Yogurt spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures; the fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is available worldwide and, as such, is the milk most used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, ewes, mares and yaks is used to produce yogurt where available locally; the milk used may be homogenized or not pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces different results. Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt; some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of bacteria. To produce yogurt, milk is first heated to about 85 °C, to denature the milk proteins so that they do not form curds.
After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C. The bacterial culture is mixed in, that temperature of 45 °C is maintained for 4 to 12 hours to allow fermentation to occur; the word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, is related to the verb yoğurmak, "to knead", or "to be curdled or coagulated. It may be related to yoğun, meaning dense; the sound ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish from around 1615–1625. In modern Turkish the letter ğ marks a diaeresis between two vowels, without being pronounced itself, reflected in some languages' versions of the word. In English, the several variations of the spelling of the word include yogurt, to a lesser extent yoghourt or yogourt. Analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus genome indicates. Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally exposed to it through contact with plants, or bacteria may have been transferred from the udder of domestic milk-producing animals; the origins of yogurt are unknown, but it is thought to have been invented in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC.
In ancient Indian records, the combination of yogurt and honey is called "the food of the gods". Persian traditions hold that "Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt"; the cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala, believed to have been a form of yogurt. Galen mentioned that oxygala was consumed with honey, similar to the way thickened Greek yogurt is eaten today; the oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder, who remarked that certain "barbarous nations" knew how "to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity". The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century. Both texts describe its use by nomadic Turks; the earliest yogurts were spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags. Some accounts suggest that Mughal Indian emperor Akbar's cooks would flavor yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon.
Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who cured the patient with yogurt. Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food; until the 1900s, yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire, Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, the Indian subcontinent. Stamen Grigorov, a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva, first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt. In 1905, he described it as consisting of a rod-like lactic acid-producing bacteria. In 1907, the rod-like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus; the Russian Nobel laureate and biologist Ilya Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants.
Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe. Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt. In 1919, from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yogurt business in Barcelona and named the business Danone after his son; the brand expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name: Dannon. Yogurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlická Mlékárna dairy in Prague. Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, influenced by Élie Metchnikoff's The Prolongation of Life, it was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, where it was used both orally and in enemas, by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started "Colombo and Sons Creamery" in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929. Colombo Yogurt was delivered around New England in a horse
A mooring mast, or mooring tower, is a structure designed to allow for the docking of an airship outside of an airship hangar or similar structure. More a mooring mast is a mast or tower that contains a fitting on its top that allows for the bow of the airship to attach its mooring line to the structure; when it is not necessary or convenient to put an airship into its hangar between flights, airships can be moored on the surface of land or water, in the air to one or more wires, or to a mooring mast. After their development mooring masts became the standard approach to mooring airships as considerable manhandling was avoided. Airship mooring masts can be broadly divided into fixed or mobile low masts. In the 1920s and 1930s masts were built in many countries. At least two were mounted on ships. Without doubt the tallest mooring mast designed was the spire of the Empire State Building, constructed to serve as a mooring mast, although soon after converted for use as a television and radio transmitter tower due to the discovered infeasibility of mooring an airship, for any length of time, to a tall mast in the middle of an urban area.
Mooring an airship by the nose to the top of a mast or tower of some kind might appear to be an obvious solution, but dirigibles had been flying for some years before the mooring mast made its appearance. The first airship known to have been moored to a mast was HMA No.1, named the ‘Mayfly’, on 22 May 1911. The 38 ft mast was mounted on a pontoon, a windbreak of cross-yards with strips of canvas were attached to it. However, the windbreak caused the ship to yaw badly, she became more stable when it was removed, withstanding winds gusting up to 43 miles per hour. Further experiments in mooring blimps to cable-stayed lattice masts were carried out during 1918; the British mooring mast was developed more or less to its final form at Pulham and Cardington in 1919–21 to make the landing process easier and more economical of manpower The following account of the British high mast in its developed state at Cardington, its operation, is abridged from Masefield. Mooring masts were developed to act as a safe open harbour to which airships could be moored or unmoored in any weather, at which they could receive gas, fuel and payload.
The Cardington mast, completed in 1926, was an eight sided steel girder structure, 200 feet high, tapering from 70 feet diameter at ground level to 26 feet 6 inches at the passenger platform, 170 feet from the ground. Above the passenger platform was the 30 feet of the conical housing for the mooring gear. A lower platform 142 feet above the ground accommodated searchlights and signalling gear in a gallery 4 feet wide; the top platform, at the height of 170 feet, from which passengers embarked and disembarked to and from the airships, was 40 feet in diameter and encircled by a heavy parapet. The top rail of the parapet formed a track on which a gangway, let down from the airship, ran on wheels to give freedom for the airship to move around the tower as it swung with the wind. An electric passenger lift ran up the centre of the tower, encircled by a stairway to provide foot access; the upper portion of the tower, from the passenger platform upwards, was a circular steel turret surmounted by a truncated cone with its top 23 feet above the passenger platform.
A three-part telescopic arm, mounted on gimbals, projected through an opening at the top, free to swing from the vertical in any direction up to 30 degrees of movement. The top of the arm consisted of a bell-shaped cup mounted to rotate on ball bearings. A cable extended through the bell-mouth which, linked to a cable dropped from airship to be moored, enabled the nose of the airship to be drawn down until a cone on the nose locked home into the cup and so secured the airship to the tower; the telescopic arm was centred, locked in the vertical position, made free to rotate on a vertical axis so the airship could swing, nose to tower, in any direction of the wind. In the machinery house at the base of the tower three steam-driven winches operated the hauling gear through drums 5 feet in diameter to give cable hauling speeds of 50 feet a minute. While an airship approached the mast against the wind a mooring cable was let out from nose to the ground and linked, by a ground party, to the end of the mooring cable paid out from the mast head.
The cable was slowly wound in with the airship riding about 600 feet above the mast and down wind, with one engine running astern to maintain a pull on the cable. At this point, two side wires – or ‘yaw guys’ – were connected to cables taken from the nose of the airship to pulley blocks some hundreds of feet apart on the ground and thence to winches at the base of the mast. All three cables were wound in together, the main pull being taken on the mooring cable while the yaw guys steadied the ship; when all the cable had been wound, an articulated mooring cone on the nose of the airship locked home into the cup on the mast. The mast fitting was made free to rotate as the airship swung with the wind with freedom for pitch and roll. A gangway, like a drawbridge, which could be drawn up flush with the nose of the airship, was let down with its free end resting on the parapet of the platform running round the mast. Passengers and crew disembarked from the ship under cover along this gangway. About twelve men were needed to moor an airship to a mast.
Four high masts of the Cardington type were built along the proposed British Empire Airship Service routes, at Cardington itself, at Montreal and Kara
A mast, in Sufi philosophy, is a person, overwhelmed with love for God, accompanied with external disorientation resembling intoxication. The word was coined by Meher Baba and originates from the Sufi term mast-Allah meaning "intoxicated with God" from Persian mast meaning "intoxicated." Another interpretation of its origin is that it is derived from masti, a Persian word meaning "overpowered." According to Meher Baba, a mast is one, entranced or spellbound by internal spiritual experiences and ecstasies, who cannot function outwardly in an ordinary way, may appear mad to a casual outside observer. Such experiences, according to Meher Baba, stem from the station of a mast's consciousness on inner planes of involution. In The Wayfarers: Meher Baba With the God-Intoxicated, British medical doctor William Donkin documents at length Meher Baba's contacts with masts throughout South Asia; the introduction, written by Meher Baba, explains their unique state and their outward characteristics. He distinguishes the mast state from madness and explains that in the case of the mad person, the mind is sped up, while in the case of the mast it is slowed down.
Meher Baba made a Sufi analogy to the drunkenness of one intoxicated with wine, but in this case, the wine is the love of God. Meher Baba contacted thousands of masts all over India and Iran, saying that he was freeing them from enchantment and helping them to continue on the spiritual path and to be of inward service to humanity. Masts can be in varying degrees of the states of majzoob. Salik means more in touch with outward surroundings, meaning ordinary. Majzoob refers to that state of being immersed in the inner plane and divorced from the outside world. God-Intoxicated Pilgrims
Master of Advanced Studies
A Master of Advanced Studies or Master of Advanced Study is a postgraduate degree awarded in various countries. Master of Advanced Studies programs may be non-consecutive programs tailored for "specific groups of working professionals with well-defined needs for advanced degree work" or advanced research degrees. With the exception of the UK, advanced studies programs tend to be interdisciplinary and tend to be focused toward meeting the needs of professionals rather than academics; the University of Cambridge began offering the Master of Advanced Study in 2010 as a one-year master's degree in Mathematics as a replacement for the "Part III exam in Mathematics". Cambridge offers Master of Advanced Study degrees in four fields of study; the University of Warwick has approved the introduction of a Master of Advanced Study degree in Mathematics for the 2013/2014 year. In the United States, the Master of Advanced Study or the Master of Advanced Studies degree is a post-graduate professional degree issued by numerous academic institutions, but most notably by the University of California.
M. A. S. Programs tend to "concentrate on a set of coordinated coursework with culminating projects or papers rather than emphasizing student research" and are structured as interdisciplinary offerings; the Diplôme d'études approfondies or DEA was a doctoral programme degree delivered in France from 1964 to 2005. It was a postgraduate degree, aimed to prepare for advanced doctoral studies. In order to award a government sanctioned degree for a DEA, the university or institution had to require its students to complete a minimum 90-page thesis with a bibliography based on the students' original research, a thesis defense. In addition to the research thesis, its defense, delivery of the DEA required one-year of classroom study, an internship difficult written exams, an oral exam, it took these students two to three years to receive the diploma. Entrance in DEA programs was permitted only to holders of the maîtrise universitaire, a master's degree aimed to be an initiation to research methods. Given the thesis requirement, the DEA is considered higher level than the North American "All But Dissertation" or ABD status within a doctoral program or a master of philosophy, but lower level than a PhD.
Holders of a DEA were considered to have acquired the theoretical technical knowledge equivalent to a PhD, albeit with less practical research experience. As a result, DEA graduates would enter the job market without the need to do a PhD, be offered much more attractive jobs and conditions, compared to Masters degree graduates; the Bologna Process was implemented in France in 2002. In 2005, the DEA and the maîtrise were fused into a lower level two-year degree called "Master". At first, the first year of the Master was in fact a one-year stand-alone research program and the second year an introduction to further research; this was overturned by more Bologna-compliant programs, where the M1 introduces to research methods and M2 culminates in actual research. One can say that the old DEA idea is now extinct in France, having been replaced by a lower level Masters degree; the DEA and Diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées were offered in many places and may continue to be offered in countries that apply the French university style, sometimes with some minor differences, such as Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain and most Francophone countries.
In the French-speaking universities of Switzerland, the DEA, now master of advanced studies, was equivalent to the master's degree in English-speaking countries, it was a one-to-two-year degree taken after a Licence. It consisted of a number of courses, with examinations and grades, followed by research in a scientific laboratory; the students would write a substantial thesis about the scientific work they did, defend this thesis in front of a committee. The master of advanced studies remains a common post-graduate degree in Switzerland. In Europe, the DEA degrees are progressively subsumed into the Bologna process master's degrees and research-oriented master of advanced studies degrees; the degree of Master of Advanced Studies is awarded in Switzerland and Liechtenstein as a continuing education degree. In Switzerland, the degree is recognized by federal law. A university degree is required for admission, but work experience and non-formal education can be considered in addition to formal education.
A MAS requires 60-120 ECTS. and consists of course work, independent study and a masters thesis. This degree exists in Spain under the name "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados", it confers a higher qualification credential than a Master of Philosophy or Master of Studies but lower than old doctorate prior to European Higher Education Area, however equivalent to new doctoral degree. The so-called "DEA" was achieved in two years: one year of coursework, which included research methods and theoretical approaches of the discipline at stake and one year of research. All the work of the first and second years was defended before a panel; the DEA was a prerequisite for the preparation of the old PhD proposal and the commencement of PhD research in Spain before European Higher Education Area and Bologna process. Students of the College of Europe (an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with its campuses in Bruges and Natolin receive a
Radio masts and towers
Radio masts and towers are tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. There are two main types: self-supporting structures, they are among the tallest human-made structures. Masts are named after the broadcasting organizations that built them or use them. In the case of a mast radiator or radiating tower, the whole mast or tower is itself the transmitting antenna; the terms "mast" and "tower" are used interchangeably. However, in structural engineering terms, a tower is a self-supporting or cantilevered structure, while a mast is held up by stays or guys. Broadcast engineers in the UK use the same terminology. A mast is a ground-based or rooftop structure that supports antennas at a height where they can satisfactorily send or receive radio waves. Typical masts are of tubular steel construction. Masts themselves play no part in the transmission of mobile telecommunications. Masts tend to be cheaper to build but require an extended area surrounding them to accommodate the guy wires.
Towers are more used in cities where land is in short supply. There are a few borderline designs that are free-standing and guyed, called additionally guyed towers. For example: The Gerbrandy tower consists of a self-supporting tower with a guyed mast on top; the few remaining Blaw-Knox towers do the opposite: they have a guyed lower section surmounted by a freestanding part. Zendstation Smilde, a tall tower with a guyed mast on top with guys which go to ground. Torre de Collserola, a guyed tower with a guyed mast on top where the tower portion is not free-standing. Experimental radio broadcasting began in 1905, commercial radio broke through in the 1920s; until August 8, 1991, the Warsaw radio mast was the world's tallest supported structure on land. There are over 50 radio structures in the United States that are taller; the steel lattice is the most widespread form of construction. It provides great strength, low weight and wind resistance, economy in the use of materials. Lattices of triangular cross-section are most common, square lattices are widely used.
Guyed masts are used. When built as a tower, the structure may be taper over part or all of its height; when constructed of several sections which taper exponentially with height, in the manner of the Eiffel Tower, the tower is said to be an Eiffelized one. The Crystal Palace tower in London is an example. Guyed masts are sometimes constructed out of steel tubes; this construction type has the advantage that cables and other components can be protected from weather inside the tube and the structure may look cleaner. These masts are used for FM-/TV-broadcasting, but sometimes as mast radiator; the big mast of Mühlacker transmitting station is a good example of this. A disadvantage of this mast type is that it is much more affected by winds than masts with open bodies. Several tubular guyed masts have collapsed. In the UK, the Emley Moor and Waltham TV stations masts collapsed in the 1960s. In Germany the Bielstein transmitter collapsed in 1985. Tubular masts were not built in all countries. In Germany, France, UK, Czech Republic, Slovakia and the Soviet Union, many tubular guyed masts were built, while there are nearly none in Poland or North America.
In several cities in Russia and Ukraine several tubular guyed masts with crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys were built in the 1960s. All these masts, which are designed as 30107 KM, are used for FM and TV transmission and, except for the mast in Vinnytsia, are between 150–200-metre tall; the crossbars of these masts are equipped with a gangway that holds smaller antennas, though their main purpose is oscillation damping. Reinforced concrete towers are expensive to build but provide a high degree of mechanical rigidity in strong winds; this can be important when antennas with narrow beamwidths are used, such as those used for microwave point-to-point links, when the structure is to be occupied by people. In the 1950s, AT&T built numerous concrete towers, more resembling silos than towers, for its first transcontinental microwave route. In Germany and the Netherlands most towers constructed for point-to-point microwave links are built of reinforced concrete, while in the UK most are lattice towers.
Concrete towers can form prestigious landmarks, such as the CN Tower in Canada. In addition to accommodating technical staff, these buildings may have public areas such as observation decks or restaurants; the Stuttgart TV tower was the first tower in the world to be built in reinforced concrete. It was designed in 1956 by the local civil engineer Fritz Leonhardt. Fiberglass poles are used for low-power non-directional beacons or medium-wave broadcast transmitters. Carbon fibre monopoles and towers have traditionally been too expensive but recent developments in the way the carbon fibre tow is spun have resulted in solutions that offer strengths similar or exceeding steel for a fraction of the weight which has allowed monopoles and towers to be built in locations that were too expensive or difficult to access with the heavy lifting equipment, needed for a steel structure. Wood has been superseded in use by metal and composites for tower construction. Many wood towers were built in the UK during World War II because of a shortage of steel.
In Germany before World War II wooden towers were used at nearly all medium-wave transmission sites which hav
A mast cell is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. It is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell, a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, blood–brain barrier function; the mast cell is similar in both appearance and function to the basophil, another type of white blood cell. Although mast cells were once thought to be tissue resident basophils, it has been shown that the two cells develop from different hematopoietic lineages and thus cannot be the same cells. Mast cells are similar to basophil granulocytes in blood. Both are granulated cells that contain an anticoagulant, their nuclei differ in. The Fc region of immunoglobulin E becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators.
These similarities have led many to speculate that mast cells are basophils that have "homed in" on tissues. Furthermore, they share a common precursor in bone marrow expressing the CD34 molecule. Basophils leave the bone marrow mature, whereas the mast cell circulates in an immature form, only maturing once in a tissue site; the site an immature mast cell settles in determines its precise characteristics. The first in vitro differentiation and growth of a pure population of mouse mast cells has been carried out using conditioned medium derived from concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes, it was discovered that T cell-derived interleukin 3 was the component present in the conditioned media, required for mast cell differentiation and growth. Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells; the activities of the latter are dependent on T-cells. Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, are prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, digestive tract, as well as the mouth and nose.
Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. When activated, a mast cell can either selectively release or release "mediators", or compounds that induce inflammation, from storage granules into the local microenvironment. Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors, physical injury through pattern recognition receptors for damage-associated molecular patterns, microbial pathogens through pattern recognition receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns, various compounds through their associated G-protein coupled receptors or ligand-gated ion channels. Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies; this receptor is of such high affinity. As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, produced by plasma cells. IgE antibodies, are specific to one particular antigen.
In allergic reactions, mast cells remain inactive until an allergen binds to IgE coated upon the cell. Other membrane activation events can either prime mast cells for subsequent degranulation or act in synergy with FcεRI signal transduction. In general, allergens are polysaccharides; the allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on the variable regions of the IgE molecules bound to the mast cell surface. It appears; the clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. Although this reaction is most well understood in terms of allergy, it appears to have evolved as a defense system against parasites and bacteria. A unique, stimulus-specific set of mast cell mediators is released through degranulation following the activation of cell surface receptors on mast cells. Examples of mediators that are released into the extracellular environment during mast cell degranulation include: serine proteases, such as tryptase and chymase histamine serotonin proteoglycans heparin and some chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans adenosine triphosphate lysosomal enzymes β-hexosaminidase β-glucuronidase arylsulfatases newly formed lipid mediators: thromboxane prostaglandin D2 leukotriene C4 platelet-activating factor cytokines TNF-α basic fibroblast growth factor interleukin-4 stem cell factor chemokines, such as eosinophil chemotactic factor reactive oxygen species Histamine dilates post-capillary venules, activates the endothelium, increases blood vessel permeability.
This leads to local edema, warmth and the attraction of other inflammatory cells to the site of release. It depolarizes nerve endings. Cutaneous signs of histamine release are the "flare and wheal"-
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sail and derricks, giving necessary height to a navigation light, look-out position, signal yard, control position, radio aerial or signal lamp. Large ships have several masts, with the configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed; until the mid-19th century all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections, known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood.
Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as pole masts. Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers. For square-sail carrying ship, the masts, given their standard names in bow to stern order, are: Sprit topmast: a small mast set on the end of the bowsprit. Shorter than the fore-mast. Sections: mizzen-mast lower—mizzen topmast—mizzen topgallant mastSome names given to masts in ships carrying other types of rig are: Bonaventure mizzen: the fourth mast on larger sixteenth century galleons lateen-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen. Jigger-mast: where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. Sections: jigger-mast lower—jigger topmast—jigger topgallant mast Most types of vessels with two masts are supposed to have a main-mast and a smaller mizzen-mast, although both brigs and two-masted schooners carry a fore-mast and a main-mast instead. On a two-masted vessel with the main-mast forward and a much smaller second mast, such as a ketch, or a yawl, the terms mizzen and jigger are synonymous.
Although two-masted schooners may be provided with masts of identical size, the aftmost is still referred to as the main-mast, has the larger course. Schooners have been built with up to seven masts with several six-masted examples. On square-rigged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal yards from which the individual sails are rigged. Folding mast ships use a tabernacle anchor point—"the open socket or double post on the deck, into which a mast is fixed, with a pivot near the top so that the mast can be lowered", "large bracket attached to the deck, to which the foot of the mast is fixed. A two-masted merchant vessel with a sizable foresail rigged on a inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan tomb painting from 475–450 BC. An artemon the same size as the galley's mainsail can be found on a Corinthian krater as early as the late 6th century BC; the foremast became common on Roman galleys, inclined at an angle of 45°, it was more akin to a bowsprit, the foresail set on it, reduced in size, seems to be used rather as an aid to steering than for propulsion.
While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can be deduced archaeologically from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the prow for a mainsail. Artemon, along with mainsail and topsail, developed into the standard rig of seagoing vessels in imperial times, complemented by a mizzen on the largest freighters; the earliest recorded three-masters were the giant Syracusia, a prestige object commissioned by king Hiero II of Syracuse and devised by the polymath Archimedes around 240 BC, other Syracusan merchant ships of the time. The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between Alexandria and Rome included three-masted vessels. A mosaic in Ostia depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Rome's harbour. Special craft could carry many more masts: Theophrastus records how the Romans imported Corsican timber by way of a huge raft propelled by as many as fifty masts and sails. Throughout antiquity, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of canvas size, although large enough to require full running rigging.
In late antiquity, the foremast lost most of