Melchior Broederlam was one of the earliest Early Netherlandish painters to whom surviving works can be confidently attributed. He worked mostly for Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, although only a single large pair of panel paintings can confidently be attributed to him, no history of Western painting can neglect his contribution. His early career included a stay in Italy, where he adopted a sense of space. Like many court artists, including Jan van Eyck, he was appointed valet de chambre to the Duke and he continued to work for Philips successor John the Fearless, but last appears in the Ducal accounts in 1409. Guild rules usually mandated that carving and painting were performed by members of different guilds, broederlams use of oil paint had a strong impact on the painters of the following generation, including Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck. Both panels include two scenes, with a landscape, and look into pavilion-like buildings in a manner derived from Italy. Although the skies are painted in gold in the Dijon panels, some other works have been attributed to him or his workshop, but without being generally accepted
A tondo is a Renaissance term for a circular work of art, either a painting or a sculpture. The word derives from the Italian rotondo, artists have created tondi since Greek antiquity. The circular paintings in the centre of painted vases of that period are known as tondi, the style was revived in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, particularly in Italy, where it may have developed from the smaller desco da parto or birthing tray. Since it has been less common, in Ford Madox Browns painting The Last of England, the ships wire railing curving round the figures helps enclose the composition within its tondo shape. The background scene is consolidated or omitted, and to an extent, unimportant. While the background may be visible in paintings, in tondo relief carvings the background is not seen. Andrea della Robbia and other members of his family created glazed terracotta tondi that were framed in a wreath of fruit and leaves. In the sixteenth century the style of istoriato decoration for maiolica wares was applied to large circular dishes.
The infrequently-encountered synonym rondo much more usually refers to a musical form, adoration of the Magi Taddei Tondo Doni Tondo Pitti Tondo Severan Tondo, Roman painting of c.200 AD Roberta J. M. Olson, The Florentine Tondo, Oxford 2000. Moritz Hauptmann, Der Tondo, Bedeutung und Geschichte des italienischen Rundbildes in Relief und Malerei, six tondi from the National Gallery, London
Bernard van Orley
Although he never visited Italy, he belongs to the group of Italianizing Flemish painters called the Romanists, who were influenced by Italian Renaissance painting, in his case especially by Raphael. He was born and died in Brussels, and was the court artist of the Habsburg rulers and this too may well have been learned from Raphael, whose workshop in Rome was unprecedentedly large. Accordingly, his surviving works vary considerably in quality. There are many drawings, mostly studies for designs for tapestries and he or his workshop would have produced full-scale cartoons for the tapestries, but these were normally lost in the course of weaving, when they were cut into strips. His paintings are either religious subjects or portraits, these mostly of Habsburgs repeated in several versions by the workshop. But his tapestries were more varied, reflecting the range of that medium, from biblical cycles to allegories, battle. His father had been a designer in Brussels, and several of Bernards descendents were artists.
His family came originally from Luxembourg, descendants from the Seigneurs dOurle or dOrley and his branch of the family moved to the Duchy of Brabant, where his father Valentin van Orley was born as an illegitimate child and lost his noble lineage. Bernard and his brother Everard were both born in Brussels, the painted wing panels of the sculpted Saluzzo retable are attributed to Valentin van Orley, describing the Life of St. Joseph. The retable itself is Gothic in style, but these wing panels already show some characteristic of the Renaissance style, the panels of the Life of St. Roch in the Saint James Church, Antwerp have been ascribed to Everard van Orley. In 1512 Bernard van Orley married Agnes Seghers, in 1539, shortly after Agnes death and his four boys followed in the footsteps of their father and became painters. It is sometimes presumed that Bernard van Orley completed his art education in Rome in the school of Raphael, at that time, there were only a few painters with some renown in Brussels, such as Van Laethem and painters from the Coninxloo family.
They were made to be woven into tapestries for Pope Leo X by Pieter van Aalst, one of his earliest signed works dates from 1512, the Triptych of the Carpenters and Masons Corporation of Brussels, called the Apostle Altar. The central panel is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, and it recounts the lives of two apostles Thomas and Matthew. It was originally commissioned for a chapel in the Our Blessed Lady of Zavel Church in Brussels, in 1515 he was asked to take over the commission of a triptych for the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross in a chapel in the Sint-Walburga church in Veurne. He finished and delivered it in 1522, the left panel is on display in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium. The front shows Saint Helena meeting the pope in a setting of Renaissance buildings. The back is a painting of Christ falling under the Cross
Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs and commissioned single and diptych portraits. By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity, however his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid-18th century. There are few facts of van der Weydens life. What else is known of him has come from records and secondary sources. However the paintings now attributed to him are generally accepted, despite a tendency in the 19th century to attribute his work to others, all of his forms are rendered with rich, warm colourisation and a sympathetic expression, while he is known for his expressive pathos and naturalism. His portraits tend to be half length and half profile, Van der Weyden used an unusually broad range of colours and varied tones, in his finest work the same tone is not repeated in any other area of the canvas, even the whites are varied.
Due to the loss of archives in 1695 and again in 1940, Rogelet de le Pasture was born in Tournai in 1399 or 1400. His parents were Henri de le Pasture and Agnes de Watrélos and he married around 1426, to Elisabeth Goffaert, and was made town painter of Brussels in 1436, and changed his name from the French to the Flemish format, becoming van der Weyden. The Pasture family had settled before in the city of Tournai where Rogiers father worked as a maître-coutelier, in 1426 Rogier married Elisabeth, the daughter of a Brussels shoemaker Jan Goffaert and his wife Cathelyne van Stockem. Rogier and Elisabeth had four children, who became a Carthusian monk, was born in 1427, a daughter Margaretha in 1432. Before 21 October 1435 the family settled in Brussels where the two children were born, Pieter in 1437 and Jan in 1438, who would go on to become a painter. On his move to Brussels, Rogier began using the Flemish version of his name, little is known about Rogiers training as a painter. The archival sources from Tournai were completely destroyed during World War II, the sources on his early life are confusing and have led to different interpretations by scholars.
It is known that the city council of Tournai offered eight pitchers of wine in honour of a certain Maistre Rogier de le Pasture on the 17th November 1426. However, on 5 March of the year the records of the painters guild show a Rogelet de le Pasture entered the workshop of Robert Campin together with Jacques Daret. Records show that de le Pasture was already established as a painter, only five years later, on the first of August 1432, de le Pasture obtained the title of a Master painter. His entry into apprenticeship might be explained by the fact that during the 1420s the city of Tournai was in crisis, the late apprenticeship may have been a legal formality. Also Jacques Daret was in his twenties and had living and working in Campins household for at least a decade
Aert van den Bossche
Aert van den Bossche or the Master of the Crispinus and Crispinianus-Legend was an Early Netherlandish painter of altarpieces, active in Brussels and Bruges in the late 15th century. There is still doubt as to whether he should be identified with the Master of the legend of St. Barbara or was one of the artists active in a workshop responsible for the works of that master. Little is known about the life of Aert van den Bossche and it is believed that he was born ca.1455 or earlier. He was possibly originally from Bruges although he or his ancestors may have come from the town of s-Hertogenbosch. This can possibly be concluded from the fact that in Brussels where he was active from the 1490s he was recorded in 1499 as Aert van Panhedel alias van den Bossche, schilder. The town of s-Hertogenbosch is colloquially referred to as Den Bosch and this assumption is further confirmed by the fact that when he registered in the Bruges Guild of Saint Luke he signed with the name Harnoult van den Boske. It is known that Aerts father, the painter Yanne van den Bossche, had received orders from the Brussels shoe-makers guild as well.
Aert van den Bossche had a son Gielis, a. k. a, Gielis Panhedel, who signed Gilken van den Booeske and was an accomplished painter. Aert van den Bossche became a city councillor of Brussels, there is speculation that he may have been a pupil or assistant of Hugo van der Goes. There is uncertainty about which works can be attributed to Aert van den Bossche, the famous Virgin and Child in a Landscape, c. The St Augustine sacrificing to an idol of the Manichaeans is now attributed to the Master of the legend of St. Barbara. The name Master of the legend of St. Barbara was created by the German art historian Max Jakob Friedländer to denote an anonymous painter or a group of painters who worked out of Bruges, the triptych was intended for the guilds altar in the St Nicholas Church. Barbara with Aert van den Bossche, since this discovery the triptych has been removed from the oeuvre of the Master of the Legend of St. Barbara. On stylistic grounds it is believed that Aert van den Bossche painted the right wing of the Triptych with the Miracles of Christ, the subject of the painting is the martyrdom of the Saints Crispin and Crispinian.
According to the Christian legend the two saints were twin brothers born to a noble Roman family in the 3rd century AD and they were allegedly persecuted and put to death for their faith by Rictus Varus in Belgic Gaul. They became the patron saints of cobblers and leather workers, the martyrdom triptych has not survived in its original form, as the central part of the triptych has been separated from the wings. It was put on display at his Wilanów Palace, which Potocki had turned into an art centre, unlike other Polish nobles at the time, Potocki did not take part in the November Uprising against Russia. For over a years after its last verified purchase, nobody knew what subject matter was depicted in the composition
He achieved fame across at least northern Europe, and painted religious subjects, including large altarpieces, but portraits and mythological subjects, including some nudity. From at least 1508 he was apparently continuous employed, or at least retained, by quasi-royal patrons, mostly members of the extended Habsburg family, heirs to the Valois Duchy of Burgundy. These were Philip of Burgundy, Adolf of Burgundy, Christian II of Denmark when in exile, and Mencía de Mendoza, Countess of Nassau, third wife of Henry III of Nassau-Breda. He was a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer and the rather younger Lucas van Leyden, whom he knew, unlike them, he was not a printmaker, though his surviving drawings are very fine, and are preferred by some to his paintings. His name was in fact Jan Gossart, and he was so known in his lifetime, little is known of his early life. One of his earliest biographers, Karel van Mander, claimed he was from a town in Artois or Henegouwen called Maubeuge or Maubuse. He is registered in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1503, Philips party, very likely including Gossaert, left the Netherlands in October 1508, arrived in Rome on 14 January 1509, and was back at The Hague by 28 June 1509.
Although the details are unclear, it seems that Gossaert remained in Philips employment until he died in 1524, throughout this time he was able to work for other patrons, mostly friends of Philip. In 1509–17 Gossaert was registered as a resident of Middelburg, according to Van Mander he was one of the first Flemish artists to bring back the Italian manner of painting with lots of nudity in historical allegories. From 1517–24 he is registered at Duurstede Castle where according to the RKD, from 1524 onwards he returned to Middelburg as court painter to Adolf of Burgundy, another Habsburg relative. Jan Mertens the Younger was another pupil, Gossaert shows Antwerp influence in the large altar-pieces previously located at Castle Howard and Scawby. At Scawby he illustrates the legend of the count of Toulouse and his altarpiece of the Descent from the Cross with heavy double doors in Middelburg was admired by Albrecht Dürer before the church itself was hit by lightning. This is possibly the now in the Hermitage, though Van Mander stated the lightning destroyed it.
This painting is now on display at the National Gallery, which bought it in 1911, Gossaert surprises the viewer with pompous costume and flaring contrasts of tone. His figures, like pieces on a chess-board, are often rigid, the landscape which shows through the colonnades is adorned with towers and steeples in the minute fashion of Van der Weyden. After a residence of a few years at Antwerp, Gossaert took service with Philip of Burgundy, bastard of Philip the Good, at that time lord of Somerdyk and admiral of Zeeland. One of his pictures had already become celebrated, a Descent from the Cross, in 1568 the altarpiece perished by fire. In 1508 Gossaert accompanied Philip of Burgundy on his Italian mission to the pope, Gossaert appears to have chiefly studied in Italy the cold and polished works of the Leonardesques
Dieric Bouts was an Early Netherlandish painter. Very little is known about Bouts early life, but he was influenced by Jan van Eyck and by Rogier van der Weyden. He is first documented in Leuven in 1457 and worked there until his death in 1475, Bouts was among the first northern painters to demonstrate the use of a single vanishing point. Bouts earliest work is the Triptych of the Virgins Life in the Prado, the Deposition Altarpiece in Granada probably dates to this period, around 1450–60. The Louvre Lamentation is another early work, the Last Supper is the central panel of Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament, commissioned from Bouts by the Leuven Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament in 1464. All of the central rooms orthogonals lead to a vanishing point in the center of the mantelpiece above Christs head. However the small room has its own vanishing point. The Last Supper is the second dated work to display an understanding of Italian linear perspective, scholars have noted that Boutss Last Supper was the first Flemish panel painting to depict the Last Supper.
This contrasts strongly with other Last Supper depictions, which focused on Judass betrayal or on Christs comforting of John. Bouts added to the complexity of this image by including four servants, although once identified as the artist himself and his two sons, these servants are most likely portraits of the confraternitys members responsible for commissioning the altarpiece. The Last Supper was the part of the altarpiece in the St. Peters Church. The Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament has four panels, two on each side. Because these were taken to the museums in Berlin and Munich in the 19th century, the reconstruction of the original altarpiece has been difficult. Today it is thought that the panel with Abraham and Melchizedek is above the Passover Feast on the wing, while the Gathering of the Manna is above Elijiah. All of these are typological precursors to the Last Supper in the central panel, after attaining the rank of city painter of Leuven in 1468, Bouts received a commission to paint two more works for the Town Hall.
After this, he turned to the commission for the Justice Panels. He completed one panel and began a second, both depicting the life of the 11th-century Holy Roman Emperor Otto III and these pieces can now be seen in the Brussels museum. The remaining two Justice Panels were never completed, many of Bouts authentic works are small devotional panels, usually of the Virgin and Child
Simon Marmion was a French or Burgundian Early Netherlandish painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts. Marmion lived and worked in what is now France but for most of his lifetime was part of the Duchy of Burgundy in the Southern Netherlands. Like many painters of his era, Marmion came from a family of artists, Marmion is recorded as working at Amiens between 1449 and 1454, and at Valenciennes from 1458 until his death. He was patronized by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy from 1454 when he was one of artists called to Lille to work on the decorations for the Feast of the Pheasant. He was employed by members of the ducal family, including Charles the Bold. He was called the prince of illuminators by a near contemporary, three years after his death his widow, Jeanne de Quaroube, married his pupil, the painter Jan Provoost, who on her death inherited the considerable Marmion estate. Although best known for his manuscripts, Marmion produced portraits and other paintings, altarpieces. A famous double-sided altarpiece with several Scenes from the life of St Bertin is in the Gemäldegalerie, there is a Mass of Saint Gregory in Toronto, and a Lamentation of Christ in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, three works in Philadelphia, and several others elsewhere.
Stylistically he lies between his French and Flemish contemporaries, with a Flemish innovation in composition and landscape and his perspective is usually technically sound, but the proportions of his figures are often awkward, and their poses rather stiff. His masterpiece, a Grandes Chroniques de France, is now in the Russian National Library and this has 25 large miniatures and 65 smaller ones, ranging in style from brilliantly-coloured battle-scenes to some in an innovative near-grisaille style, with just touches of subdued colour. The illustrations reflect the text, which is an unusual version stressing Netherlandish events, the same library has a medical text with a fine presentation miniature with another portrait of Phillip the Good, and heraldic borders. The Morgan Library and Huntington Library have fine books of hours by Marmion, the Simon Marmion Hours in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London is, with pages 11 x 7.6 cm, an example of the fashion for very small but lavish books of hours.
The only full-page miniature without borders in the book is a scene of Heaven and Hell. Many scenes in the Getty Tondal, and a large Dream of Charles the Bald in the Petersberg Chroniques contain striking images on these themes, between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century, art historians attributed various works to Marmion. However, from 1969, a scholarly counter-movement led by art historian Antoine de Schruyver suggested that Marmions body of work came from a number of hands. Marmion is recorded as producing a breviary ordered by Philip the Good between 1467 and 1470, and a miniature in the Metropolitan Museum of Art may come from this. Malibu, CA, J. Paul Getty Museum,1992, short books on individual MS, Kren and Wieck, Roger. The Visions of Tondal from the Library of Margaret of York, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu,1990, ISBN 978-0-89236-169-4 Thorpe, James
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium are a group of art museums in Brussels, Belgium. In 1845 it is decided by royal Decree that a museum is to be founded with works of art of deceswed and this is accorded by Minister Sylvain van de Weyer a national Commission is founded to select important works of art. This commission is presided by the First president Count de Beaufort, other members are, Gustaf Wappers, President of the Royal Museum of Antwerpen. François-Joseph Navez, President of the Académie royale des beaux-arts de Bruxelles, guillaume Geefs Eugène Simonis Tilman-François Suys, professor at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. Much of the members were active in the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. The museums are situated in the capital Brussels in the area on the Coudenberg. There are six museums connected with the Royal Museum, and two of them, are in the main building, the Royal Museum contains over 20,000 drawings and paintings, which date from the early 15th century to the present.
The museum has a collection of Flemish painting, among them paintings by Bruegel and Rogier van der Weyden, Robert Campin, Anthony van Dyck. The museum is proud of its Rubens Room, which more than 20 paintings by the artist. The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, long-attributed to Brueghel, is located here and forms the subject of W. H. Audens famous poem Musée des Beaux Arts, named after the museum. The chief curators of the museum have been or are, from 1961 till 1984, balat was the kings principal architect, and this was one part of the kings vast building program for Belgium. The building was completed in 1887, and stands as an example of the Beaux-Arts architecture use of themed statuary to assert the identity, the finial, gilded Genius of Art was designed by de Groot. The two bas-relief panels are Music by Thomas Vincotte and Industrial Arts by Charles Brunin, the two bronze groups on pedestals represent The Crowning of Art by Paul de Vigne, and The Teaching of Art by Charles van der Stappen.
On the side of the building, a memorial commemorates five members of the Mouvement National Royaliste, a resistance group, killed during the liberation of Brussels on 3–4 September 1944
Petrus Christus was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges from 1444, along with Hans Memling, he became the leading painter after the death of Jan van Eyck. Today, some 30 works are attributed to him. Christus was a figure for centuries, his importance not established until the work of modern art historians. Giorgio Vasari barely mentions him in his biographies of painters, written in the Renaissance, in the early to mid-nineteenth century, Gustav Waagen and Johann David Passavant were important in establishing Christuss biographical details and in attributing works to him. Christus was born in Baarle, near Antwerp and Breda, long considered a student of and successor to Jan van Eyck, his paintings have sometimes been confused with those of van Eyck. At the death of van Eyck in 1441, it is thought that Christus took over his masters workshop, had he been an active pupil in van Eycks Bruges workshop in 1441, he would have received his citizenship automatically after the customary period of one year and one day.
Christus may have been van Eycks successor in the Bruges school, a document testifying to the presence of a Piero da Bruggia in Milan may suggest that he visited that city at the same time as Antonello, and the two artists may even have met. It would explain how Italian painters learned about oil painting, along with Giovanni Bellini, was one of the first Italian painters to use oil paint like his Netherlandish contemporaries. And Christus Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Francis and Jerome in Frankfurt, a late work, the reserved Portrait of a Young Girl belongs among the masterworks of Early Netherlandish painting, marking a new development in Netherlandish portraiture. It no longer shows the sitter in front of a neutral background, Christus had already perfected this format in his two portraits of 1446. Christus died in Bruges in 1475 or 1476, Hans Memling succeeded him as the next great painter in Bruges. Christus produced at least six signed and dated works, which form the basis for any other attributions to him and these are, the Portrait of Edward Grymeston, the Portrait of a Carthusian, the so-called St.
In addition, a pair of panels in the Groeningemuseum in Bruges bears a date of 1452, but its authenticity is suspect. Oclc. org, 15th to 18th century European paintings, Central Europe, the Netherlands, Spain,2 Painting by or after Petrus Christus at the Art UK site
Jan de Beer (painter)
Jan de Beer, formerly known as the Master of the Milan Adoration was a Flemish painter and glass designer active in Antwerp at the beginning of the 16th century. He is considered one of the most important members of the group of painters active in. Highly respected in his time, he operated a workshop with an important output of religious compositions. Jan de Beer was born around 1475 as the son of the painter Claes de Beer and his place of birth was in or near Antwerp. Claes de Beer and his family are known to have had possessions in Ekeren near Antwerp, Jan de Beer completed his apprenticeship with Gillis van Everen, a painter with a large workshop in Antwerp. Then he probably worked several years as the assistant of van Everen, Jan de Beer only became a master of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1504. He was an alderman of the Guild in 1509 and in 1515 he was elected its dean and he came into conflict with the Guild at some point and even filed in 1519 a lawsuit regarding Guild administration.
Jan de Beer was linked with other prominent painters of the Antwerp School such as Quentin Matsys, Jan de Beer and Matsys were invited to judge in a dispute over the quality of a painted and carved altarpiece commissioned for the town of Dunkirk in 1509. De Beer and Metsys were both fellow aldermen of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, another artist with whom he was linked was the leading landscape painter Joachim Patinir and the two artists may have collaborations on commissions. In 1508, Jan de Beer married the brewers daughter Katline Weygers, the couple settled on Kipdorp in Antwerp and had around 1509 a son called Aert or Arnould. Aert was like his father a painter and glass designer but died at young age in 1540, Jan de Beer operated a large workshop and from 1510 he took on pupils to assist him. He contributed to the decorations for the Joyous Entry of Archduke Charles V. He worked on the decoration of the float that represented the Antwerp Chamber of rhetoric De Violieren in the parade during the landjuweel in Mechelen, from 1519 to 1528, Jan de Beers name no longer appears in the archives.
A document dated 10 November 1528 refers to the painter as deceased and he likely died in his home town of Antwerp. Jan de Beers oeuvre is made up of around 20 paintings and 12 drawings, only two works with a signature are known, a painting with a partial signature and a study sheet with heads, subsequently signed by de Beer and dated 1520. His paintings include single panels and panels from altarpieces, Jan de Beer was an exponent of Antwerp Mannerism and the only one of that movement who still enjoyed fame after his death. The Italian biographer Lodovico Guicciardini included de Beer in his list of famous Netherlandish artists of 1567, despite his contemporary reputation, the artists name fell into complete obscurity at the end of the 16th century and was only rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century. Art historians Georges Hulin de Loo and Max Friedländer played a key role in the rediscovery of the artist, in 1902 Hulin de Loo discovered the artists signature on a sketch of Nine Male Heads, which he published in 1913