Master of Arts

Master of Arts is a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is contrasted with the Master of Science; those admitted to the degree study linguistics, communication studies, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two; the Master of Arts traces its origin to the teaching license or Licentia docendi of the University of Paris. In Germany, the traditional equivalent of the postgraduate Master of Arts was the Magister Artium; this degree, which required 5 years of studies, did exist in former West Germany and in reunited Germany, but not in former East Germany where all degree courses led to Diplom degrees. Traditional Magister degrees were granted in social sciences and most of the humanities, with the exception of visual and performing arts such as music and theatre.

The Magister Artium was either a combination of one major and two minors. German postgraduate Master's of Arts and Master's of Science degrees were introduced in 2001. Therefore, the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees existed side by side until the phase out of the old degrees since 2010; the new Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees together require 5 years of studies, the reason why the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees are considered equivalent. In the Netherlands, the master of Arts and the Master of Science degrees were introduced in 2002; until that time, a single program that led to the doctorandus degree was in effect, which comprised the same course load as the Bachelor and Master programs put together. Those who had started the doctorandus program could, upon completing it, opt for the doctorandus degree, or use the master's degree in accordance with the new standard; because these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree, the master's degree is their first academic degree.

The Polish equivalent of Master of Arts is "magister". At the technical universities, one is awarded with inżynier after three years and with "magister" after completing another two years of study and graduating; such persons use titles "mgr inż". In the 1990s, the MA programs lasting 5 years were replaced by separate 3-year bachelor's and 2-year master's programs; the degree is awarded in the arts, natural sciences, computer science fields, economics. The completion of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program. In Finland and Norway, the master's degree is a combined taught/research degree, awarded after 2 years of studies after completing the bachelor's degree; the student is required to write a scientific thesis. In Finland, this master's degree is called a filosofian maisteri or filosofie magister degree, it is abbreviated as FM or "fil.mag.". In Sweden, there is still an intermediate degree between the Bachelor and Master called magister which only requires one year of studies, including a scientific thesis after completing the bachelor's degree.

This fourth year constitutes the first half of Master programme. If not, it may be supplemented by a fifth year and a Master's thesis to obtain a master's degree in the field of study; the MA is a "taught" postgraduate degree, involving lectures, a dissertation based on independent research. Taught master's programs involve two years of full-time study. Many can be done part-time as well; until both the undergraduate and postgraduate master's degrees were awarded without grade or class. Nowadays, master's degrees are classified into the categories of Fail, Pass with Merit, or Pass with Distinction; this education pattern in the United Kingdom is followed in many Commonwealth Nations. The Master of Laws is the standard degree taught for law, but certain courses may lead to MA, MLitt, Master of Studies, the Bachelor of Civil Law at Oxford. All of these degrees are considered substitutes to one another and are thus equivalent. In the ancient universities of Scotland, the degree of Master of Arts is awarded in universities as a four-year undergraduate degree, see Master of Arts.

The Master of Arts is awarded in arts, humanities and social sciences. However, some universities—particularly those in Scotland—award the Master of Letters to students in the arts, humanities and social sciences. At Oxford and Dublin, the MA is conferred after a certain number of years without further examination to those who are Bachelors of Arts; the title of Master of Arts may be awarded, in the case of the oldest British universities only, without further examination to those who have graduated as Bachelor of Arts and who have the requisite years' standing as members o

Cash Machine

"Cash Machine" is the debut single by English indie rock band Hard-Fi, taken from their debut album Stars of CCTV. It was released on 24 January 2005, where it was ineligible in the UK Singles Chart due to the inclusion of a sticker. After the success of singles such as "Hard to Beat", it was re-released on 26 December 2005 peaking at #14 in the UK singles chart and #15 on the US Modern Rock chart. There have been three different music videos: one low-budget for the original release, two versions for the re-release. Hard-Fi frontman Richard Archer describes this song as being about "Having no money". Another issue that he mentions is "What am I gonna do? My girlfriend's test turned blue... I can't afford to be a daddy so I leave tonight". Interesting to note of this song is the reference/adaptation of an old folk song; the lyrics towards the end of the song are: "There's a hole in my pocket! My pocket! My pocket!" This is an adaptation of the folk song, "There's a Hole in the Bucket." The original release of "Cash Machine" was not intended by the band to be chart eligible, instead it was released to get the band radio play and hype for the following release, "Tied Up Too Tight".

As a result, it was released with a free sticker, a stunt pulled to force the single into being released. The single sold 3,000 copies, about how many copies of the single were released and would have reached #40 had it been eligible; the band had pre-planned to release the song which turned out to be on 26 December 2005, where it reached #14 in the UK Singles Charts, #15 in the US Modern Rock chart and top 40 in the Netherlands and Ireland. The song is featured as part of the FIFA Manager 06 soundtrack. There are three different music videos for the song. Directed by Kimberly Frescas This is the original video which has Hard-Fi's boss "Mr. Big" telling the band that "the reason you boys are so skint is the record company hasn't paid us." He orders them to steal the tapes from a courier at Heathrow Airport. The band, wearing masks of political figures such as Queen Elizabeth II and Tony Blair, end up fighting each other, while lead singer Archer discovers the case believed to hold the tapes, he is held at gunpoint by the courier, but saved by the other three band members, guitarist Ross Phillips, drummer Steve Kemp and bassist Kai Stephens, who jump on the courier and take the case.

The band cover him with Silly String and take the case to a hideout to discover that it contains only the courier's lunch. Archer exclaims "Oh knickers!" and the others shake their heads in disappointment. The video is interspersed with shots of the band playing in a field near an airport as large planes fly overhead, it contains a sly reference to their idols the Clash: during the performance in the field, Archer pulls a mask off of Stephens' face - in the video for "Rock the Casbah", when Joe Strummer reveals guitarist Mick Jones' face. Archer explains that "The budget was less than £1,000; the whole budget was pizza and world leader masks. The rest was favours from friends; when we made that single we weren't signed to a major label yet but a small independent. So we had no money, we'd made this little mini-album for just £300 in a lock-up in Staines on a moldy old laptop that kept crashing, and we thought. But we had no money. A mate of mine was pretty good with a camera, we decided to make a Heist movie, because we'd seen a documentary about a heist and the U2 "Beautiful Day" video -, done with CGI graphics and hundreds of thousands of pounds, but we thought'Let's use our brains, our resources, what's round us.

We live right underneath Heathrow Airport, let's go and do it for real.' So, we scouted the area, worked out which way the planes were flying, got up early one morning, got the gear over the fence, set up and assessed the risks: Best case scenario, we could get away with it - unlikely. That's pretty bad, but we were there for about half an hour. The security must have seen us with all this gear, playing a gig at the end of the runway and thought we must've had permission; the hardest bit was we had a portable stereo playing the track to mime along to, which sounded loud in the room but outdoors with a 747 going over your head and the ground shaking you can't hear anything. So, if you look we're all out of sync, and we'd gone by then. I love it when a plan comes together.""We were trying to make an impressive looking video with no money. And of course, the airport's on our doorstep; the guy, directing it went into the visitors centre and said'I'm moving into the area. Can you tell me where the planes will be coming in tomorrow cos I want to know how they relate to the house I'm buying.'

So we found out which way they were coming in, got the gear over the fence and set it up thinking that any minute now, we'll be out of here and it will be all over. But I think the people who saw us - a band set up and playing music - though they must have permission otherwise it's too ridiculous, so they left us to get on with it. So we got what we needed quickly got out of there." Directed by Dougal Wilson This is the second video made, but is the one most used on television. This due to that many channels would not play eit

Wandsworth District (Metropolis)

Wandsworth was a local government district within the metropolitan area of London, England from 1855 to 1900. It was formed by the Metropolis Management Act 1855 and was governed by the Wandsworth District Board of Works, which consisted of elected vestrymen; until 1889 the district was in that part of Surrey included in the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works, in which year the latter became the County of London, the district board remained but under London County Council. Since 1965 its area corresponds to the London Borough of Wandsworth plus all parts of Clapham and Streatham it included, some of which are in the south west of the London Borough of Lambeth; the district comprised the following civil parishes: Battersea, excluding Penge exclave Clapham Putney Streatham, including Knight's Hill exclave Tooting Graveney WandsworthThe district included a small exclave, namely of Streatham parish: Knight's Hill, but did not include the exclave of Battersea parish: Penge. Under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards.

In 1873 as its population had increased the parish of Battersea was divided into four wards: No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4. In 1883 as its population had increased the parish of Streatham was divided into three wards: No. 1 or Balham, No. 2 or North Streatham and No. 3 or South Streatham. In 1894 as its population had increased the parish of Wandsworth was divided into six wards: Southfield, Fairfield, Heathfield and Springfield; the district was abolished in 1900 becoming the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth and the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea