Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history. It is one of the communities and language areas of Belgium, the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although Brussels itself has an independent regional government, in historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made two political entities, the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region. These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a cultural mandate, covers Brussels. Flanders has figured prominently in European history, as a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution, Flanders is generally flat, and has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, and borders the Netherlands to the north and east, the Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own, Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue, the political subdivisions of Belgium, the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community. The first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels, the political institutions that govern both subdivisions, the operative body Flemish Government and the legislative organ Flemish Parliament.
The two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders, a feudal territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic. Until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of France, one of the regions conquered by the French in Flanders, namely French Flanders in the Nord department. French Flanders can be divided into two regions, Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking already in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century, the city of Lille identifies itself as Flemish, and this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The region conquered by the Dutch Republic in Flanders, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland, the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the part of the Low Countries
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles
The term is used in a broader sense to describe egregious instances of theft and embezzlement, such as the plundering of private or public assets by governments. The proceeds of all these activities can be described as booty, plunder, looting by a victorious army during war has been common practice throughout recorded history. For foot soldiers, it was viewed as a way to supplement their meagre income and was part of the celebration of victory. To rob them of their wealth, in other pre-modern societies, objects made of precious metals were the preferred target of war looting, largely because of their easy portability. In many cases looting was an opportunity to obtain treasures that otherwise would not have been obtainable, since the 18th century, works of art have increasingly become a popular target. In the 1930s and even more so during World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in large scale and organized looting of art, combined with poor military discipline, has occasionally been an armys downfall.
In other cases, for example the Wahhabi sack of Karbala, not all looters in wartime are conquerors, the looting of Vistula Land by its retreating defenders in 1915 was among the factors sapping the loyalty of Poland in World War I. Local civilians can take advantage of a breakdown of order to loot public and private property, the novel War and Peace describes widespread looting by Moscows citizens before Napoleons troops enter the town, and looting by French troops elsewhere. Looting can refer to antiquities formerly removed from countries by outsiders, other examples include the obelisks of Pharaoh Amenhotep II, in the, Pharaoh Ptolemy IX. In the aftermath of the Second World War Soviet forces systematically plundered the Soviet occupation zone of Germany and they sent valuable industrial equipment and whole factories to the Soviet Union. Especially during natural disasters, some find themselves forced to take what is not theirs in order to survive. How to respond to this, and where the line between unnecessary looting and necessary scavenging lies, is often a dilemma for governments, in other cases, looting may be tolerated or even encouraged by governments for political or other reasons.
The Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 explicitly prohibits the looting of property during wartime. The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 obliges military forces not only to avoid destruction of enemy property, theoretically, to prevent such looting, unclaimed property is moved to the custody of the Custodian of Enemy Property, to be handled until the return to its owner. Around the same time of the Hyksos invasion and occupation of Egypt, in Genesis 15,14, the despoliation is an act of justifiable vengeance upon the oppressors of Israel. Yet in Exodus, God uses the plagues as an act of mercy to bring a knowledge of himself to Israel, the Egyptians, and to the ends of the earth. See Hyksos Iconoclasm and Genesis 13,2 and Genesis 15,14 and Exodus 12,36 Following the death of Valentinian III in 455, in 870 AD, the Byzantine city of Melite was captured by the Aghlabids under Sawāda Ibn Muḥammad. The city was destroyed, its churches looted and its population massacred, marble from the citys churches was used to build the castle of Sousse
Het Gooi is the area around Hilversum, in the centre of the Netherlands. It is a hilly area characterised by its green landscape, its historical charm, the wealth of its inhabitants. Het Gooi is known in the Netherlands as the home of the rich, the name Gooi is related to gouw, the Dutch word for gau, being an old name for a region. Het Gooi is conventionally referred to in Dutch as het Gooi or t Gooi and it is sometimes referred to as Gooiland. In English, the area is referred to as Het Gooi or the Gooi area. Het Gooi is the part of the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area. Gooi rhymes roughly with the English name Roy, the g is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative, like the ch in loch. Het Gooi is the area around Hilversum in the corner of the province of North Holland. It is located east of Amsterdam and north of Utrecht, between Amersfoort and Amsterdam, the boundaries are not clearly demarcated. It is generally the area between a dry ditch called the Gooyergracht, dug in 1356 to demarcate the border with the province of Utrecht, Het Gooi refers traditionally to the part of this area that lies in the province of North Holland.
Often the term is used to refer just to the higher, the towns in the area include, Hilversum Gooise Meren Huizen Laren Blaricum To the north of Het Gooi there is a body of water called Lake Gooi, a southern extension of the IJsselmeer. An area called the Vechtstreek lies to the west of Het Gooi, Eemland in the province of Utrecht lies to the east. The towns of Weesp and Eemnes are thought to be in Het Gooi. Their inclusion would mean that the region extends in the west to the Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal, however and geographically these towns are not really part of Het Gooi. Weesp is part of the Vechtstreek and Eemnes part of Eemland, to the west and southwest there are two lake systems called the Loosdrecht Lakes and the Ankeveen Lakes. On 1 January 2002 the towns in the area of lake systems was organised into a municipality called Wijdemeren. This municipality includes Ankeveen, Breukeleveen, s-Graveland, Muyeveld, Nederhorst den Berg, some of this area is fenland. Since this area has considered to be part of Het Gooi
Naarden is a city and former municipality in the Gooi region in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands. It has been part of the new municipality of Gooise Meren since 2016, Naarden was granted its city rights in 1300 and developed into a fortified garrison town with a textile industry. Naarden is an example of a fort, complete with fortified walls. The moat and walls have been restored, jan Amos Komensky was buried in the city, his mausoleum can be visited. Despite its earlier importance, Naardens population was surpassed by Hilversum in the 18th century, the citys distinctive shape made it a rallying point for Allied bombers returning to England after raids on Germany. Naarden was a municipality until 2015. On 1 January 2016, the municipality of Naarden merged with Muiden, the city of Naarden is located in the municipality of Gooise Meren in the west of the Netherlands. It is situated in the Gooi region in the southeast of the province of North Holland, the company Stork B. V. has its head office in Naarden.
Naarden is the home of the Netherlands Fortress Museum, Naarden hosts the bi-annual Naarden Photo Festival and, on Good Friday, a performance of Bachs St. Matthew Passion in the local church, which is called the Great Church or St. Vitus Church. The Great Church is situated on the Markstraat and dates from the 15th century, prior to the Protestant Reformation it was named for St Vitus. It is one of the oldest surviving churches in The Netherlands, having had the fortune to survive the Spanish invasion of 1572. The church has wooden vaults that are painted with scenes from the Old. These were hidden for years and were only rediscovered in a recent restoration. The church is the venue for a number of activities such as organ music nights. The Spanish House, situated at Turfpoortstraat 27, was originally a building converted to house migrants. In 1572 Spanish troops conducted a massacre of some 700 inhabitants who had gathered to hear a peace proposal, the Spanish fired on the assembled citizens, and went on to set fire to the town. A plaque above the lintel of the door and below the eaves commemorates the massacre, in 1615, after the population had reestablished itself, they built the city hall on the site.
Part of the building was given over to De Waag, the municipal office entrusted with the verification of weights, the building served a French garrison as a bakery, turning out over 1000 loaves per day
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity. The FBI defines mass murder as murdering four or more persons during an event with no cooling-off period between the murders, a mass murder typically occurs in a single location where one or more people kill several others. Many acts of mass murder end with the perpetrator dying by suicide or suicide by cop, a mass murder may be committed by individuals or organizations whereas a spree killing is committed by one or two individuals. Mass murder is the hypernym of genocide, which requires additional criteria, some of these mass murders have been found to be genocides and others to be crimes against humanity, but often such crimes have led to few or no convictions of any type. The concept of state-sponsored mass murder covers a range of potential killings and it is defined as the intentional and indiscriminate murder of a large number of people by government agents.
Examples are shooting of unarmed protesters, lobbing of grenades into prison cells, actions in which the state caused the death of large numbers of people, which political scientist R. J. Many terrorist groups in recent times have used the tactic of killing many victims to fulfill their political aims, certain cults, especially religious cults, have committed a number of mass killings and mass murder-suicides. Mass murderers may fall into any of a number of categories, including killers of family, of coworkers, of students, a notable motivation for mass murder is revenge, but other motivations are possible, including the need for attention or fame. Average response time by law enforcement to a shooting is typically much longer than the time the shooter is engaged in killing. In many instances, immediate action by victims, bystanders, or law enforcement officers has saved lives, commentators have pointed out that there are a wide variety of ways that homicides with more than several victims might be classified.
Such incidents can be, and have been even in recent decades, classified many different ways including as a shooting, as a school shooting, as mass murder. As a crime involving a rifle, as a case of a mentally ill person committing acts of violence. How such rarely occurring incidents of homicide are classified tends to change significantly with time and it was understood that the key feature of cases was a high body count. Place, Did the killings occur in a location, or in a variety of places. Method, How were the victims killed, in the late decades of the 20th century and early years of the 2000s, the most popular classifications moved to include method and place. Crimes against humanity List of mass murderers List of rampage killers Mass grave Massacre School shooting Suicide attack Terrorism War crime What makes a Mass Killer. Mass Murder, A Small Persons Way to Immortality Mass shootings interactive map Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence The real causes of mass murder by James Alan Fox
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Zutphen is a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. It lies some 30 km north-east of Arnhem, on the Eastern bank of the river IJssel at the point where it is joined by the Berkel, the name Zutphen appears to mean zuid-veen, or in English, south-fen. In 2005, the municipality of Zutphen was merged with the municipality of Warnsveld, the municipality had a population of 47,052 in 2014. About 300 AD a Germanic settlement was the first permanent town on a complex of low river dunes, whereas many such settlements were abandoned in the early Middle Ages, Zutphen on its strategic confluence of IJssel and Berkel stayed. After the incorporation of the IJssel lands in Charlemagnes Francia, Zutphen became a centre of governance under a count. The Normans raided and ravaged it in 882, afterwards a circular fortress was built to protect the budding town against Viking attacks. In the eleventh century Zutphen was a residence for a number of years, a pfalz was built, together with a large chapter church.
The counts of Zutphen acquired a lot of power, until the line of counts became extinct in the twelfth century. After the death of her father and her brother, the settlement received town rights between 1191 and 1196, making it one of the oldest towns in the country. This allowed it to govern and have a judicial court. Only Utrecht, and Deventer preceded it in receiving town rights, Zutphen, in turn, became the mother town of several other towns in Guelders, such as Arnhem, Doesburg, Harderwijk and Emmerich. It became part of the Hanseatic League, a group of towns with great wealth, during the 12th century coins were minted in Zutphen by the Counts of Guelders and Zutphen, Henry I and Otto I. Although the city had minting rights for a few centuries this was actively used during four periods, 1478-1480, 1582-1583, 1604–1605. The largest and oldest church of the city is the St. Walburgis church, the present Gothic building contains monuments of the former counts of Zutphen, a fourteenth-century candelabrum, an elaborate copper font, and a monument to the Van Heeckeren family.
The chapter-house of library contains a library which includes some valuable manuscripts. It is considered one of only 5 remaining medieval libraries in Europe and its fortifications were dismantled in 1874. In World War II the town was bombed several times by the allied forces because the bridge over the IJssel was vital to support the German troops at Arnhem after the Operation Market Garden, after two weeks of battle the town was liberated on 14 April 1945. After the war a renovation program started, the city center includes many monumental buildings dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries, and some even date back to the 13th century such as a retirement home area
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state. It is usually undertaken in response to perceived disobedient or morally wrong behavior, in the 1st century AD, Germanicus engaged in punitive expeditions against the Germanic tribes as repercussion for the Roman Legions that were destroyed in the Battle of Teutonburg Forest. In the 13th century, Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, often engaged punitive expeditions, some notable examples include his invasion of Khwarazim and his campaigns against the Western Xia kingdom. Also in the 13th century, Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, the ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and tattooed a Chinese messenger, Meng Qi, on his face. A punitive expedition sent by Kublai Khan arrived off the coast of Java in 1293, Jayakatwang, a rebel from Kediri, had killed Kertanagara by that time. The Mongols allied with Raden Wijaya of Majapahit against Jayakatwang and, once the Singhasari kingdom was destroyed, Wijaya turned against the Mongols and forced them to withdraw in confusion.
In 1599 the Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate ordered his nephew Vicente de Zaldívar to engage in an expedition against the Keres natives of Acoma Pueblo. When the Spanish arrived, they fought a battle with the Keres leaving about 800 men and children dead. During the First Anglo-Powhatan War, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, lord de la Warr waged a punitive campaign to subdue the Powhatan after they had killed the colony’s council president, John Ratcliffe. His tactics against the Indians proved effective and included raiding their villages, burning their homes, torching their cornfields and crops, in the summer of 1614, Ottomans led by Damat Halil Pasha engaged a successful punitive expedition against Sefer Dāyl, an insurgent in Tripoli. From 1838 to 1842 ships of the United States Exploring Expedition engaged in three expeditions against Pacific islanders. The 1842 Ivory Coast Expedition was led by Matthew C. Perry against the Bereby people of West Africa after two attacks on American merchant ships.
The Battle of Kabul in 1842 was undertaken by the British against the Afghans following their disastrous retreat from Kabul in which 16,000 people were killed, the French Campaign against Korea in 1866, a response to the earlier execution by Korea of French priests proselytizing in Korea. The 1867 Formosa Expedition, a punitive operation of the United States. The United States expedition to Korea in 1871, in retaliation to the General Sherman incident, the 1874 Japanese expedition against Formosa. Benin Expedition of 1897 British punitive action that led to the annexation of the Kingdom of Benin, the New York Times reported on January 13,1897 that a punitive expedition would be formed to punish the murderers of the Benin City expedition. The Pancho Villa Expedition from 1916 to 1917, led by General John J. Pershing, was an operation in retaliation against Pancho Villas incursion into United States, the 2016 Indo-Pakistani military confrontation began with punitive surgical strikes carried out by India.
Letter of marque and reprisal Gordon, japans Abortive Colonial Venture in Taiwan,1874
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence
William the Silent
He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau, a wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish, declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard in Delft in 1584. William was born on 24 April 1533 at Dillenburg castle in the County of Nassau-Dillenburg and he was the eldest son of William, Count of Nassau by his second wife Juliana of Stolberg-Werningerode. Williams father had one surviving daughter by his previous marriage, and his parents had twelve children together, of whom William was the eldest, he had four younger brothers and seven younger sisters. The family was devout and William was raised a Lutheran. In 1544, Williams agnatic first cousin, René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, in his testament, René of Chalon named William the heir to all his estates and titles, including that of Prince of Orange, on the condition that he receive a Roman Catholic education.
Williams father acquiesced to this condition on behalf of his 11-year-old son, besides the principality of Orange and significant lands in Germany, William inherited vast estates in the Low Countries from his cousin. Because of his age, Emperor Charles V, who was the overlord of most of these estates. In Brussels, he was taught foreign languages and received a military and diplomatic education under the direction of Champagney, on 6 July 1551, William married Anna van Egmond en Buren and heiress of Maximiliaan van Egmond, an important Dutch nobleman. Annas father had died in 1548, and therefore William became Lord of Egmond, the marriage was a happy one and produced three children, one of whom died in infancy. Anna died on 24 March 1558, leaving William much grieved, being a ward of Charles V and having received his education under the tutelage of the Emperors sister, William came under the particular attention of the imperial family, and became a favorite. He was appointed captain in the cavalry in 1551 and received rapid promotion thereafter and this was in 1555, when Charles V sent him to Bayonne with an army to take the city in a siege from the French.
William was made a member of the Raad van State, in 1559, Phillip appointed William stadtholder of the provinces of Holland and Utrecht, thereby greatly increasing his political power. A stadtholdership over Franche-Comté followed in 1561, William was dissatisfied with the increasing persecution of Protestants in the Netherlands. Brought up as a Lutheran and a Catholic, William was very religious but was still a proponent of freedom of religion for all people, the opposition wished to see an end to the presence of Spanish troops. On 25 August 1561, William of Orange married for the second time, in early 1565, a large group of lesser noblemen, including Williams younger brother Louis, formed the Confederacy of Noblemen. On 5 April, they offered a petition to Margaret of Parma, from August to October 1566, a wave of iconoclasm spread through the Low Countries
A Spanish Fury was a vindictive, rampant bloody pillaging of cities in the Low Countries by mutinous Spanish troops, that occurred in the years 1583–1589 during the Dutch Revolt. The most famous Spanish Fury was the sack of Antwerp in 1576, sometimes this singular expression refers to the entire mutinous campaign of 1576, to the city punishments of 1572. Several requests for relaxation of religious coercion in the Low Countries, the summer brought renewed violent outbursts of iconoclasm, in which Beeldenstorm Calvinists defaced statues and decorations of Catholic monasteries and churches. The Battle of Oosterweel in March 1567 was the first Spanish military response to the riots. The Spanish Kings captain-general Alba, the Iron Duke, with 10,000 men made the first military use of the Spanish Road, upon their meeting, judging the dukes inflexibility on extreme positions, the duchess resigned. He replaced her as governor-general of the Seventeen Provinces, and unlawfully instituted the Council of Troubles in September of that same year.
This court-martial style tribunal often sentenced political opponents and religious Reformists to death, the Sea Beggars, having been driven out of English harbours by Elizabeth I, captured Brielle on 1 April 1572. This foothold triggered anti-royalist rebellion in the Counties of Zeeland and of Holland, looting a conquered town was not uncommon, and Governor Alba took it a step further by intentionally setting horrifying examples against sympathy for the rebels. The Spanish Fury at Mechelen was the earliest event that became known by this term, after Oranges lieutenant Bernard of Merode had taken the city and controlled Mechelen for a month, he and his men left because a much stronger Spanish force was coming. Alva reported to King Philip II that no nail was left in the wall, the Army of Flanders that had sacked Mechelen, reconquered Diest and Roermond, marched on to Guelders and in November easily regained Zutphen, which had been taken for Orange in June. Don Fadrique ordered his men to kill the garrison and allowed them to murder and plunder the city, after the Spanish Fury at Zutphen, the counties to its north capitulated.
By December at Naarden in Holland, the inhabitants negotiated their surrender but the city was sacked and burnt down, the notorious Council of Blood ordered no more executions, and was already in June 1574 officially abolished by Requesens but remained in session until the Summer of 1576. While some Spanish troops held out at one of the gates, though Montesdoca was offered safety during negotiations, he was arrested in the heat of this dispute. He was liberated while soldiery arriving from Dalem and those of Wyck captured the city, as few Spanish lives had been lost, the Germans were excused but had to make camp in neighbouring villages. The Spanish Fury of October 1576 refers to the subsequent punishment of the city with a pillaging bloodbath, upon Requesens death in March 1576, the Spanish king appointed his own half-brother Don Juan as Governor-General of the Netherlands but hesitated several months before notifying him. Even then, Don Juan did not hurry to proceed to Netherlands, the abandoned officers and ordinary soldiers not being paid, started a mutinous looting campaign with the style of conduct that had been demonstrated earlier.
The Spanish Fury at Aalst, a city that had always been loyal, rampant soldiers sacked about 170 places in the County of Brabant. The Spanish Fury at Antwerp, the most famous event by this name, known as the Sack of Antwerp, occurred when the coming from Aalst