Suntory Beverage & Food Limited is a Japanese brewing and distilling company group. Established in 1899, it is one of the oldest companies in the distribution of alcoholic beverages in Japan, makes Japanese whisky, its business has expanded to other fields, the company now makes soft drinks and operates sandwich chains. With its 2014 acquisition of Beam, Inc. it has diversified internationally and become one of the largest makers of distilled beverages in the world. Suntory is headquartered in Dojimahama 2-chome, Kita-ku, Osaka Prefecture. Suntory was started by Shinjirō Torii, who first opened his store Torii Shōten in Osaka on February 1, 1899, to sell imported wines. In 1907, the store began selling a fortified wine called Akadama Port Wine; the store became the Kotobukiya company in 1921 to further expand its business and in 1923, Torii built Japan's first malt whisky distillery Yamazaki Distillery. Production began in December 1924 and five years Suntory Whisky Shirofuda, the first single malt whisky made in Japan, was sold.
Due to shortages during World War II, Kotobukiya was forced to halt its development of new products, but in 1946 it re-released Torys Whisky, which sold well in post-war Japan. In 1961, Kotobukiya launched the "Drink Go to Hawaii" campaign. At the time, a trip abroad was considered a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. In 1963, Kotobukiya changed its name to "Suntory". In the same year, Musashino Beer Factory began its production of the Suntory Beer. In 1997, the company became Japan's sole bottler and licensee of Pepsi products. On April 1, 2009, Suntory became a stockholding company named Suntory Holdings Limited and established Suntory Beverage and Food Limited, Suntory Products Limited, Suntory Wellness Limited, Suntory Liquors Limited, Suntory Beer & Spirits Limited, Suntory Wine International Limited, Suntory Business Expert Limited. On July 14, 2009, Kirin announced. On February 8, 2010, it was announced. In 2009 Suntory acquired Orangina, the orange soft drink for 300 billion yen, Frucor energy drinks for 600 million euros.
On 2 July 2013 the company debuted on the Tokyo stock exchange and raised US$4 billion in the process. In January 2014, Suntory announced an agreement to buy the largest U. S. bourbon producer, Beam Inc. for US$16 billion. This deal would make Suntory the world's third largest spirits maker; the acquisition was completed on April 30, 2014, when it was announced that Beam would be renamed as Beam Suntory. In January 2014, Suntory purchased the drinks division of British GlaxoSmithKline; this included the brands Lucozade and Ribena, the deal did not include Horlicks. Beam Suntory Cerebos Pacific Limited Château Lagrange S. A. S Florigene Pty Ltd Frucor Beverages Limited Gold Knoll Ltd Grupo Restaurante Suntory Mexico Louis Royer S. A. S Morrison Bowmore Distillers, Limited Orangina Pepsi Bottling Ventures LLC Subway Japan Tipco F&B Co. Ltd From the early 1990s, Suntory has collaborated extensively with Melbourne biotechnology firm Florigene to genetically engineer the world's first true blue rose, a symbol associated with the impossible or unattainable.
In 1991, the team won the intense global race to isolate the gene responsible for blue flowers, has since developed a range of genetically modified flowers expressing colors in the blue spectrum, as well as a number of other breakthroughs extending the vase life of cut flowers. In 2003, Suntory acquired a 98.5% equity holding in Florigene. Prior to this, Florigene had been a subsidiary of global agrochemicals giant Nufarm since 1999. In July 2004, Suntory and Florigene scientists announced to the world the development of the first roses containing blue pigment, an important step toward the creation of a blue colored rose. In July 2011, Suntory Beverage and Food Limited together with PT GarudaFood from Tudung Group in Indonesia have agreed to make a new firm to produce non-alcoholic drink with 51 percent and 49 percent shares respectively, it will produce Suntory Oolong Tea and Orangina. Suntory and its various products are featured in the Ryū ga Gotoku/Yakuza series of games. Suntory was one of the first Asian companies to employ American celebrities to market their product.
One of the most notable is Sammy Davis, Jr. who appeared in a series of Suntory commercials in the early 1970s. In the late 1970s, Akira Kurosawa directed a series of commercials featuring American celebrities on the set of his film Kagemusha. One of these featured Francis Ford Coppola, which inspired his daughter Sofia Coppola in her writing of Lost in Translation, a film which focuses on an American actor filming a Suntory commercial in Tokyo. A Reuters photo by Toshiyuki Aizawa from July 2003 showed Suntory's marketing strategy of TV helmets. In this scheme, advertising company employees clad in orange jumpsuits wear television cameras that broadcast wide-screen digital feeds of the brewing company's commercial on top of their helmets. Suntory operates two museums, the Suntory Museum of Art in Tokyo and the Suntory Museum Tempozan in Osaka, in addition to a number of cultural and social programs across Japan. Suntory produced several drinks under the name "Final Fantasy Potion", named for the weakest and most common healing item in the game.
Each was released in Japan only for a limited time to promote the release of the Square
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with and engage enemy targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding the target's detection capabilities. Snipers have specialized training and are equipped with high-precision rifles and high-magnification optics, feed information back to their units or command headquarters. In addition to marksmanship and long range shooting, military snipers are trained in a variety of tactical techniques: detection and target range estimation methods, field craft, special reconnaissance and observation and target acquisition; the verb "to snipe" originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India in reference to shooting snipes, considered an challenging game bird for hunters. The agent noun "sniper" appears by the 1820s; the term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word "sharpshooter". A somewhat older term is "sharp shooter", a calque of 18th-century German Scharfschütze, in use in British newspapers as early as 1801.
Different countries use different military doctrines regarding snipers in military units and tactics. A sniper's primary function in modern warfare is to provide detailed reconnaissance from a concealed position and, if necessary, to reduce the enemy's fighting ability by shooting high-value targets and in the process pinning down and demoralizing the enemy. Typical sniper missions include managing intelligence information they gather during reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition for air-strikes and artillery, assist employed combat force with fire support and counter-sniper tactics, killing enemy commanders, selecting targets of opportunity, destruction of military equipment, which tend to require use of anti-materiel rifles in the larger calibers such as the.50 BMG, like the Barrett M82, McMillan Tac-50, Denel NTW-20. Soviet- and Russian-derived military doctrines include squad-level snipers. Snipers have been demonstrated as useful by US and UK forces in the recent Iraq campaign in a fire support role to cover the movement of infantry in urban areas.
Military snipers from the US, UK, other countries that adopt their military doctrine are deployed in two-man sniper teams consisting of a shooter and spotter. A common practice is for a spotter to take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue. In most recent combat operations occurring in large densely populated towns, such as Fallujah, two teams would be deployed together to increase their security and effectiveness in an urban environment. A sniper team would be armed with its long-range weapon and a shorter-ranged weapon in case of close contact combat; the German doctrine of independent snipers and emphasis on concealment, developed during the Second World War, has been most influential on modern sniper tactics, is used throughout Western militaries. Sniper rifles are classified as crew-served. A sniper team consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support personnel: such as a spotter or a flanker. Within the Table of Organization and Equipment for both the United States Army and the U.
S. Marine Corps, the operator of the weapon has an assistant trained to fulfill multiple roles, in addition to being sniper-qualified in the operation of the weapon; the shooter fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets, atmospheric conditions and handles ancillary tasks as immediate security of their location, communication with other parties. A flanker's task is to observe areas not visible to the sniper or spotter and assist with the team's perimeter and rear security, therefore flankers are armed with an assault rifle or battle rifle. Both spotter and flanker carry associated equipment; the spotter detects and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using a spotting scope or a rangefinder, the spotter will read the wind by using physical indicators and the mirage caused by the heat on the ground. In conjunction with the shooter, the spotter will make calculations for distance, angle shooting, mil dot related calculations, correction for atmospheric conditions and leads for moving targets.
It is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer for performing these calculations. Law enforcement snipers called police snipers, military snipers differ in many ways, including their areas of operation and tactics. A police sharpshooter is part of a police operation and takes part in short missions. Police forces deploy such sharpshooters in hostage scenarios; this differs from a military sniper. Sometimes as part of a SWAT team, police snipers are deployed alongside negotiators and an assault team trained for close quarters combat; as policemen, they are trained to shoot only as a last resort, when there is a direct threat to life. Police snipers operate at much shorter ranges than military snipers under 100 meters and sometimes less than 50 meters. Both types of snipers do make difficult shots under pressure, perform one-shot kills. Police units that are unequipped for tactical operations may rely on
Belly chain (restraint)
A belly chain is a physical restraint worn by prisoners, consisting of a chain around the waist, to which the prisoner's hands may be chained or cuffed. Sometimes the ankles are connected by means of longer chains; such restraints are used in the United States in courtrooms, or for transporting prisoners, or in other public situations as a safeguard against escape. They are used above all when detainees are to be restrained over a longer period of time, for example during transport or at court hearings; the reason for the use of belly chains is that there still remains a large freedom of movement to the detainee when his hands are cuffed in front of the body. As an alternative, the hands could be cuffed behind the detainee's back, but this will soon inflict discomfort and pain when being handcuffed like this for a longer period of time. Therefore, as a more gentle but equally secure alternative to cuffing the detainee's hands behind his back, the hands are cuffed to a belly chain and thus shackled to the detainee's waist.
One can distinguish two types: One type consists of a chain with handcuffs attached to the front or at the side. Peerless Model 7002 or Smith & Wesson Model 1800 have the handcuffs attached on both sides by a short chain; this allows some movement, though restricting arm motion to prevent the prisoner from butting or hitting. CTS Thompson Model 7008 has the handcuffs attached on the sides too, but the handcuffs are directly linked to the belly chain, so that the detainee's hands are attached to his waist. Furthermore, there are combinations like Peerless Model 7705, where the belly chain is connected by a longer chain with a pair of leg irons; this type of combination further restricts the detainee's freedom of movement and prevents him from running and escape. Such combinations are referred to as "full harness" or "H-style" restraints; when applying this type of belly chain, the chain is first placed around the detainee's waist and secured behind the back with a padlock. The handcuffs are put on the detainee's wrists.
In the standard procedure, the prisoner's hands are fixed either in front of the body or parallel at the side of the waist, thus limiting the detainee's freedom of movement. When using such a belly chain to restrain high-risk inmates, the detainee can be shackled with his arms crossed so that the left wrist is placed in the cuff on the right side of his waist and vice versa; this high-security use reminds of a straitjacket. The other type consists of a chain with larger links and a steel loop at one end; the chain is placed around the detainee's waist and the steel loop is plugged through a chain link. A pair of handcuffs is inserted in the loop and the cuffs are put on the detainee's wrists; the loose end of the belly chain can be secured with a snap hook or a padlock behind the detainee's back. As in this constellation the belly chain cannot be removed unless the handcuffs have been removed first, this type of belly chain does not need a padlock for fixing; the length of the chain is designed to fit around the waist of every person, including slim and rather stout individuals.
For high security transports, the martin link belly chain can be used with security handcuff covers such as the C & S Security Black Box or the CTS Thompson Blue Box. These are hard plastic boxes with a metallic slider and are placed over the handcuffs so that the key holes are hidden by the box. On the one hand, the security cover prevents the detainee from manipulating the keyhole of the handcuffs, for instance if he gets hold of a handcuff key or a lockpick. On the other hand, freedom of movement is further restricted, as the handcuff cover converts standard chain link handcuffs into rigid cuffs. Leather or nylon belts are used instead of belly chains; these restraint belts have a metal ring on the front, through which the handcuffs are plugged and put on the detainee's wrists. The belt is placed around the detainee's waist and secured with a buckle; the following pictures illustrate the different types of restraints and their application
Locksmithing is the science and art of making and defeating locks. Locksmithing is a traditional trade; the level of formal education required varies from country to country, from a simple training certificate awarded by an employer, to a full diploma from an engineering college in addition to time spent working as an apprentice. A lock is a mechanism that secures buildings, cabinets, objects, or other storage facilities. A "smith" of any type is one who shapes metal pieces using a forge or mould, into useful objects or to be part of a more complex structure. Locksmithing, as its name implies, is the designing of locks and their respective keys. Locks have been constructed for over 2500 years out of wood and out of metal. Locksmiths would make the entire lock, working for hours hand cutting screws and doing much file-work. Lock designs became more complicated in the 18th century, locksmiths specialized in repairing or designing locks. After the rise of cheap mass production, the vast majority of locks are repaired by swapping of parts or like-for-like replacement, or upgraded to modern mass-production items.
Until more safes and strongboxes were the exception to this, to this day large vaults are custom designed and built at great cost, as the cost of this is lower than the limited scope for mass production would allow, the risk of a copy being obtained and defeated as practice is removed. Although fitting of keys to replace lost keys to automobiles and homes and the changing of keys for homes and businesses to maintain security are still an important part of locksmithing, locksmiths today are involved in the installation of higher quality lock-sets and the design and management of keying and key control systems. Most locksmiths do electronic lock servicing, such as making keys for transponder-equipped vehicles and the implementation and application of access control systems protecting individuals and assets for many large institutions. In terms of physical security, a locksmith's work involves making a determination of the level of risk to an individual or institution and recommending and implementing appropriate combinations of equipment and policies to create "security layers" which exceed the reasonable gain to an intruder or attacker.
The more different security layers are implemented, the more the requirement for additional skills and knowledge and tools to defeat them all. But because each layer comes at an expense to the customer, the application of appropriate levels without exceeding reasonable costs to the customer is very important and requires a skilled and knowledgeable locksmith to determine. Locksmiths may be commercial, institutional or investigational or may specialize in one aspect of the skill, such as an automotive lock specialist, a master key system specialist or a safe technician. Many are security consultants, but not every security consultant has the skills and knowledge of a locksmith. Locksmiths are certified in specific skill areas or to a level of skill within the trade; this is separate from certificates of completion of training courses. In determining skill levels, certifications from manufacturers or locksmith associations are more valid criteria than certificates of completion; some locksmiths decide to call themselves "Master Locksmiths" whether they are trained or not, some training certificates appear quite authoritative.
The majority of locksmiths work on any existing door hardware, not just locking mechanisms. This includes door hinges, electric strikes, frame repairs and other door hardware; the issue of full disclosure was first raised in the context of locksmithing, in a 19th-century controversy regarding whether weaknesses in lock systems should be kept secret in the locksmithing community, or revealed to the public. According to A. C. Hobbs: A commercial, in some respects a social doubt has been started within the last year or two, whether or not it is right to discuss so the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the supposed safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to be dishonest; this is a fallacy. Rogues are keen in their profession, know much more than we can teach them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a good deal about lock-picking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they have done.
If a lock, let it have been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker, is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be it is to the interest of honest persons to know this fact, because the dishonest are tolerably certain to apply the knowledge practically. It cannot be too earnestly urged that an acquaintance with real facts will, in the end, be better for all parties; some time ago, when the reading public was alarmed at being told how London milk is adulterated, timid persons deprecated the exposure, on the plea that it would give instructions in the art of adulterating milk. -- From A. C. Hobbs and Safes: The Construction of Locks. Published by Virtue & Co. London, 1853 (revised 186
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
A safe is a secure lockable box used for securing valuable objects against theft and/or damage from fire. A safe is a hollow cuboid or cylinder, with one face being removable or hinged to form a door; the body and door may be formed out of plastic through blow molding. Bank teller safes are secured to the counter, have a slit opening for dropping valuables into the safe without opening it, a time-delay combination lock to foil robbers/and or thieves. One significant distinction between types of safes is whether the safe is secured to a wall or structure or if it can be moved around. A less secure version is called a cash-box. In 1835, English inventors Charles and Jeremiah Chubb in Wolverhampton, received a patent for a burglar-resisting safe and began a production of safes; the Chubb brothers had produced locks since 1818. Chubb Locks was an independent company until 2000. On November 2, 1886, inventor Henry Brown patented a "receptacle for storing and preserving papers." The container was fire accident resistant as it was made from forged metal.
The box was able to be safely secured with a lock and key and able to maintain organization by offering different slots to organize important papers. Specifications for safes include some or all of the following parameters: Burglar-resistance Fire-resistance Environmental resistance Type of lock Location Smart safes as part of an automated cash handling systemIt is possible to open a safe without access to the key or knowledge of the combination. A diversion safe, or hidden safe, is a safe, made from an otherwise ordinary object such as a book, a candle, a can, or a wall outlet plug. Valuables are placed in these hidden safes. Fire resistant record protection equipment consists of self-contained devices that incorporate insulated bodies, drawers or lids, or non-rated multi-drawer devices housing individually rated containers that contain one or more inner compartments for storage of records; these devices are intended to provide protection to one or more types of records as evidenced by the assigned Class rating or ratings.
These types of enclosures can be rated for periods of 1, 2 and 4 hour durations. In addition, these enclosures may be rated for their impact resistance, should the safe fall a number of feet to a lower level or have debris fall upon it during a fire. Burglary resistant safes are rated as to their resistance to the type of tools to be used in their attack and the duration of the attack; the attack durations are for periods of 15 min. 30 min. and 60 min. Safes can contain hardware that automatically dispenses cash or validates bills as part of an automated cash handling system. For larger volumes of heat-sensitive materials, a modular room-sized vault is much more economical than purchasing and storing many fire rated safes; these room-sized vaults are utilized by corporations, government agencies and off-site storage service firms. Fireproof vaults are rated up to Class 125-4 Hour for large data storage applications; these vaults utilize ceramic fiber, a high temperature industrial insulating material, as the core of their modular panel system.
All components of the vault, not just the walls and roof panels, must be Class 125 rated to achieve that overall rating for the vault. This includes the door assembly, cable penetrations, coolant line penetrations, air duct penetrations. There are Class 150 applications and Class 350 vaults for protecting valuable paper documents. Like the data-rated structures, these vault systems employ ceramic fiber insulation and components rated to meet or exceed the required level of protection. In recent years room-sized Class 125 vaults have been installed to protect entire data centers; as data storage technologies migrate from tape-based storage methods to hard drives, this trend is to continue. A fire-resistant safe is a type of safe, designed to protect its contents from high temperatures or actual fire. Fire resistant safes are rated by the amount of time they can withstand the extreme temperatures a fire produces, while not exceeding a set internal temperature, e.g. less than 350 °F. Models are available between half-hour and four-hour durations.
In the UK the BS EN-1047 standard is set aside for data and document safes to determine their ability to withstand prolonged intense heat and impact damage. Document safes are designed to maintain an internal temperature no greater than 177 °C while in a heated environment in excess of 1,000 °C. Data safes are designed to maintain an internal temperature no greater than 55 °C while in a heated environment in excess of 1,000 °C; these conditions are maintained for the duration of the test. This is at least 30 minutes but can extend to many hours depending on grade. Both kinds of safe are tested for impact by dropping from a set height onto a solid surface and tested for fire survivability once again. In the USA, both the writing of standards for fire-resistance and the actual testing of safes is performed by Underwriters Laboratories