The East–West Schism called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which had lasted until the 11th century. The Schism was the culmination of theological and political differences between the Christian East and West which had developed over the preceding centuries. A succession of ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes between the Greek East and Latin West pre-dated the formal rupture that occurred in 1054. Prominent among these were the issues of the procession of the Holy Spirit, whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist, the Bishop of Rome's claim to universal jurisdiction, the place of the See of Constantinople in relation to the Pentarchy. In 1053, the first step was taken in the process which led to formal schism: the Greek churches in southern Italy were forced either to close or to conform to Latin practices. In retaliation, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius ordered the closure of all Latin churches in Constantinople.
In 1054, the papal legate sent by Leo IX travelled to Constantinople for purposes that included refusing to Cerularius the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" and insisting that he recognize the Pope's claim to be the head of all the churches. The main purpose of the papal legation was to seek help from the Byzantine Emperor in view of the Norman conquest of southern Italy and to deal with recent attacks by Leo of Ohrid against the use of unleavened bread and other Western customs, attacks that had the support of Cerularius. Historian Axel Bayer says the legation was sent in response to two letters, one from the Emperor seeking assistance in arranging a common military campaign by the eastern and western empires against the Normans, the other from Cerularius. On the refusal of Cerularius to accept the demand, the leader of the legation, Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, O. S. B. Excommunicated him, in return Cerularius excommunicated Humbert and the other legates; this was only the first act in a centuries-long process that became a complete schism.
The validity of the Western legates' act is doubtful, since Pope Leo had died and Cerularius' excommunication applied only to the legates personally. Still, the Church split along doctrinal, linguistic and geographical lines, the fundamental breach has never been healed, with each side sometimes accusing the other of having fallen into heresy and of having initiated the division; the Latin led Crusades, the Massacre of the Latins in 1182, the West's retaliation in the Sacking of Thessalonica in 1185, the capture and pillaging of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the imposition of Latin patriarchs made reconciliation more difficult. Establishing Latin hierarchies in the Crusader states meant that there were two rival claimants to each of the patriarchal sees of Antioch and Jerusalem, making the existence of schism clear. Several attempts at reconciliation did not bear fruit. In 1965, Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Athenagoras I nullified the anathemas of 1054, although this nullification of measures taken against a few individuals was a goodwill gesture and did not constitute any sort of reunion.
Contacts between the two sides continue: every year a delegation from each joins in the other's celebration of its patronal feast, Saints Peter and Paul for Rome and Saint Andrew for Constantinople, there have been a number of visits by the head of each to the other. The efforts of the Ecumenical Patriarchs towards reconciliation with the Catholic Church have been the target of sharp criticism from some fellow Orthodox; the schism between the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Christians resulted from a variety of political and theological factors which transpired over centuries. Historians regard the mutual excommunications of 1054 as the terminal event, it is difficult to agree on an exact date for the event. It may have started as early as the Quartodeciman controversy at the time of Victor of Rome. Orthodox apologists point to this incident as an example of claims by Rome to papal primacy and its rejection by Eastern Churches. Sporadic schisms in the common unions took place under Pope Damasus I in the 5th centuries.
Disputes about theological and other questions led to schisms between the Churches in Rome and Constantinople for 37 years from 482 to 519. Most sources agree that the separation between East and West is evident by the Photian schism for 4 years from 863–867. Apart from Rome in the West, "many major Churches of the East claim to have been founded by the apostles: Antioch by Peter and Paul, Alexandria by Mark, Constantinople by Andrew, Cyprus by Barnabas, Ethiopia by Matthew, India by Thomas, Edessa in eastern Syria by Thaddeus, Armenia by Bartholomew, Georgia by Simon the Zealot." Famous are the seven churches of Asia, mentioned in the opening chapters of the Book of Revelation. While the church at Rome claimed a special authority over the other churches, the extant documents of that era yield "no clear-cut claims to, or recognition, of papal primacy."Towards the end of the 2nd century, the Bishop of Rome, attempted to resolve the Quartodeciman controversy. The question was whether to celebrate Easter concurrently with the Jewish Passover, as Christians in the Roman province of Asia did, or to wait until the following Sunday, as was unanimously decreed by synods held in other Eastern provinces, such as those of Palestine and Pontus, the acts of which were still extant at the time of Eusebius, in Rome.
The pope attempted to excommunicate the church
Sultanate of Rum
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate, Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State or Turkey Seljuk State was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia, conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, established by the Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm was a synonym for Greek, as it remains in modern Turkish, although it derives from the Arabic name for Romans, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, "Romans"; the Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert, with capitals first at İznik and at Konya. It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia across Anatolia was developed by a system of caravanserai. Strong trade ties with the Genoese formed during this period.
The increased wealth allowed the sultanate to absorb other Turkish states, established in eastern Anatolia. The Seljuq sultans bore the brunt of the Crusades and succumbed to the Mongol invasion in 1243. For the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuqs acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate, their power disintegrated during the second half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuq vassal sultans of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308; the dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind many small Anatolian beyliks, among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which conquered the rest and reunited Anatolia to become the Ottoman Empire. In the 1070s, after the battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk commander Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, a distant cousin of Malik-Shah I and a former contender for the throne of the Seljuk Empire, came to power in western Anatolia. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicomedia. Two years he declared himself sultan of an independent Seljuq state and established his capital at İznik.
Suleiman was killed in Antioch in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuk ruler of Syria, Suleiman's son Kilij Arslan I was imprisoned. When Malik Shah died in 1092, Kilij Arslan was released and established himself in his father's territories. Kilij Arslan was defeated by soldiers of the First Crusade and driven back into south-central Anatolia, where he set up his state with capital in Konya. In 1107, he ventured east and captured Mosul but died the same year fighting Malik Shah's son, Mehmed Tapar. Meanwhile, another Rum Seljuq, Malik Shah, captured Konya. In 1116 Kilij Arslan's son, Mesud I, took the city with the help of the Danishmends. Upon Mesud's death in 1156, the sultanate controlled nearly all of central Anatolia. Mesud's son, Kilij Arslan II, captured the remaining territories around Sivas and Malatya from the last of the Danishmends. At the Battle of Myriokephalon in 1176, Kilij Arslan II defeated a Byzantine army led by Manuel I Komnenos, dealing a major blow to Byzantine power in the region.
Despite a temporary occupation of Konya in 1190 by the Holy Roman Empire's forces of the Third Crusade, the sultanate was quick to recover and consolidate its power. During the last years of Kilij Arslan II's reign, the sultanate experienced a civil war with Kaykhusraw I fighting to retain control and losing to his brother Suleiman II in 1196. Süleymanshah II rallied his vassal emirs and marched against Georgia, with an army of 150,000-400,000 and encamped in the Basiani valley. Tamar of Georgia marshaled an army throughout her possessions and put it under command of her consort, David Soslan. Georgian troops under David Soslan made a sudden advance into Basiani and assailed the enemy’s camp in 1203 or 1204. In a pitched battle, the Seljuqid forces managed to roll back several attacks of the Georgians but were overwhelmed and defeated. Loss of the sultan's banner to the Georgians resulted in a panic within the Seljuq ranks. Süleymanshah himself was wounded and withdrew to Erzurum. Both the Rum Seljuk and Georgian armies suffered heavy casualties, but coordinated flanking attacks won the battle for the Georgians.
Suleiman II was routed by the Kingdom of Georgia in the Battle of Basian and died in 1204. He was succeeded by his son Kilij Arslan III. Kaykhusraw I seized Konya in 1205 reestablishing his reign. Under his rule and those of his two successors, Kaykaus I and Kayqubad I, Seljuq power in Anatolia reached its apogee. Kaykhusraw's most important achievement was the capture of the harbour of Attalia on the Mediterranean coast in 1207, his son Kaykaus captured Sinop and made the Empire of Trebizond his vassal in 1214. He subjugated Cilician Armenia but in 1218 was forced to surrender the city of Aleppo, acquired from al-Kamil. Kayqubad continued to acquire lands along the Mediterranean coast from 1221 to 1225. In the 1220s, he sent an expeditionary force across the Black Sea to Crimea. In the east he began to put pressure on the Artuqids. Kaykhusraw II began his reign by capturing the region around Diyarbakır, but in 1239 he had to face an uprising led by a popular preacher named Baba Ishak. After three years, when he had quelled the revolt, the Crimean foothold was lost and the state and the sultanate's army had weakened.
It is in these conditions that he had to fac
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was King of Sicily, he was his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the inheritance claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce. Based on an enormous ransom for the release of King Richard I of England, he conquered Sicily in 1194. Henry was born in autumn 1165 at the Valkhof pfalz of Nijmegen to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrix of Burgundy. At the age of four, his father had him elected King of the Romans during the Hoftag in Bamberg at Pentecost 1169, Henry was crowned on 15 August at Aachen Cathedral, he accompanied his father on his Italian campaign of 1174-76 against the Lombard League, whereby he was educated by Godfrey of Viterbo and associated with minnesingers like Friedrich von Hausen, Bligger von Steinach, Bernger von Horheim.
Henry was fluent in Latin and, according to the chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, was "distinguished by gifts of knowledge, wreathed in flowers of eloquence, learned in canon and Roman law". He was a patron of poets and poetry, he certainly composed the song Kaiser Heinrich, now among the Weingarten Song Manuscripts. According to his rank and with Imperial Eagle, a scroll, he is the first and foremost to be portrayed in the famous Codex Manesse, a 14th-century songbook manuscript featuring 140 reputed poets. In one of those he describes a romance that makes him forget all his earthly power, neither riches nor royal dignity can outweigh his yearning for that lady. Having returned to Germany in 1178, Henry supported his father against insurgent Duke Henry the Lion, he and his younger brother Frederick received the knightly accolade at Mainz in 1184. The emperor had entered into negotiations with King William II of Sicily to betroth his son and heir with William's aunt Constance by 1184. Constance 30-year-old, was said to have been confined in Santissimo Salvatore, Palermo as a nun since childhood to keep celibacy due to a prediction that "her marriage would destroy Sicily", but as William's marriage had remained childless, she was his sole legitimate heir, after the latter's death in November 1189, Henry had the opportunity of adding the Sicilian crown to the imperial one.
He and Constance were married on 27 January 1186 in Milan. In the Hohenstaufen conflict with Pope Urban III, Henry moved to the March of Tuscany, with the aid of his liensman Markward von Annweiler devastated the adjacent territory of the Papal States. Back in Germany, he took the reins of the Empire from his father, who had died while on the Third Crusade in 1190. Henry tried to secure his rule in the Low Countries by elevating Count Baldwin V of Hainaut to a margrave of Namur, at the same time he tried to reach a settlement with rivalling Duke Henry of Brabant. Further difficulties arose when the exiled Welf duke Henry the Lion returned from England and began to subdue large estates in his former Duchy of Saxony. A Hohenstaufen campaign to Saxony had to be abandoned when King Henry received the message of the death of King William II of Sicily on 18 November 1189; the Sicilian vice-chancellor Matthew of Ajello pursued the succession of Count Tancred of Lecce and gained the support of the Roman Curia.
To assert his own rights in the inheritance dispute, Henry supported Tancred's rival Count Roger of Andria and made arrangements for a campaign to Italy. The next year he concluded a peace agreement with Henry the Lion at Fulda and moved farther southwards to Augsburg, where he learned that his father had died on crusade attempting to cross the Saleph River near Seleucia in the Kingdom of Cilicia on 10 June 1190. While he sent an Imperial army to Italy, Henry stayed in Germany to settle the succession of Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia, who had died on the Third Crusade, he had planned to seize the Thuringian landgraviate as a reverted fief, but Louis' brother Hermann was able to reach his enfeoffment. The next year, the king followed his army across the Alps. In Lodi he negotiated with Eleanor of Aquitaine, widow of King Henry II of England, to break the engagement of her son King Richard with Alys, a daughter of late King Louis VII of France, he hoped to deteriorate English-French relations and to isolate Richard, who had offended him by backing Count Tancred in Sicily.
Eleanor acted cleverly. Henry entered into further negotiations with the Lombard League cities and with Pope Celestine III on his Imperial coronation, ceded Tusculum to the Pope. At Easter Monday on 15 April 1191, in Rome and his consort Constance were crowned Emperor and Empress by Celestine; the crown of Sicily, was harder to gain, as the Sicilian nobility had chosen Count Tancred of Lecce as their king. Henry began his work campaigning in Apulia and besieging Naples, but he encountered resistance when Tancred's liensman Margaritus of Brindisi came to the city's defence, harassed
Maria of Antioch
Maria of Antioch was a Byzantine empress by marriage to Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, regent during the minority of her son porphyrogennetos Alexios II Komnenos from 1180 until 1182. Maria of Antioch was the daughter of her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. In 1160, Maria's stepfather, Constance's second husband Raynald of Châtillon, was taken prisoner by Maj al-Dīn, the ruler of Aleppo and an ally of Nūr al-Dīn, her mother claimed the Principality of Antioch for herself, but the nobles supported her son, Maria's brother Bohemund III. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem set Bohemund III up as prince and appointed as regent the rich and worldly Aimery of Limoges, Latin Patriarch of Antioch and an old opponent of Raynald. Constance protested this decision in Constantinople at the court of the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos, the nominal overlord of Antioch. At the end of 1159, Manuel's wife Empress Eirene had died, Manuel wanted to marry a princess from one of the Crusader states. John Kontostephanos, the chief dragoman Theophylact, the akolouthos of the Varangian Guard Basil Kamateros were sent to Jerusalem to seek a new wife, the two princesses Maria of Antioch and Melisende of Tripoli, a daughter of Count Raymond II of Tripoli by Hodierna of Jerusalem, were offered as candidates.
Both were renowned for their beauty, but according to John Kinnamos Maria was the more beautiful of the two. King Baldwin III suggested Melisende, her brother Count Raymond III of Tripoli set about gathering an enormous dowry, with gifts from Hodierna and from Melisende's namesake, her aunt Queen Melisende; the ambassadors were not delayed the marriage for over a year. Instead, Manuel chose Maria. Count Raymond in retaliation attacked Byzantine Cyprus. Meanwhile, an imperial embassy led by Alexios Bryennios Komnenos and the prefect of Constantinople, John Kamateros, came to Antioch to negotiate the marriage. Maria embarked from the port of St. Simeon for Constantinople in September 1161, the marriage took place in Hagia Sophia on December 24. Three patriarchs performed the marriage: Luke Chrysoberges, Patriarch of Constantinople; the marriage was celebrated with feasts, gifts to the church, chariot races in the Hippodrome for the people. This strengthened the connection of Antioch to the Byzantine Empire.
The marriage strengthened the position of Maria's mother Constance, who now held the regency of Antioch. According to Niketas Choniates, Maria "...was like unto the laughter-loving, golden Aphrodite, the white-armed and ox-eyed Hera, the long-necked and beautiful ankled Laconian, whom the ancients deified for their beauty, all the rest of the beauties whose good looks have been preserved in distinguished books and histories." For several years, Maria was childless. In 1166 she had her first pregnancy, but miscarried a male child, a fact, considered a tragedy by the Emperor and the population. In 1169 Maria gave birth to a son, the future emperor Alexios II Komnenos, she played a role in the diplomatic life of Constantinople. French being her mother tongue, she was able to observe the double-dealing of the hypoboleus Aaron Isaakios, advising Westerners not to pay too much for the Emperor's favour; as a result, Manuel had Aaron blinded. After the death of Manuel in 1180, Maria became a nun with the name "Xene", but in reality she acted as regent for their son Alexios II.
Despite being a nun she had many ambitious suitors, but she chose another Alexios, the prōtosebastos and prōtovestiarios, a nephew of Manuel and uncle of Maria Komnene, former queen of Jerusalem, as an advisor and lover, causing a scandal among the Greek population. As a Westerner who favoured the Italian merchants, Maria was opposed by the Greeks, her regency was considered incompetent; the leaders of the opposition were her stepdaughter, the porphyrogenita Maria Komnene and her husband, the Caesar Renier of Montferrat, though himself a fellow Latin. The porphyrogenita Maria may have considered herself the rightful heir, as the elder child of Manuel. Maria and Renier gained the support of the Patriarch Theodosius I and used Hagia Sophia as a base of operations. Alexios had the patriarch arrested, leading to open warfare on the streets of Constantinople. Manuel's cousin Andronikos Komnenos, exiled during Manuel's reign, was invited back by the porphyrogenita Maria, marched on Constantinople in 1182.
He provoked the citizens into a massacre of the Latin inhabitants Venetian and Genoese merchants. After gaining control of the city, he had the Porphyrogenita and Renier poisoned, had Empress Maria arrested and imprisoned in the monastery of St. Diomedes or in a prison nearby; the empress tried to seek help from her brother-in-law King Béla III of Hungary, to no avail. Andronikos had Alexios II sign the order for his mother's execution, appointed his own son Manuel and the sebastos George to execute her, but they refused. Instead, according to Niketas, Maria was strangled by the hetaireiarches Constantine Tripsychos and the eunuch Pterygeonites, buried in an unmarked grave on a nearby beach. Owing to the secrecy surrounding her death, alternative versions of her death circulated, such as that she was tied up in a sack and drowned. Andronikos had himself crowned co-emperor, but Alexios II was soon murdered as well
A papal legate or apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters; the legate is appointed directly by the pope. Hence a legate is sent to a government, a sovereign or to a large body of believers or to take charge of a major religious effort, such as an council, a crusade to the Holy Land, or against a heresy such as the Cathars; the term legation is applied both to the territory concerned. The relevant adjective is legatine. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were used to strengthen the links between Rome and the many parts of Christendom. More than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to; the Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as papal legate to England in the early 13th century and played a major role in both the English government and church at the time. By the Late Middle Ages it had become more common to appoint native clerics to the position of legate within their own country, such as Cardinal Wolsey acting as legate to the court of Henry VIII of England.
The reason for this switch in policy could be attributed to a change in attitude on the eve of The Reformation. Papal legates summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government and other ecclesiastical issues. According to Pope Gregory VII, writing in the Dictatus papae, a papal legate "presides over all bishops in a council if he is inferior in rank, he can pronounce sentence of deposition against them". During the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy; the most common form of papal legate today is the apostolic nuncio, whose task it is to strengthen relations between the Holy See and the Roman Catholic Church in a particular country and at the same time to act as the diplomatic representative of the Holy See to the government of that country. An apostolic nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, although in Catholic countries the nuncio ranks above ambassadors in diplomatic protocol.
A nuncio has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, a nuncio is an ambassador like those from any other country; the Vienna Convention allows the host state to grant seniority of precedence to the nuncio over others of ambassadorial rank accredited to the same country, may grant the deanship of that country's diplomatic corps to the nuncio regardless of seniority. Pro-nuncio was a term used from 1965 to 1991 for a papal diplomatic representative of full ambassadorial rank accredited to a country that did not accord him precedence over other ambassadors and ex officio deanship of the diplomatic corps. In those countries, the papal representative's precedence within the corps is on a par with that of the other members of ambassadorial rank, so that he becomes dean only on becoming the senior member of the corps. For countries with which the Holy See has no diplomatic relations, an apostolic delegate is sent to serve as a liaison with the Catholic Church in that country, though not accredited to its government.
This highest rank is awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It can either be focused or broad in scope; the legate a latere is the alter ego of the Pope, as such, possesses full plenipotentiary powers. "born legate", i.e. not nominated individually but ex officio, namely a bishop holding this rank as a privilege of his see, e.g. archbishops of Canterbury, Esztergom, Salzburg and Cologne. The legatus natus would act as the pope's representative in his province, with a legatus a latere only being sent in extraordinary circumstances. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them. "sent legate", possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is focused in scope and of short duration; some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo. In four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded to Cardinals.
The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827. Papal diplomacyNuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – a titular archbishop. Internuncio – a lower rank than Nuncio for a papal diplomatic representative, a title used at a time when states sent to some less important countries diplomatic representatives, called Envoys or Ministers, lower in rank than Ambassadors. Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to EnglandOtherPontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia: Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, Pellegrino. De Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus
The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states in the central and northern Italian Peninsula between the 9th and the 15th centuries. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe. Many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan and Roman towns which had existed within the Roman Empire; the republican institutions of Rome had survived. Some feudal lords existed with a servile labour force and huge tracts of land, but by the 11th century, many cities, including Venice, Florence, Pisa, Cremona, Città di Castello and many others, had become large trading metropoles, able to obtain independence from their formal sovereigns. Among the earliest city-states of Italy was the Duchy of Naples from 661 which, although nominally under Byzantine control, was independent; the Republic of Venice, which de facto broke apart from the Byzantine Empire from 742, becoming de jure independent in the following centuries.
The other first Italian city-states to appear in northern Italy arose as a result of a struggle to gain greater autonomy when not independent from the German Holy Roman Empire. The Lombard League was an alliance formed around at its apex included most of the cities of northern Italy including Milan, Cremona, Crema, Brescia, Padua, Vicenza, Lodi, Reggio Emilia and Parma, though its membership changed through time. Other city-states were associated to these "commune" cities, like Genoa, Turin and, in the Adriatic, Ragusa. Venice was never subjected to the Holy Roman Empire, but chose anyway to patronize the Lombard League, to oppose strong imperial control of the mainland. In central Italy there were the city-states of Florence, Lucca, Città di Castello, Ancona among others. South of Rome and the Papal States were the city-states of Salerno, Bari, the Duchy of Naples and Trani which in 1130 were united in the newly created Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Around 1100, Genoa and Venice emerged as independent maritime republics.
For Genoa – nominally – the Holy Roman Emperor was sovereign and the Bishop of Genoa was head of state. Pisa and Amalfi emerged as maritime republics: trade and banking helped support their powerful navies in the Mediterranean in those medieval centuries. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy was vastly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps; the Peninsula was a melange of cultural elements, not a unified state. Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel have argued; the mountainous nature of Italy's landscape was a barrier to effective inter-city communication. The Po plain, was an exception: it was the only large contiguous area, most city states that fell to invasion were located there; those that survived the longest were in the more rugged regions, such as Florence or Venice, protected by its lagoon. The rugged terrain of the Alps prevented the Holy Roman Emperors or various German princes and lords from attacking the northern part of Italy, safeguarding the country from permanent German political control.
For these reasons, no strong monarchies emerged as they did in the rest of Europe: authority of the Holy Roman Empire over northern Italian territory after the year 1177, was de facto only nominal. While those Roman, republican sensibilities persisted, there were many movements and changes afoot. Italy first felt the changes in Europe from the 11th to the 13th centuries. There was: a rise in population―the population doubled in this period an emergence of huge cities the rebuilding of the great cathedrals substantial migration from country to city an agrarian revolution the development of commerceIn recent writing on the city states, American scholar Rodney Stark emphasizes that they married responsive government and the birth of capitalism, he argues that these states were republics, unlike the great European monarchies of France and Spain, where absolute power was vested in rulers who could and did stifle commerce. Keeping both direct Church control and imperial power at arm's length, the independent city republics prospered through commerce based on early capitalist principles creating the conditions for the artistic and intellectual changes produced by the Renaissance.
Cambridge University historian and political philosopher Quentin Skinner has pointed out how Otto of Freising, a German bishop who visited central Italy during the 12th century, commented that Italian towns had appeared to have exited from feudalism, so that their society was based on merchants and commerce. Northern cities and states were notable for their merchant republics the Republic of Venice. Compared to absolutist monarchies or other more centrally controlled states, the Italian communes and commercial republics enjoyed relative political freedom conducive to academic and artistic advancement. Geographically, because of trade, Italian c
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age; until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, the Balkans and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization; the cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus.
The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Greeks have influenced and contributed to culture, exploration, philosophy, architecture, mathematics and technology, business and sports, both and contemporarily; the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people"; the Proto-Greeks arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.
There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period, i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC. In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.
The Mycenaeans penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is the main attack was made by seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC; the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth; the Homeric Epics were and accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was a matter of common culture; the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period; the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras; the Classical period is described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and