Gatineau is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth-largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, it is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canada's National Capital Region. As of 2016, Gatineau had a population of 276,245, a metropolitan population of 332,057; the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,323,783. Gatineau is coextensive with a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of the same name, whose geographical code is 81, it is the seat of the judicial district of Hull. The current city of Gatineau is centred on an area called Hull, the oldest European colonial settlement in the National Capital Region; this area was not developed until after the American Revolutionary War, when the Crown made land grants to Loyalists for resettlement in Upper Canada. Hull was founded on the north shore of the Ottawa River in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the portage around the Chaudière Falls just upstream from where the Gatineau and Rideau rivers flow into the Ottawa.
Wright brought his family, five other families, twenty-five labourers to establish an agricultural community. They considered the area a mosquito-infested wilderness, but soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. The original settlement was called Wrightstown, was renamed as Hull. In 2002, after amalgamation, it was part of a larger jurisdiction named the City of Gatineau. In 1820, before immigrants from Ireland and other parts of Great Britain arrived in great numbers, Hull Township had a population of 707, including 365 men, 113 women, 229 children; the high number of men were related to workers in the lumber trade. In 1824, there were 803 persons. During the rest of the 1820s, the population of Hull doubled, owing to the arrival of Ulster Protestants. By 1851, the population of the County of Ottawa was 11,104. By comparison, Bytown had a population of 7,760 in 1851. By 1861, Ottawa County had a population of 15,671. French Canadians migrated to the Township.
The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was a basic transportation resource for the draveurs, workers who transport logs via the rivers from lumber camps until they arrived downriver. The log-filled Ottawa River, as viewed from Hull, was featured on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill; the last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later. Ottawa was founded as the terminus of the Rideau Canal; this was built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812 against the United States. Named Bytown, Ottawa was not designated as the Canadian capital until the mid-19th century, after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of Anglo-Canadians on 25 April 1849, its greater distance from the Canada–US border made the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack. Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement of Hull; the downtown Vieux-Hull sector was destroyed by a terrible fire in 1900.
The bridge was rebuilt to join Ottawa to Hull at Victoria Island. In the 1940s, during World War II, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Île Sainte-Hélène, was the site of prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was identified only by a number; the prisoners of war were organized by status: civilian or military status. In the Hull camp, POWs were Italian and German nationals detained by the government as potential threats to the nation during the war; as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1944, Canadians who had refused conscription were interned in the camp. The prisoners were required to perform hard labour, which included lumbering the land. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was redeveloped. Old buildings were replaced by a series of large office complexes. In addition some 4,000 residents were displaced, many businesses uprooted along what was once the town's main commercial area. On 11 November 1992, Ghislaine Chénier, Mayoress by interim for the city of Hull, unveiled War Never Again, a marble stele monument that commemorates the cost of war for the men and children of the city of Hull.
As part of the 2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the five municipalities that constituted the Communauté urbaine de l'Outaouais were merged on 1 January 2002 to constitute the new city of Gatineau. They were: Aylmer Buckingham Hull Gatineau Masson-AngersAlthough Hull was the oldest and most central of the merged cities, the name Gatineau was chosen for the new city; the main reasons given were that Gatineau had more residents, this name was associated with the area: it was the name of the former county, the valley, the hills, the park and the main river within the new city limits. Some argued that the French name of Gatineau was more appealing to the majority French-speaking residents. Since the former city of Hull represents a large area distinct from what was known as Gatineau, some people refer to "Vieux Hull"; the name "Hull" was informally use
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Intensive care medicine
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and intensive monitoring. Patients requiring intensive care may require support for cardiovascular instability lethal cardiac arrhythmias, airway or respiratory compromise, acute renal failure, or the cumulative effects of multiple organ failure, more referred to now as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, they may be admitted for intensive/invasive monitoring, such as the crucial hours after major surgery when deemed too unstable to transfer to a less intensively monitored unit. Medical studies suggest a relation between ICU volume and quality of care for mechanically ventilated patients. After adjustment for severity of illness, demographic variables, characteristics of the ICUs, higher ICU volume was associated with lower ICU and hospital mortality rates. For example, adjusted ICU mortality was 21.2% in hospitals with 87 to 150 mechanically ventilated patients annually, 14.5% in hospitals with 401 to 617 mechanically ventilated patients annually.
Hospitals with intermediate numbers of patients had outcomes between these extremes. ICU delirium and inaccurately referred to as ICU psychosis, is a syndrome common in intensive care and cardiac units where patients who are in unfamiliar, monotonous surroundings develop symptoms of delirium; this may include interpreting machine noises as human voices, seeing walls quiver, or hallucinating that someone is tapping them on the shoulder. There exists systematic reviews in which interventions of sleep promotion related outcomes in the ICU have proven impactful in the overall health of patients in the ICU. In general, it is the most expensive, technologically advanced and resource-intensive area of medical care. In the United States, estimates of the 2000 expenditure for critical care medicine ranged from US$15–55 billion. During that year, critical care medicine accounted for 0.56% of GDP, 4.2% of national health expenditure and about 13% of hospital costs. In 2011, hospital stays with ICU services accounted for just over one-quarter of all discharges but nearly one-half of aggregate total hospital charges in the United States.
The mean hospital charge was 2.5 times higher for discharges with ICU services than for those without. Intensive care takes a system-by-system approach to treatment; as such, the nine key systems are each considered on an observation-intervention-impression basis to produce a daily plan. In addition to the key systems, intensive care treatment raises other issues including psychological health, pressure points and physiotherapy, secondary infections. In alphabetical order, the nine key systems considered in the intensive care setting are: cardiovascular system, central nervous system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal tract, integumentary system, microbiology and respiratory system. Intensive care is provided in a specialized unit of a hospital called the intensive care unit or critical care unit. Many hospitals have designated intensive care areas for certain specialities of medicine, such as the coronary intensive care unit for heart disease, medical intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, pediatric intensive care unit, neuroscience critical care unit, overnight intensive-recovery, shock/trauma intensive-care unit, neonatal intensive care unit, other units as dictated by the needs and available resources of each hospital.
The naming is not rigidly standardized. For a time in the early 1960s, it was not clear that specialized intensive care units were needed, so intensive care resources were brought to the room of the patient that needed the additional monitoring and resources, it became evident, that a fixed location where intensive care resources and dedicated personnel were available provided better care than ad hoc provision of intensive care services spread throughout a hospital. Common equipment in an intensive care unit includes mechanical ventilation to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube or a tracheotomy. Critical care medicine is an important medical specialty. Physicians with training in critical care medicine are referred to as intensivists. In the United States, the specialty requires additional fellowship training for physicians having completed their primary residency training in internal medicine, anesthesiology, surgery or emergency medicine. US board certification in critical care medicine is available through all five specialty boards.
Intensivists with a primary training in internal medicine sometimes pursue combined fellowship training in another subspecialty such as pulmonary medicine, infectious disease, or nephrology. The American Society of Critical Care Medicine is a well-established multiprofessional society for practitioners working in the ICU including nurses, respiratory therapists, physicians. Most medical research has demonstrated that ICU care provided by intensivists produces better outcomes and more cost-effective care; this has led the Leapfrog Group
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Quebec Route 148
Route 148 is an east-west highway in Quebec, Canada. It runs from junction of Autoroute 13 and Autoroute 440 in Laval in the Montreal region to the Ontario-Quebec border in L'Isle-aux-Allumettes in western Quebec. For most of its length, Route 148 follows the north shore of the Ottawa River where it acted as the principal route between communities in the Outaouais region until the completion of Autoroute 50 in 2012. At the Ontario-Quebec border in L'Isle-aux-Allumettes Route 148 continues into Ontario as Highway 148. In Gatineau, Route 148 is concurrent with Autoroute 50 from Maloney Boulevard until the terminus of Autoroute 50 at des Allumettières Boulevard. Route 148 continues west on des Allumettières Boulevard towards Aylmer. Prior to the opening of des Allumettières Boulevard in 2007, Route 148 was concurrent with Autoroute 5 between the Autoroute 50 junction and Saint-Raymond Boulevard; the section of Route 148 between Lachute and Buckingham was the only major route on the north shore of the Ottawa River between communities in the eastern Outaouais region and Gatineau and Montreal.
This section the section between Masson-Angers and Montebello, has been the site of numerous fatal accidents over the last few years. Construction of Autoroute 50 to the north of Route 148 was completed on November 26, 2012, now provides a faster and safer route between communities in the eastern Outaouais region and Gatineau and Mirabel. For many years Route 148 included a section of Rue Principale west of A-13 and most of Boulevard Saint-Martin in Laval. Municipalities listed in order from west to east: L'Isle-aux-Allumettes Waltham Mansfield-et-Pontefract Fort Coulonge Litchfield Campbell's Bay Bryson Shawville Bristol Pontiac Gatineau - Lochaber-Partie-Ouest Thurso Lochaber Plaisance Papineauville Montebello Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours Fassett Grenville-sur-la-Rouge Brownsburg-Chatham Lachute Mirabel Saint-Eustache Laval - List of Quebec provincial highways Provincial Route Map
Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-
Quebec Autoroute 50
Autoroute 50 is an Autoroute in western Quebec, Canada. It links Canada's National Capital Region to the Greater Montreal area; until November 2012, there were two distinct sections of A-50: one section running eastward from Hull and the other westward from Mirabel. The gap in the highway was filled on November 26, 2012, the two-lane freeway opened for traffic on the full 159 km length; the route provides a freeway alternative to Route 148 that does not require crossing into Ontario, unlike the main Trans-Canada Highway route from metropolitan Montreal. Oswald Parent proposed construction of the A-50 in 1962. Eight years Quebec Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand announced plans for construction, it was envisioned that the A-50 would extend over 400 km from L'Isle-aux-Allumettes at the Ontario border through Saint-Jérôme and Joliette along the Route 148 and 158 corridors to Berthierville and a junction with the A-40. The primary purpose of the A-50 was to connect Ottawa and the Outaouais with Montréal–Mirabel International Airport.
At the time, the Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport was not yet built, the national capital lacked highway access to an international air hub. Mirabel's rapid decline as an air hub as well as the Quebec government's decision in the 1970s to impose a moratorium on new autoroute construction resulted in a truncated route for the A-50. Plans for extending the A-50 west of Hull and east of the A-15/TCH were abandoned; the exit numbers, are based on that original projected length of the autoroute. Construction was completed in the fall of 2007 on the road that connects Highway 148 west of the Aylmer and Hull sectors to the A-50 at the Boulevard des Allumettières interchange. One short section of Route 158 around Joliette was signed as A-50 as well until the project was abandoned. In addition, west of the current terminus, a four-lane at-grade expressway continues as Route 148 into the Aylmer section of Gatineau. A-50 is a four- to six-lane freeway through Gatineau up to Buckingham, the remainder is a two-lane freeway.
Many overpasses are built to accommodate a divided, four-lane highway in the future such that only one portion of the overpass is used. However, there have been demands for a four-lane highway for the new segment; the first two segments were built with only two lanes and a 2007 multi-fatality accident occurred on highway 148 near Buckingham, a section of highway that A-50 would bypass. Unusual for a limited-access highway, the A-50 contains two railway crossings at grade, both of the Quebec Gatineau Railway; the first crosses the QGRY Lachute Subdivision between exits 260 and 272, at 45.651008°N 74.229047°W / 45.651008. There has been some support to rename the highway Autoroute Maurice-Richard after historic Montreal Canadiens hockey player Maurice Richard, but the Commission de toponymie du Québec chose to wait until the section between Buckingham and Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours was finished before making a decision, to date no renaming has happened. Following a series of fatal collisions in 2007, it was announced that centreline rumble strips would be installed in various no-passing zones along Autoroute 50.
This serves as a pilot project. The two at-grade intersections at km 281 and 283 were removed in 2016. Note: exit numbers in parentheses are unsigned. Google Maps: western section of Autoroute 50 from Gatineau to Thurso Google Maps: eastern section of Autoroute 50 from Grenville to Mirabel Transports Quebec Autoroute 50 Project Description and Timeline Transports Quebec Outaouais Projects Description and Timeline A-50 at Exitlists.com A-50 at Quebec Autoroutes Transports Quebec Map Transports Quebec Map