A massively multiplayer online game is an online game with large numbers of players from hundreds to thousands, on the same server. MMOs feature a huge, persistent open world, although some games differ; these games can be found for most network-capable platforms, including the personal computer, video game console, or smartphones and other mobile devices. MMOs can enable players to cooperate and compete with each other on a large scale, sometimes to interact meaningfully with people around the world, they include a variety of gameplay types. The most popular type of MMOG, the subgenre that pioneered the category, is the massively multiplayer online role-playing game, which descended from university mainframe computer MUD and adventure games such as Rogue and Dungeon on the PDP-10; these games predate the commercial gaming industry and the Internet, but still featured persistent worlds and other elements of MMOGs still used today. The first graphical MMOG, a major milestone in the creation of the genre, was the multiplayer flight combat simulation game Air Warrior by Kesmai on the GEnie online service, which first appeared in 1986.
Kesmai added 3D graphics to the game, making it the first 3D MMO. Commercial MMORPGs gained acceptance in early 1990s; the genre was pioneered by the GemStone series on GEnie created by Kesmai, Neverwinter Nights, the first such game to include graphics, which debuted on AOL in 1991. As video game developers applied MMOG ideas to other computer and video game genres, new acronyms started to develop, such as MMORTS. MMOG emerged as a generic term to cover this growing class of games; the debuts of The Realm Online, Meridian 59, Ultima Online and EverQuest in the late 1990s popularized the MMORPG genre. The growth in technology meant that where Neverwinter Nights in 1991 had been limited to 50 simultaneous players, by the year 2000 a multitude of MMORPGs were each serving thousands of simultaneous players and led the way for games such as World of Warcraft and EVE Online. Despite the genre's focus on multiplayer gaming, AI-controlled characters are still common. NPCs and mobs who give out quests or serve as opponents are typical in MMORPGs.
AI-controlled characters are not as common in action-based MMOGs. The popularity of MMOGs was restricted to the computer game market until the sixth-generation consoles, with the launch of Phantasy Star Online on Dreamcast and the emergence and growth of online service Xbox Live. There have been a number of console MMOGs, including EverQuest Online Adventures, the multiconsole Final Fantasy XI. On PCs, the MMOG market has always been dominated by successful fantasy MMORPGs. MMOGs have only begun to break into the mobile phone market; the first, Samurai Romanesque set in feudal Japan, was released in 2001 on NTT DoCoMo's iMode network in Japan. More recent developments are CipSoft's TibiaME and Biting Bit's MicroMonster which features online and bluetooth multiplayer gaming. SmartCell Technology is in development of Shadow of Legend, which will allow gamers to continue their game on their mobile device when away from their PC. Science fiction has been a popular theme, featuring games such as Mankind, Anarchy Online, Eve Online, Star Wars Galaxies and The Matrix Online.
MMOGs emerged from the hard-core gamer community to the mainstream in December 2003 with an analysis in the Financial Times measuring the value of the virtual property in the then-largest MMOG, EverQuest, to result in a per-capita GDP of 2,266 dollars which would have placed the virtual world of EverQuest as the 77th wealthiest nation, on par with Croatia, Tunisia or Vietnam. World of Warcraft is a dominant MMOG with 8-9 million monthly subscribers worldwide; the subscriber base dropped by 1 million after the expansion Wrath of the Lich King, bringing it to 9 million subscribers in 2010, though it remained the most popular Western title among MMOGs. In 2008, Western consumer spending on World of Warcraft represented a 58% share of the subscription MMOG market in 2009; the title has generated over $2.2 billion in cumulative consumer spending on subscriptions from 2005 through 2009. Within a majority of the MMOGs created, there is virtual currency where the player can earn and accumulate money.
The uses vary from game to game. The virtual economies created within MMOGs blur the lines between real and virtual worlds; the result is seen as an unwanted interaction between the real and virtual economies by the players and the provider of the virtual world. This practice is seen in this genre of games; the two seem to come hand in hand with the earliest MMOGs such as Ultima Online having this kind of trade, real money for virtual things. The importance of having a working virtual economy within an MMOG is increasing. A sign of this is CCP Games hiring the first real-life economist for its MMOG Eve Online to assist and analyze the virtual economy and production within this game; the results of this interaction between the virtual economy, our real economy, the interaction between the company that created the game and the third-party companies that want a share of the profits and success of the game. This battle between companies is defended on both sides; the company originating the game and the intellectual property argue that this is in violation of the terms and agreements of the game as well as copyright violation since they own the rights to how the online currency is distributed and through what channels.
The case that the third-party companies and their customers defen
Victoria Bedos is a French author, screenplay writer and actor. She is the daughter of Guy Bedos and Joëlle Bercot, the sister of Nicolas Bedos, she was named after Chaplin's daughter. Victoria began her career as a journalist on Télécinéobs, on Inrockuptibles, for the woman's magazine Glamour. At the age of 23, Plon published her first book, Le Déni, where she explored the lies involved in romance, she was a screenwriter for Confidences, broadcast on Canal+ in January 2007. She was co-author with Stanislas Carré de Malberg of the screenplay for the film La Famille Bélier; the film was produced by Eric Jehelmann, Philippe Rousselet and Stéphane Célérié, directed by Éric Lartigau. In 2014, while writing La Famille Bélier, she set up the duo Vicky Banjo with Olivier Urvoy de Closmadeuc, they sing together. She played Linda, the lead role in the mini-series Gym Couine written and directed by Sébastien Haddouk, broadcast for two years on June via social networks and produced by Silex films, she is the face of the interactive advertising campaign for the new version of the magazine Glamour, directed by Noémie Saglio.
In January 2015, she made the film Vicky Banjo which she co-wrote with Denis Imbert in which she played the leading role. It was directed by Denis Imbert and produced by LGM films with Chantal Lauby and François Berléand playing her parents and Jonathan Cohen as her brother. Le déni, Plon, 2007 2014: La Famille Bélier by Éric Lartigau and original story. 2015: Vicky Banjo by Denis Imbert and actor. César 2015: for Best original screenplay for La Famille Bélier Victoria Bedos on IMDb Victoria Bedos - L'Homme parfait - Poème sur paperblog, 2009
Darling Wind Farm was one of the first three wind farms in South Africa. It is located 70 km north of Cape Town, between Darling and Yzerfontein on the west coast of South Africa. Darling Wind Power was incorporated in 2004 as the special purpose vehicle to develop, finance and operate the Darling Wind Farm, at the time declared a national demonstration project. On 16 October 2018, ENERTRAG South Africa acquired 100% of the shares of Darling Wind Power Ltd from Clean Energy Africa Investments Ltd; the plant consists of four Fuhrländer FL1250 horizontal axis wind turbines, with a total installed capacity of 5.2 MW and reached commercial operation on 1 May 2008. It was financed by funding from The Development Bank of Southern Africa; the Darling Wind Farm is selling its green electricity under two Power Purchase Agreements, one with the City of Cape Town, one with POWERX. Under these two agreements, the four wind turbines feed 8 million kWh of green electricity into the grid. List of power stations in South Africa
James Rivera is a heavy metal vocalist, most known as the front-man for the heavy metal band Helstar. As of January 2016, he has been a metal frontman for thirty-four years and has recorded fourteen albums. Rivera got his start singing with aforementioned Power/Speed Metal act Helstar, a band established in the early 1980s in Houston, Texas. Rivera and guitarist Larry Barragan are the only remaining original members of the band after numerous lineup changes. In addition to Helstar, Rivera has sung with several other metal bands during his music career and belonged to several tribute bands. James Rivera, along with Helstar's other founding member Larry Barragan, rebuilt the original band with guitar player Rob Trevino, bass player Jerry Abarca and drummer Russ De Leon. In 2007 the band released Sins Of The Past, a re-recorded best-of including the most famous Helstar songs. In 2008 came a new brand full-length studio album called King Of Hell. They've released a number of albums since most in 2016 with Vampiro.
Over the years Rivera and Helstar have been active with their live shows across the United States as well as touring in Europe. Helstar hits great stages like the ones of the Keep It True Festival and Headbangers Open Air, both in Germany, the cult Heavy Metal festival in Italy called Play It Loud. In January 2017, it was announced that Rivera was to join UK-based Power Metal band Shadowkeep and would record vocals for their fourth album. MALICE's current lineup includes three original members alongside Pete Holmes on drums and James Rivera on vocals. Helstar website
Jack Linkletter was an American game show and television host and entertainer. He was the son of Art Linkletter. Linkletter was born as Arthur Jack Linkletter in San Francisco, he was the oldest of Art Linkletter's five children. He was said to have been inspired to enter show business by his father's show House Party; as a boy, Mr. Linkletter inspired one of his father's most famous "House Party" routines: interviewing young children. Linkletter was an English major at the University of Southern California in 1958 when he began hosting the NBC-TV prime-time summer replacement quiz show Haggis Baggis. At 15, Linkletter began doing an interview show for CBS Radio, soon followed by an hourlong program featuring records and stunts called "Teen Time." Linkletter hosted seven television shows throughout his career, including Haggis Baggis, Hootenanny, On the Go and Here's Hollywood. He hosted a number of events and pageants, including the Miss Universe pageant, events for the World's Fair and many parades.
On February 23, 1961, Linkletter and his father, appeared together in "The Bible Man," one of the final episodes of Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre, which aired for five seasons on CBS. In the story line, the father, the Reverend Albert Pierce, is a traveling evangelist, estranged from his grown son, because he had tried to avoid telling Jimmy of the real circumstances of his mother's death; the son accused his father of causing the mother's death by burning down her house. However, she was dead before the fire because a paramour had beaten her to death; the episode ends in a reconciliation of son. "The Bible Man" was Jack Linkletter's only regular acting appearance. When on television, he otherwise played himself. Linkletter was president of Linkletter Enterprises and operator of commercial and industrial real estate and manager of diversified family investments, he operated the Link Fund, a private fund investing in equity and debt instruments. Linkletter served as the International President of Young Presidents' Organization and national director of the 4-H Clubs.
Suger's Eagle is an ancient Egyptian porphyry vase mounted in a medieval silver-gilt eagle. It is now displayed along with the French regalia in the Galerie d'Apollon at the Louvre; the vase dates to the second century AD. According to Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, in his De administratione, he found, "lying idly in a chest for many years, an Egyptian porphyry vase admirably shaped and polished." In his own words, he determined to adapt and transfer it into a liturgical vessel "in the form of an eagle", a symbol of Christ. Suger's Eagle is a typical case of the "careful preservation of the ancient relic in a setting which leaves it intact." On the bottom of the eagle is a nielloed titulus: "This stone deserves to have mounts of gold and gems. / It was marble. Its settings are more precious than marble." Inscribed around the base of the neck, above the lip of the vessel, is a dedication to the church of Saint-Denis. The goldwork of the neck demonstrates superb chiselwork. Two large engravings from 1706 depict the treasure of Saint-Denis as it was displayed, in a cabinet.
Its popularity as a tourist attraction prevented the treasure's total destruction during the French Revolution. The eagle and three of Suger's other liturgical vessels—Queen Eleanor's vase and King Roger's decanter, both of rock crystal, a sardonyx ewer—ended up in the Galerie d'Apollon at the Louvre. Delbrück, Richard. Antike Porphyrwerke. Leipzig: De Gruyter. Evans, Joan. "Die Adlervase des Sugerius". Pantheon. 10: 221–23. Heckscher, W. S.. "Relics of Pagan Antiquity in Mediæval Settings". Journal of the Warburg Institute. 1: 204–20. Stratford, Neil. "New York: The Cloisters". The Burlington Magazine. 123: 499–509. Stratford, Neil. "Le Trésor de St-Denis: Paris, Louvre". The Burlington Magazine. 133: 337–39. Verdier, Philippe. "The Chalice of Abbot Suger". Studies in the History of Art. 24: 9–29. Porphyry vase, known as Suger's eagle, at the Louvre