Massachusetts Hall (Harvard University)

Massachusetts Hall is the oldest surviving building at Harvard College, the first institution of higher learning in the British colonies in America, second oldest academic building in the United States after the Wren Building at the College of William & Mary. As such, it possesses great significance not only in the history of American education but in the story of the developing English Colonies of the 18th century. Massachusetts Hall was designed by Harvard Presidents John Leverett and his successor Benjamin Wadsworth, it was erected between 1720 in Harvard Yard. It was a dormitory containing 32 chambers and 64 small private studies for the 64 students it was designed to house. During the siege of Boston, 640 American soldiers took quarters in the hall. Much of the interior woodwork and hardware, including brass doorknobs, disappeared at this time. While designed as a residence for students, the building has served many purposes through the years. After Thomas Hollis donated a quadrant and a 24-foot telescope in 1722, for example, the building housed an informal observatory.

The President of the University, Provost and Vice Presidents have offices that occupy the first two floors and half of the third. Freshmen reside in the fourth floor. Massachusetts Hall, as Harvard's oldest extant dormitory, has housed many influential people. Founding fathers who lived in Massachusetts Hall include John Adams, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Elbridge Gerry, James Otis. Members of the Wigglesworth, Thayer and Lowell families, whose names now grace other dormitories lived in Massachusetts Hall. More recent notable residents of Massachusetts Hall include Alan Jay Lerner, Elliot Richardson, John Harbison, Jeff Schaffer. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts National Park Service, Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings - Massachusetts Hall Harvard Virtual Tour - Massachusetts Hall Harvard Crimson - For Sale by Owner: Historic Colonial

Bharya (1962 film)

Bharya is a 1962 Malayalam language film starring Sathyan and Ragini in the lead roles. It was directed by Kunchacko based on a novel with the same title by Kanam EJ; the novel was based on the controversial Thiruvalla Ammalu murder case. Ponkunnam Varkey wrote the dialogue, which became a cult favourite among family audiences, was subsequently released along with the soundtrack album; this was for the first time in Kerala and second time in South India that the dialogue was released as a separate gramophone record. The film was a hit at the box office, it is one of the best movies. This movie's song. All lyrics are written by Vayalar Ramavarma. Bharya on IMDb Bharya


In archaeology a posthole or post-hole is a cut feature used to hold a surface timber or stone. They are much deeper than they are wide although truncation may not make this apparent. Although the remains of the timber may survive most postholes are recognisable as circular patches of darker earth when viewed in plan. Archaeologists can use their presence to plot the layout of former structures as the holes may define its corners and sides. Construction using postholes is known as post in ground construction. Although a common structure, one of the most basic found in archaeology, correct interpretation relies on being able to tell the subtle differences that distinguish the parts of the posthole; the components of an archaeological posthole are listed in order of creation and, in ideal circumstances, the reverse order of their excavation. Posthole cutThe cut, it is cut from the ground surface level at time of construction. The sides of the hole may be distorted by pressure on the post, or disturbance.

Only careful excavation will be able to distinguish between the original cut profile and any distortion. The cut needs to be distinguished from the fill in any detailed stratigraphic analysis, in the same way that any pit fill has to post-date the cutting of the pit if by minutes. Dug up soilSoil excavated from the hole sitting in a pile next to the hole ready for backfilling. Ideal sequence will be that the dug up soil will have material dug through first at the bottom of the pile, with material from deeper down on top of the pile. In optimal situations, the location of dug up soil can be detected adjacent to filled postholes where subsoil differs markedly from the surface material. PostNormally a round or squared timber placed in the hole. Sometimes a stone may be set in the hole below the post to prevent the post sinking in soft ground or sticks and stones to keep the post properly aligned until it is filled. Many cultures charred their posts to slow down rate of decay in situ; this is sometimes mistaken for burning in situ.

Posts may, in modern times, be soaked in creosote or other decay inhibitors or termite preventatives. The post may have decayed, or been removed. If decayed there should be a dark organic stain that matches the original dimensions and extent of the post. Posthole fill / Post packingThe dug up soil goes back in the hole once the post is in place. Sometimes structural needs require that the hole is packed with rocks or smaller sticks to keep the post in desired position. Ideally dug out material returns to the pit in its original stratigraphic order but mixing occurs so that ground layers and posthole layers are distinguishable. Logically not all of the contents of the hole will fit back once the post is emplaced, so remaining soil may be left in a pile or scattered. Postpipe or post mouldThe decayed buried section of the post; some archaeologists prefer pipe where it is predominantly still organic material and mould where this has been replaced by sediment. Post voidWhere; this may be uncovered as a cavity, although this is rare and a combination of slumping of posthole fill and inwashed deposits fill the position of the post, termed post mould.

PostholeThis is the generic term for all of the archaeological evidence contained within the cut when seen in plan view, including any artefacts that have been introduced during the cutting and filling sequence. To excavate a posthole a series of steps must be taken. First, the postholes are sprayed with water to prevent them from drying out and to make the edges show up more clearly; the postholes are measured to see where the widest point is. One half of the post hole and part of the surrounding soil is dug out in a rectangular shape until the bottom of the post hole is visible on the wall of the intact half; this wall is the profile wall of the post hole. The post hole is measured of its width and height and the profile wall is drawn, with important features like rocks or bones being marked. Postholes are different from stake holes in that the cut is dug for the post rather than created by the driving in of the stake; this means. This material is post packing and is one of the main ways of differentiating postholes from stake holes in plan.

The shape and structure of the contexts within a posthole can shed light on past activity. If a post was purposely removed the action of rocking it back and forth leaves tell-tale evidence in the profile of the posthole which archaeologists can recognise. A post may have rotted in place leaving a postpipe or still be surviving. Archaeologists can use their presence to plot the layout of former structures as the holes may define its corners and sides. Postholes may be dug on alignments of backfilled ditches where boundaries have been upgraded from simple ditch enclosures into structural ones; the relative frequency of postholes as a feature in most eras combined with a lack of good information on the phasing of postholes, which occurs onsite due to horizontal truncation or a failure to spot postholes at the level they were cut from, can lead to a clutter of postholes that invites imaginative interpretations. The human mind seems quite capable of creating patterns and the temptation to see structures that are not there or tenuous at best is quite strong.

It is considered good practice that supporting evidence from multiple sources on site like the perceived structures alignments with other features onsite should be taken into account before