The École nationale supérieure des arts et industries textiles is a French Engineering grand établissement and a member of UP-TEX research cluster. ENSAIT is a higher education and research institute, gathering all the disciplines related to textiles. ENSAIT chairs include four departments related to research. A majority of full-time students requesting admission have to pass a competitive exam in order to attend ENSAIT at the end of their undergraduate studies. International students with a bachelor's degree can request for admission. About fifty percent of students at ENSAIT have an international profile. Professional part-time education is developed. ENSAIT different curricula lead to the following degrees: Ingénieur ENSAIT Master's degree Masters Research and Specialized Masters, in cooperation with the University of Lille, École centrale de Lille and École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille. Doctoral degreeThe major fields of study and research at ENSAIT are: Technical textiles, Mechanical engineering Industrial and manufacturing engineering Smart material Textiles Chemistry, Biotechnology in Textiles Clothing Technologies, DesignDuring first year at ENSAIT, students study all the basics of textile technology.
Each year 80 students receive an ENSAIT Master's degree referred-to as diplôme d'ingénieur ENSAIT, around 10 students receive a doctoral degree. The school was founded in Roubaix with municipal funding, it was meant to provide a special studying program for the requirements of the textile industry at Roubaix and France. After 1889, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers Textiles; because the school was near from the war front, it was closed in some wartime periods, many students and academic staff died in these wars. Nowadays, the ENSAIT has a large parc of machinery. In 1991, the GEMTEX was inaugurated as the first French center with research competence in all textile engineering fields. Entrepreneurship is promoted with GENI-INNOTEX. Since the ENSAIT foundation, the students perpetuate their own traditions and folklore, are members of a student society, they call themselves "AIT". The "BDE" folklore includes traditional clothing, language and legends, related symbolism, ceremonials.
BDE activities are independent of the administration of the school and are run by the students, although the two parts cooperate for organising cultural or sporting events. The ENSAIT has a partnership with more than 300 institutions around the world
École nationale de l'aviation civile
The École nationale de l'aviation civile is one of the 207 schools that offers engineering degrees in France. ENAC has been classified as a Grande école by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. Conférence des Grandes Écoles is a non-profit organisation which accredits and delivers the master's degrees of all Grandes écoles; the group of Grandes écoles in France, was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. This university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, it is member of the following apart from Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH. ENAC offers 30 engineering degrees in civil aviation/aeronautics; some of the most notable ones include aerospace engineering, aircraft technicians, commercial airline pilots licenses, air traffic control, flight instructors.
The university offers 3 masters of science programmes and 12 Advanced masters degrees for students with industry/relevant experience. In 1945 after the WWII, the French air transport industry witnessed a rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance to regulations, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue. Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation. In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, not connected directly to the world of aviation.
Technical managers were trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology. Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions. ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel. Through Decree No. 49-970, the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents; the creation of these new bodies was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948.
Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots. Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation; that contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name, not chosen. ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation.
The university is located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety"; this priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university. To realize the chemistry that, in the m
École nationale supérieure d’électronique, informatique, télécommunications, mathématique et mécanique de Bordeaux
The École nationale supérieure d’électronique, informatique, télécommunications, mathématique et mécanique de Bordeaux is a grande école located in Bordeaux specialized in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, Telecommunications, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics. The standard curriculum is a three-year program resulting in the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur, considered by European universities as a master's degree of the European Higher Education Area. ENSEIRB-MATMECA is part of Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux. 1920: Foundation of the school "Telegraphy School of Bordeaux". At this stage, the school trains engineers for becoming radio operators. 1936: The school becomes "school of Radioelectricity of Bordeaux". 1940: The name changes again for "School of modern applications of radio Bordeaux". 1965: ENSEIRB-MATMECA becomes a national engineering school and renamed to "Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Electronique et de Radio de Bordeaux" 1986: The Computer Science department is created. 2000: The Telecommunications department is created.
2002: The Networks and Telecommunications track is created. 2009ENSEIRB and MATMECA merge with other Grandes Ecoles to create the Polytechnic Institute of Bordeaux. A new track called Embedded Electronic Systems is created.2010: ENSEIRB-MATMECA is among the Mines-Telecom institute network. 2011: The school confirms its membership to the AEROTECH network with other French Grandes Ecoles such as ENAC, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Centrale Lyon and Centrale Nantes. As a Grande École, the school recruits the majority of the students after the selection made by the competitive examination, the final step of two years of intensive Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Écoles; each department has its own required admission rank, determined by the number of candidates that want to integrated the department. Other ways to integrate the school exist, some students are admitted to the school after the University or after two years of specific integrated preparatory classes at the Cycle Préparatoire Intégré de Bordeaux.
The objective of the Electronic track is to train general electronics engineers, able to control electronic modules as well as design hardware and software systems. This track is covering all aspects of Computer Science, both in its theoretical and fundamental aspects. Covers all subjects related to telecommunications systems; the first year in this sector is a core discovery of Telecommunications systems. The second year is offering a panel of effective courses to define a coherent professional project; the third year is divided into four telecommunications main options: software engineering of telecommunication and communicating embedded systems, digital systems engineering, communication systems. Specialty mathematical modeling in mechanics trains engineers in controlling large numerical simulation tools and computer. In the world of industry, many phenomenas from backgrounds or complex systems can be described using systems of equations with partial derivatives. Engineers are able to develop the necessary tools for this type of study and mastery of their use because they would have a good understanding of the physical and mechanical phenomena.
They have a good knowledge of the great mathematical modeling approaches continuum. ENSEIRB-MATMECA has second-tier rating among French Grandes Ecoles. EIRBOT is the robotics association of ENSEIRB-MATMECA; the school's four departments create an ideal setting to build robots. EIRBOT's main goal is to participate to the French Robotics Cup, part of the Eurobot Open; the association has been designing and building robots from scratch since 2003. Knowledge sharing between members is an essential value of the association. EIRBOT is a cradle of ideas and projects. Loïc Dauphin, president of the association in 2013-2014, was awarded a price from INRIA for his Aversive++ project, a generic multi microcontroller API, which he started as a project within the association with the help of Clément Lansmarie and some other members to program robots; this project is now supported by INRIA. In 2015/2016, EIRBOT's sponsors are: ENSEIRB-MATMECA Bordeaux Graduate School, Elsys Design and Armadeus. Official website
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti
Henri Poincaré University
The Henri Poincaré University, or Nancy 1, nicknamed UHP, was a public research university located in Nancy, France. UHP was merged into University of Lorraine in 2012, was a member of the Nancy-Université federation, belonging to the French Nancy-Metz academy; the first University of Lorraine was created in 1572 by the Duke Charles de Lorraine and the Cardinal Charles III, in a city near Pont-à-Mousson. Nancy 1 merged with Nancy-II, Paul Verlaine University – Metz, the INPL forming the University of Lorraine; the merger process started in 2009 with the creation of a "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur" or PRES and was completed 1 January 2012. UHP figures in the Academic Ranking of World Universities made by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. In the year 2007, UHP ranked 305th at 124th at European scale. Uhp had five Faculties: Science and Technology Medical School Pharmacy Dentistry SportsThree Engineering Schools: Telecom Nancy Polytech Nancy ENSTIBThree Institutes of Technology: Nancy-Brabois Longwy St DiéAnd one Institute for Teacher Training.
The University included a total of 44 laboratories, linked with the most important French research organizations: CNRS, INSERM, INRA and INRIA. List of public universities in France by academy Faculty of Science and Technology The Nancy-Université federation
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
The École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille was founded in 1894 as the Institut de chimie de Lille. It is part of the Community of Institutions Lille Nord de France, it is located on the technology campus of the University of Lille. It delivers engineering and research curricula in the following chemistry area: Sustainable Chemistry and processes for next generation chemistry, Formulation Chemistry, Materials science/metallurgy. Master's degrees are joint program curricula with University of Lille faculties and/or École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Chemistry and Engineering Formulation - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry Master's degree in Catalysis and Processes - joint program with École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Advanced Materials - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Engineering of the polymer systems - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Chemistry, environment - joint degree with University of Lille Research is associated with the Institut des molécules et de la matière condensée de Lille of the Université Lille Nord de France and is supported through the following laboratories: Unité de catalyse et de chimie du solide de Lille, jointly operated with University of Lille and École centrale de Lille.
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers