The term "sailing ship" is most used to describe any large marine vessel that uses sails to harness the power of wind. A "ship-rigged" sailing ship refers to a vessel that carries three or more masts with square sails on each. Other large sailing vessels, that are not ship-rigged, may be more referred to by their sail rig, such as schooner, brig, brigantine or sloop. There are many different types of sailing ships; every sailing ship has a hull, rigging and at least one mast to hold up the sails that use the wind to power the ship. The crew who sail a ship are called hands, they take turns to take the active managers of the ship and her performance for a period. Watches are traditionally four hours long; some sailing ships use traditional ship's bells to tell the time and regulate the watch system, with the bell being rung once for every half hour into the watch and rung eight times at watch end. Ocean journeys by sailing ship can take many months, a common hazard is becoming becalmed because of lack of wind, or being blown off course by severe storms or winds that do not allow progress in the desired direction.
A severe storm could lead to shipwreck, the loss of all hands. Sailing ships are limited in their maximum size compared to ships with heat engines, so economies of scale are limited; the heaviest sailing ships never exceeded 14,000 tons displacement. Sailing ships are therefore very limited in the supply capacity of their holds, so they have to plan long voyages to include many stops to take on provisions and, in the days before watermakers, fresh water. There are many types of sailing ships distinguished by their rigging, keel, or number and configuration of masts. There are many types of smaller sailboats not listed here; the following is a list of vessel types, many of which have changed in meaning over time: In 1902 the sailing vessel Preussen was the first to assist handling of sails by making use of steam power without auxiliary engines for propulsion. The steam power was used to drive the winches and pumps. A similar ship Kruzenshtern, a large sailing vessel without mechanical assists, had a crew of 257 men, compared to the Preussen, which required only 48 men.
In 2006, automated control had been taken to the point where sails could be operated by one person using a central control unit, DynaRig. The DynaRig technology was first developed in the 1960s in Germany by W. Prolls as a propulsion alternative for commercial ships to prepare for a possible future energy crisis; the technology is a high-tech version of the same type of sail used by the Preussen, the "square-rigger". The main difference is that the yards do not swing around a fixed mast but are rigidly attached to a rotating mast. DynaRig along with extensive computerization was used in the proof-of-concept Maltese Falcon to enable it to be sailed with no crew aloft; as of 2013, with increasing restrictions on use of bunker fuel, attempts were underway to develop hybrid sailing ships using automated sail and alternative fuels. Tall ship Rigging Sail-plan List of large sailing vessels Cruising Shipbuilding; the History of a Ship from Her Cradle to Her Grave: With a Short Account of Modern Steamships and Torpedoes.
London: George Routledge & Sons.. The sailing-ship: six thousand years of history. New York: R. M. McBride. Media related to Sailing ships at Wikimedia Commons
A ketch is a two-masted sailing craft whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen mast. The name "ketch" is derived from fishing boat; the ketch was a northern European square-rigged vessel a freighter or fishing boat in the Baltic and North seas. Nowadays, a ketch tends to be a fore-and-aft rigged pleasure yacht, similar to a yawl; the large fore-and-aft sail on the mainmast is the mainsail, while the sail on the mizzen mast is the mizzen. To assist going to windward, a ketch will carry at least one foresail such as a jib or genoa. Although both the single-masted Bermuda sloop and cutter have simpler rigging and are more efficient, the sails on a ketch are smaller and more handled, its mainmast is shorter. A modern ketch's sails may be any type of fore-and-aft sail, in any combination, most are Bermuda rigged; the modern ketch is popular among long distance cruisers. Both the ketch and the yawl rig have proved to be more suitable for motorsailers than the Bermuda rig. In strong winds a ketch's mainsail can be dropped altogether, thereby reducing sail and leaving a balanced sail-plan with just jib and mizzen set.
When sailing with just mizzen and jib set, there is no excessive lee helm, some claim that the additional sail allows a better balance. When running before the wind or reaching across the wind, a ketch may set extra sails such as a spinnaker or mizzen staysail on the mizzen mast, as well as a spinnaker on the main mast; when at anchor, the mizzen sail may help to steady the boat, thereby reducing roll in an otherwise uncomfortable anchorage. The mizzen sail may be flown alone to hold the boat's bow into oncoming waves. On a fishing boat, this "weathercocking" effect allows nets to be handled without the boat becoming broadsides to the waves, allowing the crew to work in safety. Other possible rigs on a ketch include gunter rigs and gaff rigs; the Scots Zulu, for example, had a dipping lug main with a standing lug mizzen. One of Sir Francis Chichester's earlier Gypsy Moth ketches had five staysails, none of which were boomed. If a ketch has no jibs, it is called a periauger. On older, larger ketches the main mast may in addition carry one or more square rigged topsails.
The square-rigged ketch was supplanted by the brig, which differs from the ketch by having a forward mast smaller than the after mast, by the hoy, fore-and-aft rigged. Other similar craft include the pink. Both the ketch and the yawl have two masts, with the main mast foremost, but the balance of sail area can be an overriding characteristic. If 20% or more of the sail area is in the mizzen sail the rig would be termed a ketch; this is true on center cockpit yachts. Compared to a ketch, a similar size yawl's mizzen sail is much smaller than the main, because of the limitations of the mizzen sheet. So on a ketch, the dual purpose of the mizzen sail is to both propel and balance the vessel, while on a yawl, the smaller mizzen serves the purpose of trim or balance. Yawls tend to have mainsails as large as those of comparable sloops. A ketch may be distinguished from a cutter or a sloop by virtue of having two masts rather than one, though a ketch with two foresails is sometimes called a "cutter-rigged ketch".
Both the ketch and the yawl differ from the two-masted schooner, whose aft mainmast is taller than the foremast. If a vessel has two masts of the same height, the rig with the larger sail forward is called a ketch, while the rig with the larger sail aft is a schooner; the American two-masted schooner is rare in Europe. In the year 1775, various ketches were utilized as warships by the Sultanate of Mysore during the rule of Hyder Ali. During the 17th and 18th centuries, ketches were used as small warships, until superseded in this role by brigs during the latter part of the 18th century; the ketch continued in use as a specialized vessel for carrying mortars until after the Napoleonic wars, in this application it was called a bomb ketch. The original Atlantis, the seagoing research vessel of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution commissioned in 1931, was a steel-hulled ketch. In 1989 Bruce Farr designed the Maxi ketch Steinlager 2, the first maxi yacht built of composite carbon construction.
This revolutionary lightweight design went on to win the Whitbread Round the World Race in 1989/90. In 1947 a radio program called; the Scarlet Queen was a 78-foot ketch with a white hull, teak decking, brass bright-work, sporting the "Scarlet Queen" herself, on the bowsprit, naked as the day she was born, "a fresh, young body... looking forward... bold, teasing... dressed in only a crown, painted brilliant red." A William Garden–designed Formosa 51 ketch named Wanderer was the main setting in the 1992 film Captain Ron. Three Formosa 51s were used in filming. A Formosa 51 ketch named Viking Spirit was used in the 2004 romantic comedy 50 First Dates starring Adam Sandler and Drew Barrymore. In the film, the boat was named the Sea Serpent. Cutter Sail-plan Schooner Sloop Yawl Cat-ketch Jones, Gregory O.. The American Sailboat. St. Paul, Minn.: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 9780760310021. OCLC 49315350
A galley is a type of ship, propelled by rowing. The galley is characterized by shallow draft and low freeboard. All types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human strength was always the primary method of propulsion; this allowed galleys to navigate independently of currents. The galley originated among the seafaring civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in the late second millennium BC and remained in use in various forms until the early 19th century in warfare and piracy. Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks and Romans, they remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea until the last decades of the 16th century. As warships, galleys carried various types of weapons throughout their long existence, including rams and cannons, but relied on their large crews to overpower enemy vessels in boarding actions, they were the first ships to use heavy cannons as anti-ship weapons.
As efficient gun platforms they forced changes in the design of medieval seaside fortresses as well as refinement of sailing warships. The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles fought. By the 17th century, sailing ships and hybrid ships like the xebec displaced galleys in naval warfare, they were the most common warships in the Atlantic Ocean during the Middle Ages, saw limited use in the Caribbean, the Philippines and the Indian Ocean in the early modern period as patrol craft to combat pirates. From the mid-16th century galleys were in intermittent use in the Baltic Sea, with its short distances and extensive archipelagoes. There was a minor revival of galley warfare in the 18th century in the wars among Russia and Denmark; the term "galley" derives from the medieval Greek galea, a smaller version of the dromon, the prime warship of the Byzantine navy. The origin of the Greek word is unclear but could be related to galeos, dogfish shark.
The word "galley" has been attested in English from c. 1300 and has been used in most European languages from around 1500 both as a general term for oared warships, from the Middle Ages and onwards more for the Mediterranean-style vessel. It was only from the 16th century. Before that in antiquity, there was a wide variety of terms used for different types of galleys. In modern historical literature, "galley" is used as a general term for various types of oared vessels larger than boats, though the "true" galley is defined as the ships belonging to the Mediterranean tradition. Ancient galleys were named according to the number of oars, the number of banks of oars or lines of rowers; the terms are based on contemporary language use combined with more recent compounds of Greek and Latin words. The earliest Greek single-banked galleys are called penteconters. For galleys with more than one row of oars, the terminology is based on Latin numerals with the suffix -reme from rēmus, "oar". A monoreme has one bank of a bireme two and a trireme three.
Since the maximum banks of oars was three, any expansion above that did not refer to additional banks of oars, but of additional rowers for every oar. Quinquereme was a "five-oar", but meant that there were several rowers to certain banks of oars which made up five lines of oar handlers. For simplicity, they have by many modern scholars been referred to as "fives", "sixes", "eights", "elevens", etc. Anything above six or seven rows of rowers was not common, though a exceptional "forty" is attested in contemporary source. Any galley with more than three or four lines of rowers is referred to as a "polyreme". Archaeologist Lionel Casson has used the term "galley" to describe all North European shipping in the early and high Middle Ages, including Viking merchants and their famous longships, though this is rare. Oared military vessels built on the British Isles in the 11th to 13th centuries were based on Scandinavian designs, but were referred to as "galleys". Many of them were similar to close relatives of longship types like the snekkja.
By the 14th century, they were replaced with balingers in southern Britain while longship-type "Irish galleys" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages in northern Britain. Medieval and early modern galleys used a different terminology than their ancient predecessors. Names were based on the changing designs that evolved after the ancient rowing schemes were forgotten. Among the most important is the Byzantine dromon, the predecessor to the Italian galea sottila; this was the first step toward the final form of the Mediterranean war galley. As galleys became an integral part of an advanced, early modern system of warfare and state administration, they were divided into a number of ranked grades based on the size of the vessel and the number of its crew; the most basic types were the following: large commander "lantern galleys", half-galleys, fustas and fregatas. Naval historian Jan Glete has described as a sort of predecessor of the rating system of the Royal Navy and other sailing fleets in Northern Europe.
The French navy and the British Royal Navy built a series of "galley frigates" from c. 1670–1690 that were small two-decked sailing cruisers with a set of oarports on the lower deck. The three British galley frigates had distinctive names - James Galley, Charles Galley and Mary Galley. In the late
A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. The hull may open at the top, or it may be or covered with a deck. Atop the deck may be a deckhouse and other superstructures, such as a funnel, derrick, or mast; the line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. There is a wide variety of hull types that are chosen for suitability for different usages, the hull shape being dependent upon the needs of the design. Shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat; the shape is chosen to strike a balance between cost, hydrostatic considerations and special considerations for the ship's role, such as the rounded bow of an icebreaker or the flat bottom of a landing craft. In a typical modern steel ship, the hull will have watertight decks, major transverse members called bulkheads. There may be intermediate members such as girders and webs, minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement.
The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or where it sails. In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames and bulkheads, which are further tied together by longitudinal stringers or ceiling, but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque arrangement. In many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material; the earliest proper hulls were built by the Ancient Egyptians, who by 3000 BC knew how to assemble wooden planks into ahull. See also: Hull Hulls come in many varieties and can have composite shape, but are grouped as follows: Chined and Hard-chined.
Examples are the flat-bottom, v-bottom, multi-bottom hull. These types have at least one pronounced knuckle throughout most of their length. Moulded, round soft-chined; these hull shapes all have smooth curves. Examples are the round bilge, semi-round bilge, s-bottom hull. Displacement hull: here the hull is supported or predominantly by buoyancy. Vessels that have this type of hull travel through the water at a limited rate, defined by the waterline length, they are though not always, heavier than planing types. Planing hull: here, the planing hull form is configured to develop positive dynamic pressure so that its draft decreases with increasing speed; the dynamic lift reduces the wetted surface and therefore the drag. They are sometimes flat-bottomed, sometimes V-bottomed and more round-bilged; the most common form is to have at least one chine, which makes for more efficient planing and can throw spray down. Planing hulls are more efficient at higher speeds, although they still require more energy to achieve these speeds.
An effective planing hull must be as light as possible with flat surfaces that are consistent with good sea keeping. Sail boats that plane must sail efficiently in displacement mode in light winds. Semi-displacement, or semi-planing: here the hull form is capable of developing a moderate amount of dynamic lift. At present, the most used form is the round bilge hull. In the inverted bell shape of the hull, with a smaller payload the waterline cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher. With a higher payload the outward bend provides smoother performance in waves; as such, the inverted bell shape is a popular form used with planing hulls. A chined hull consists of straight, tall, long, or short plates, timbers or sheets of ply, which are set at an angle to each other when viewed in transverse section; the traditional chined hull is a simple hull shape because it works with only straight planks bent into a curve. These boards are bent lengthwise. Plywood chined boats made of 8' x 4' sheets have most bend along the long axis of the sheet.
Only thin ply 3–6 mm can be shaped into a compound bend. Most home-made constructed boats are chined hull boats. Mass-produced chine powerboats are made of sprayed chop strand fibreglass over a wooden mold; the Cajun "pirogue" is an example of a craft with hard chines. Benefits of this type of hull is the low production cost and the flat bottom, making the boat faster at planing. Sail boats with chined hull make use of a dagger keel. Chined hulls may have one of three shapes: Flat-bottom chined hulls Multi-chined hulls V-bottom chined hulls. Sometimes called hard chine; each of these chine hulls use. The flat bottom hull has high initial stability but high drag. To counter the high drag hull forms are narrow and sometimes tapered at bow and stern; this leads to poor stability. This is countered by using heavy interior ballast on sailing versions, they are best suited to sheltered inshore waters. Early racing power boats were flat aft; this produced maximum lift and a smooth,fast ride in flat water but this hull form is unsettled in waves.
The multi chine h
The bowsprit of a sailing vessel is a spar extending forward from the vessel's prow. It provides an anchor point for the forestay, allowing the fore-mast to be stepped farther forward on the hull; the word bowsprit is thought to originate from the Middle Low German word bōchsprēt - bōch meaning bow and sprēt meaning pole. Early ocean-going vessels tended to tilt the bowsprit known in centuries past as a boltsprit, at a high angle, hung one or two square spritsails from yards. In the 17th century and early 18th century a vertical sprit topmast was added near the end of the bowsprit and another square sail added to it. Fore-and-aft sails known as jibs hung from the stays proved more useful for speed and manoeuvring, the basic bowsprit was lengthened with a jibboom and even further with a flying jibboom, resulting in bowsprits of tremendous length, up to 30 metres total. Many types of small pleasure and work vessels ship bowsprits short in length. Once popular on yachts large and small after the popularization of the Bermuda rig, they have fallen out of fashion.
On some modern racing yachts and dinghies, the bowsprit is retractable and used to fly an asymmetrical spinnaker. The bowsprit on a tall ship may be of considerable length and carry several forestays supporting the foremast. Headsails are stowed by tying onto the bowsprit when not in use. To minimise the risk of bowsprit and crew handling sail on it being buried in large waves, it is angled upwards from the horizontal; some hang. The bowsprit is formed by extending the keel tube about a metre beyond the leading edge of the wing. In 1879 a patent in England by F. W. Brearey was filed that taught bowsprit structure for flying machines. In the modern mid-1900s renaissance in hang gliding a Dial Soap TV commercial featured in 1973 a bowsprit cross-sparless hang glider. Other examples of bowsprit hang gliders were exampled in the gliders manufactured by Bautek in the 1980s
A yawl is a two-masted sailing craft whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen mast. Compared to a similar sized ketch, a yawl's mizzen mast is set further aft and its mizzen sail is smaller; the yawl was a commercial working vessel, but today, the yawl is a fore-and-aft rigged pleasure yacht. In Europe yawls are much less common than the more popular ketch; the yawl was developed as a rowboat with two small masts to assist the oarsmen.. The yawl became a rig for commercial fishing boats, an example being the Salcombe Yawl, a small traditional fishing boat built in Devon. After 1890, the yawl became a popular rig for pleasure yachts, being suited to hulls with extended counter sterns. In its heyday, the yawl's ability to be trimmed to sail without rudder input made it popular with single-handed sailors, such as circumnavigators Harry Pidgeon and Francis Chichester. Modern self-steering and navigation aids have made this less important, the yawl has fallen out of favor. Both the yawl and the ketch rig have proved to be more suitable for motorsailers than the Bermuda rig.
The etymology of the word ` yawl' is. In the United Kingdom a yawl is sometimes known as a dandy; the Webster's dictionary 1828 definition provides "Yawl: A small ship's boat rowed by four or six oars". The twentieth-century American yacht designer, Francis Herreshoff, reflected this traditional definition of a yawl as "a ship's boat resembling the pinnace" set up to be rowed. Although both the single-masted Bermuda sloop and cutter have simpler rigging and are more efficient, the sails on a yawl are smaller and more handled, its mainmast is shorter. Both the yawl and the ketch have two masts, with the main mast foremost; the acknowledged distinction for yachts with overhanging sterns and inboard rudders, is that a ketch has the mizzen mast forward of the rudder post, whereas on a yawl, it is aft of the rudder post. For boats with shorter overhangs or outboard rudders, the distinction is more usefully determined by comparing the purposes and relative sizes of the mizzens. A yawl's mizzen sail is much smaller than its mainsail, is situated well aft, behind the helm station.
On a ketch, the principal purpose of the larger mizzen sail is to help propel the vessel as part of the working sail, the sail area being divided to ease handling. A yawl's smaller mizzen serves to help trim and balance, working as an "air rudder" or trim tab rather than as a substantial part of the working sail area. Yawls tend to have mainsails as large as those of sloops and cutters with similar sized hulls; the "rudder post" distinction between a yawl and a ketch owes much to handicap systems for racing yachts. The CCA rating rule was developed following World War II to allow different styles of boats to race against each other with a handicap calculated from measurements of each boat, it was combined with the RORC rule to become the IOR rule in the late 1950s, used to handicap international racing until the late 1980s. The CCA and the following rules used the rudder post definitions of ketch and yawl so they had a cut and dried definition for measuring sail so boats could be handicapped with boats fulfilling their new and arbitrary definition of Yawl and Ketch receiving different handicaps.
In the 1950s and 1960s ocean racing yawls were developed to take advantage of a handicapping rule that did not penalize them for flying a mizzen staysail, which on long ocean races downwind, was an advantage. A good example of this was Olin Stephens' Finisterre. Canoe yawls have a pointed stern similar to a canoe, its rudder was placed on the sternpost, could be raised to allow the boat to be beached. Islander Rozinante Spray Concordia yawls Drascombe Lugger and derivatives Salcombe Yawl Stormy Weather Sheila II Rob Roy Nellie, a fictional cruising yawl on which the narrator of Heart_of_Darkness#Plot_summary tells his story. Sail-plan Schooner Yoal Humber Yawl Club 52' Fast Cruising Yawl Dorade Humber Yawl Club Brief History of the Humber Yawl Club A page on historical Canoe Yawls - many with ketch and some with sloop rigs Restoration of a Humber Yawl Luders Yawls
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap; as the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation; the word can be used as a synecdoche to refer to a complete boat, such as a keelboat. The adjustable centerboard keel traces its roots to the medieval Chinese Song dynasty. Many Song Chinese junk ships had a ballasted and bilge keel that consisted of wooden beams bound together with iron hoops. Maritime technology and the technological know-how allowed Song dynasty ships to be used in naval warfare between the Southern Song Dynasty, the Jin dynasty, the Mongols. A structural keel is the bottom-most structural member; the keel runs from the bow to the stern.
The keel is the first part of a ship's hull to be constructed, laying the keel, or placing the keel in the cradle in which the ship will be built may mark the start time of its construction. Large, modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated, complete hull sections rather than being built around a single keel, so shipbuilding process commences with cutting the first sheet of steel; the most common type of keel is the "flat plate keel", this is fitted in the majority of ocean-going ships and other vessels. A form of keel found on smaller vessels is the "bar keel", which may be fitted in trawlers and smaller ferries. Where grounding is possible, this type of keel is suitable with its massive scantlings, but there is always a problem of the increased draft with no additional cargo capacity. If a double bottom is fitted, the keel is inevitably of the flat plate type, bar keels being associated with open floors, where the plate keel may be fitted. Duct keels are provided in the bottom of some vessels.
These run from the forward engine room bulkhead to the collision bulkhead and are utilized to carry the double bottom piping. The piping is accessible when cargo is loaded; the keel surface on the bottom of the hull gives the ship greater directional stability. In non-sailing hulls, the keel helps the hull to move forward, rather than slipping to the side. In traditional boat building, this is provided by the structural keel, which projects from the bottom of the hull along most or all of its length. In modern construction, the bar keel or flat-plate keel performs the same function. There are many types of fixed keels, including full keels, long keels, fin keels, winged keels, bulb keels, bilge keels among other designs. Deep-draft ships will have a flat bottom and employ only bilge keels, both to aid directional control and to damp rolling motions In sailboats, keels use the forward motion of the boat to generate lift to counteract the leeward force of the wind; the rudimentary purpose of the keel is to convert the sideways motion of the wind when it is abeam into forward motion.
A secondary purpose of the keel is to provide ballast. Keels are different from centreboards and other types of foils in that keels are made of heavy materials to provide ballast to stabilize the boat. Keels may be fixed, or non-movable. Retracting keels may pivot or slide upwards to retract, are retracted with a winch due to the weight of the ballast. Since the keel provides far more stability when lowered than when retracted, the amount of sail carried is reduced when sailing with the keel retracted. Types of non-fixed keels include canting keels. Canting keels can be found on racing yachts, such as those competing in the Volvo Ocean Race, they provide more righting moment as the keel moves out to the windward-side of the boat while using less weight. The horizontal distance from the weight to the pivot is increased, which generates a larger righting moment; the word "keel" comes from Old English cēol, Old Norse kjóll, = "ship" or "keel". It has the distinction of being regarded by some scholars as the first word in the English language recorded in writing, having been recorded by Gildas in his 6th century Latin work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, under the spelling cyulae.
Carina is the origin of the term careen. An example of this use is Careening Cove, a suburb of Sydney, where careening was carried out in early colonial days. Coin ceremony Kelson False keel Daggerboard Leeboard Bilgeboard Bruce foil Keelhauling – an archaic maritime punishment Rousmaniere, The Annapolis Book of Seamanship, Simon & Schuster, 1999 Chapman Book of Piloting, Hearst Corporation, 1999 Herreshoff, The Sailor’s Handbook, Little Brown and Company Seidman, The Complete Sailor, International Marine, 1995 Jobson, Sailing Fundamentals, Simon & Schuster, 1987