Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five were an American hip hop group formed in the South Bronx of New York City in 1978. Composed of Grandmaster Flash, Melle Mel, The Kidd Creole, Keith Cowboy, Mr. Ness/Scorpio and Rahiem, the group's use of turntablism, break-beat DJing, conscious lyricism were significant in the early development of hip hop music. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five built their reputation performing at parties and live shows in the late 1970s and achieved local success. By the time the Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight" was released, the group realized the potential of cutting records and signed with various labels until staying with Sugar Hill Records. Under Sugar Hill Records, the group rose to prominence in the early 1980s with their first hit "Freedom", it was not until the release of "The Message" and the album of the same name that they achieved mainstream success. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five would break up into two separate groups due to differences until a brief reunion in 1987 led to the release of the original line-up's second album On the Strength.
Afterward, they disbanded permanently. Today the group's legacy continues on as Grandmaster's Furious Five with only Melle Mel and Scorpio as remaining members; the group is regarded as among the most influential hip hop acts. Their biggest single and acknowledged masterpiece "The Message" is cited as one of the greatest hip hop songs of all time. In 2007 they were inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, making them the first hip hop group to be inducted. Prior to the formation of the Furious Five, Grandmaster Flash worked with the "L Brothers" which consisted of "Mean Gene" Livingston, Claudio Livingston and Grand Wizzard Theodore. Flash recruited his friend Cowboy, Melle Mel and The Kidd Creole; the trio called themselves the Three MC's who are the first emcee group as it relates to rap as we know it today. Cowboy, through his use of a "scat routine" that the culture's early detractors used to label the music, thus the term "hip hoppers" was used by the disco set to describe the culture whittled down to hip hop.
While using this "scat routine" at a party for a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, Cowboy began scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of the marching drill, he worked the "hip hop" cadence into part of his performance this evolved into the term "Hip Hop", adopted by the industry. Melle Mel and The Kidd Creole were the first rappers to call themselves "MCs"; the 3 emcees worked with Flash, who went on to bring in Mr. Rahiem. After the formation of the Furious 5, Flash worked with rapper Kurtis Blow doing parties in Queens. During the time Flash worked with Kurtis Blow, it was due to internal disputes with the emcees, so for a short time prior to the formation of the Cold Crush Brothers in 1981, DJ Charlie Chase was the Furious 5's DJ. Grandmaster Flash & The Furious 5 were the number one rap group on the streets of New York City before rap music was embraced by the music industry, set the standard for all other emcee groups who came after them.
The first single they released were "We Rap More Mellow", registered under the name "The Younger Generation". The name was decided by the producer, they were locally popular, gaining recognition for their skillful raps and deejaying, but it was not until the Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight" proved that hip hop music could reach mainstream that they began recording. In 1979 they released their first single on Enjoy Records, "Superappin'". Afterwards, they switched to Sylvia Robinson's Sugar Hill Records after an agreement that they could perform over a current DJ favorite. In 1980, the group had their Sugarhill Records debut with "Freedom", reaching #19 on the R&B chart and selling over 50,000 copies; the follow-up "Birthday Party" went on to become a hit as well. In 1981 Grandmaster Flash released "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel"; this was a multi deck live recording of one of Grandmaster flash's routines featuring, Queen's "Another One Bites the Dust" and Chic's "Good Times".
It marked the first time that scratching & turntablism had been recorded on a record. In 1982 the group released "The Message,", produced by Clifton "Jiggs" Chase and Ed "Duke Bootee" Fletcher, the latter who wrote the song It provided a political and social commentary and went on to become a driving force behind conscious hip-hop; the song peaked at #4 in the R&B chart and #62 in the pop chart, established hip-hop's credibility in mainstream music. Other than Melle Mel, however, no members of the group appear on the record, their debut album was named The Message, it went on to become a prominent achievement in the history of hip-hop. In 1983, Grandmaster Flash, who never appeared on any of the group's studio recordings, sued Sugar Hill Records for $5 million in unpaid royalties; this resulted in the single "White Lines" being credited to "Grandmaster & Melle Mel". The song reached #47 in Billboard's Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. Another lawsuit was filed over certain elements of the song being stolen from "Cavern" by Liquid Liquid, from which Sugar Hill Records would never recover.
The royalties dispute split the group, Melle Mel left, soon followed by Mr. Ness/Scorpio and Cowboy after "White Lin
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Teaneck, New Jersey
Teaneck is a township of Bergen County in New Jersey, United States, a suburb in the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 39,776, reflecting an increase of 516 from the 39,260 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,435 from the 37,825 counted in the 1990 Census; as of 2010 it was the second-most populous among the 70 municipalities in Bergen County, behind Hackensack, which had a population of 43,010. Teaneck was created on February 19, 1895 by an act of the New Jersey Legislature from portions of Englewood Township and Ridgefield Township, both of which are now defunct, along with portions of Bogota and Leonia. Independence followed the result of a referendum held on January 14, 1895, in which voters favored incorporation by a 46–7 margin. To address the concerns of Englewood Township's leaders, the new municipality was formed as a township, rather than succumbing to the borough craze sweeping across Bergen County at the time.
On May 3, 1921, June 1, 1926, portions of what had been Teaneck were transferred to Overpeck Township. Teaneck lies at the junction of Interstate 95 and the eastern terminus of Interstate 80; the township is bisected into north and south portions by Route 4 and east and west by the CSX Transportation River Subdivision. Commercial development is concentrated in four main shopping areas, on Cedar Lane, Teaneck Road, DeGraw Avenue, West Englewood Avenue and Queen Anne Road, more known as "The Plaza". Teaneck's location at the crossroads of river, road and other geographical features has made it a site of many momentous events across the centuries. After the American defeat at the Battle of Fort Washington, George Washington and the troops of the Continental Army retreated across New Jersey from the British Army, traveling through Teaneck and crossing the Hackensack River at New Bridge Landing, which has since been turned into a state park and historic site commemorating the events of 1776 and of early colonial life.
In 1965, Teaneck voluntarily desegregated its public schools, after the Board of Education approved a plan to do so by a 7–2 vote on May 13, 1964. Teaneck has a diverse population, with large Jewish and African American communities, growing numbers of Hispanic and Asian residents; the origin and meaning of the name "Teaneck" is not known, but speculation is that it could come from various Dutch or English words, or it could be Native American in origin, meaning "the woods". An alternative is from the Dutch "Tiene Neck" meaning "neck where there are willows"; the earliest uses of the word "Teaneck" were in reference to a series of Lenni Lenape Native American camps near the ridge formed by what became Queen Anne Road. Chief Oratam was the leader of a settlement called "Achikinhesacky" that existed along Overpeck Creek in the area near what became Fycke Lane. A neighborhood variously called East Hackensack or New Hackensack was established along a ridge on the east bank of the Hackensack River, site of a Native American trail that followed the river's path along what is now River Road, with the earliest known buildings constructed dating back as far as 1704.
Other early European settlements were established along what became Teaneck Road, the site of a number of Dutch stone houses that remain standing since their construction in the 1700s, several of which have been added to the National Register of Historic Places. During November 1776, General George Washington passed through Teaneck in the aftermath of the Battle of Fort Lee, as part of the hasty retreat of ragtag Colonial forces from Fort Lee on the Hudson River in the wake of the successful British invasion and defeat of Continental Army forces in Manhattan on the opposite side of the river during the Battle of Fort Washington. Early on the morning of November 20, 1776, Washington rode by horseback from his headquarters in Hackensack through Teaneck and across Overpeck Creek to Fort Lee. There he watched, he had his troops abandon their position on the Palisades in a poorly organized retreat in which most of their supplies were abandoned, with Washington's troops moving inland across Overpeck Creek and through Teaneck to New Bridge Landing and crossing the bridge, one of the few available at the time.
The soldiers, many poorly dressed, ill-equipped and without shoes, faced the cold rain, leading Thomas Paine to compose the pamphlet, The American Crisis, in which he captured the depth of the defeat by describing those days with the words "These are the times that try men's souls". Throughout the war, both British and American forces occupied local homesteads at various times, Teaneck citizens played key roles on both sides of the conflict. After the war, Teaneck returned to being a quiet farm community. Fruits and vegetables grown locally were taken by wagon to markets in nearby Paterson and New York City. New growth and development were spurred in the mid-19th century by the establishment of railroads throughout the area. Wealthy New Yorkers and others purchased large properties on which they built spacious mansions and manor houses, they traveled daily thus becoming Teaneck's first suburban commuters. The largest estate built in Teaneck belonged to William Walter Phelps, the son of a wealthy railroad magnate and New York City merchant.
In 1865, Phelps arrived in Teaneck and enlarged an old farmhouse into a large Victorian mansion on the site of the present Municipal Government Complex. Phelps' "Englewood Farm" encompassed nearly 2,000 acres of landscaped property within the central part of Teaneck, on which some 600,000 trees were planted. Subsequent develo
Sugarhill Gang (album)
Sugarhill Gang is the self-titled debut album by influential rap group The Sugarhill Gang. The album was produced by Sylvia Robinson; the single "Rapper's Delight" was a #36 hit on the US pop chart and a #4 hit on the R&B chart. Although "Rapper's Delight" was the only charting single, the album included the minor hit, "Rapper's Reprise"; the remainder of the LP consists several down-tempo soul tracks and a disco instrumental, as Sylvia Robinson didn't believe an album consisting of hip hop music would be commercially viable in 1980. "Here I Am" – 5:09 "Rapper's Reprise" featuring The Sequence – 7:40 "Bad News Don't Bother Me" – 6:45 "Sugarhill Groove" – 9:52 "Passion Play" – 5:10 "Rapper's Delight" – 14:37 Rappers – Big Bank Hank, Master Gee, Wonder Mike Backing Vocals, Rhythm Arrangements – Positive Force Bass – Bernard Rowland, Douglas Wimbish Chip Shearin Drums – Bryan Horton, Keith LeBlanc Guitar – Albert Pittman, Skip McDonald Brian Morgan Keyboards – Nate Edmonds, Skitch Smith Percussion – Craig Derry, Harry Reyes, John Stump Vibraphone, Backing Vocals – Sylvia Robinson Special Guest Appearance – Tito Puente Special Effects – Billy Jones, Nate Edmonds Producer, Mixed By – Billy Jones, Nate Edmonds, Sylvia Robinson The Sugarhill Gang-Sugarhill Gang at Discogs
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
The Sugarhill Gang
The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group. Their 1979 hit "Rapper's Delight" was the first rap single to become a Top 40 hit on the Billboard Hot 100; the members, all from Englewood, New Jersey, consisted of Michael "Wonder Mike" Wright, Henry "Big Bank Hank" Jackson, Guy "Master Gee" O'Brien. The three were assembled into a group by producer Sylvia Robinson, who founded Sugar Hill Records with her husband, record producer Joe Robinson; the group and the record company were named after the Sugar Hill, neighborhood. The Sugarhill Gang never had another U. S. hit, though it had multiple European hits, such as "Apache", "8th Wonder", "Rapper's Reprise", "Showdown". In 1999, the trio reunited and recorded Jump on It! A hip hop children's album. After Wonder Mike and Hendogg left Sugarhill Records in 2005, the original members of Sugarhill Gang besides Jackson have performed as the Original Sugar and as Rapper's Delight Featuring Wonder Mike and Master Gee; this is due to a string of legal cases against them regarding the use'Sugarhill Gang' as their name.
On November 11, 2014, Big Bank Hank died at the age of 58 after a long battle with cancer. In 2016, the remaining living members of the original Sugarhill Gang, including Wonder Mike and Master Gee embarked on their first world tour in over a decade under the name The Sugarhill Gang. During this, they performed as the Sugarhill Gang for the Art of Rap festival tour in 2016, at V Festival in Hylands Park and Weston Park in the UK as part of their world tour in 2016. Other places included, the Clockenflap Festival in Hong Kong on November 27, 2016, they headlined at the Depot in the Park Festival in Cardiff, United Kingdom on August 5, 2017. Coming up, in July 2019 they will play the North Nibley Festival in Gloucestershire; the discography of The Sugarhill Gang includes five studio albums, nine compilations and fifteen singles. Sugarhill Gang Greatest Hits Rapper's Delight: The Best of Sugarhill Gang Ain't Nothin' but a Party Back to the Old School 2 - Rapper's Delights Sugarhill Gang, The* Vs. Grandmaster Flash - The Greatest Hits The Greatest Hits of Sugarhill Gang The Story of Sugarhill Records Hip Hop Anniversary Europe Tour: Sugarhill Gang Live Rhythm & Rhymes: The Definitive Collection Sugarhill Gang playlist on WaveCat "I Want My Name Back" documentary on the Sugar Hill Gang, Featuring Master Gee and Wonder Mike Master Gee interview