate and bright space. Located beneath the Moors Hall terrace, the three-tiered room is painted white, its floors carpeted; the servery is bright and airy, with knotty pine walls and earthenware tile floors. It is one of the most renovated House serveries, completed in 2002. More than serving as the House cafeteria, the Dining Hall is the center of House activity. Aside from being the site of hours-long, social dinners, each evening the Dining Hall fills with students who work together on problem sets and projects for vario
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups