A magister degree is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education. The magister degree arose in mediaeval universities in Europe and was equal to the doctorate. In some countries, the title has retained this original meaning until the modern age, while in other countries, magister has become the title of a lower degree, in some cases parallel with a master's degree. In Argentina, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration by depending on each university's statutes; the admission to a Master program in an Argentine University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years duration from any recognized university. Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is equivalent to a Ph. D. or Doctorate in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna comparison system among academic programs.
In Egypt, Magister degree is a postgraduate degree, awarded after three to 6 years duration. It is equivalent to MSc degree, it is a prerequisite to have an MSc before applying to a Ph. D. or Doctorate degrees. In Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Latvia and Slovakia, obtaining the Magister requires at least five years of study including coursework and a final thesis, similar to a Diplom degree. Magisters tend to be awarded in the humanities and the social sciences, while Diplomas dominate in the natural sciences and in engineering. In Austria, major universities have partitioned all their Mag. Phil. Programs into a three- or four-year bachelor's and two-year master's program; this move is an attempt to standardize requirements with other EU countries as part of the Bologna process, would give students the option to exit with a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree after four years, or continue with additional coursework towards a Mag. Phil. Degree a two-year program. In Poland magister is awarded after 5 years of University level education and it is an equivalent to Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Laws, Master of Music in an academic discipline.
Before around 1999 and the implementation of the Bologna Process the first academic degree awarded in Poland was magister. After implementation of the Bologna Process the person who obtained a Licentiate degree can continue education to the magister level. With the implementation of the Bologna Process, curriculums leading to Magister degrees have been phased out in many countries. In the United States, the Department of Education calls the Magister an equivalent to the master's degree. Evaluations by U. S. "high research activity" universities vary. For example, the Oregon State University consider holders of a German or Austrian Magister for admission to graduate studies; the University of California, Los Angeles requires the Magister and considers the Vordiplom, the Diplom or a German bachelor's degree as insufficient. In Canada the German or Austrian Magister is at most universities the prerequisite to enter a graduate study program. There is no consensus between Canadian Universities whether a Mag.
Phil. Degree should be regarded as equivalent to Bachelor's with Honours degree. In the United Kingdom Aberystwyth University, University College London and the University of Sheffield consider the Magister as being equivalent to an honours bachelor's degree, while the University of Edinburgh states that it considers the Magister degree as sufficient to enter postgraduate programmes; the title magister has had many different meanings in the Swedish educational system, from a degree equal to the doctorate to a graduate degree. Since 2007 in Sweden, the Magister Examination is a one-year graduate degree which requires at least three years of undergraduate studies, it is translated into either Master of Arts, Master of Social Science or Master of Science depending on the subject. In Sweden, magister was the highest degree at the faculties of philosophy and was equivalent to the doctorate used in theology and medicine; the degree was abolished in 1863, replaced with the Doctor of Philosophy. The magister degrees used in Denmark and Norway most resemble this degree.
Magister has since referred to several degrees in Sweden which are unrelated to the original magister degree and unrelated to the magister degrees in the other Scandinavian countries. Some universities conferred a degree called magister between 1908 and 1969, comparable to a master's degree; this master's degree was traditionally taken as a first degree before the Bologna Process. The degree lasted about 5–6 years and is structured into Basic and Advanced progressional components. A new undergraduate magister degree, requiring at least 4 years of studies, was introduced in 1993. Since the introduction of the Bologna Process in 2005, the Magister has been broken into bachelor and master components. However, the vast majority of students continue right through to complete the maste
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
Doctor of Letters
Doctor of Letters is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be equal to the Ph. D. and equal to the Doctor of Science. It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits. In some countries it regarded as the highest degree of education; when awarded without an application by the conferee, it is awarded as an honorary degree. In the United Kingdom, Australia and the Republic of Ireland, the degree is a higher doctorate, above the Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Education, for example, is issued on the basis of high achievement in the respective field or a long record of research and publication; the Litt. D. degree is awarded to candidates whose record of published work and research shows conspicuous ability and originality and constitutes a distinguished and sustained achievement. University committee and board approval is required, candidates must provide documented mastery of a particular area or field.
The degree may be awarded honoris causa to such individuals as the university or the learned body in question deems worthy of this highest academic award. At the University of Oxford, the degree was established in 1900 as part of the development of graduate-level research degrees that began with the introduction of the B. Litt. and B. Sc. degrees in 1895. Up until that point, Oxford had focused on undergraduate teaching, with the doctorates, such as those in divinity and medicine traditionally reserved for established scholars; the German paradigm, adopted by the Americans, that created a demand for the philosophiae doctor degree as a basic qualification for an academic career was not adopted at Oxford, but it did create pressure for Oxford to offer a degree for this purpose. Rather than use the D. Litt. Degree, Oxford created its doctor of philosophy degree in 1915, deliberately using a distinctive English, rather than a Latin and abbreviation for it; the D. Phil. became an accelerated, lower-status degree to the D.
Litt. When it was established in 1900, the Oxford doctor of letters, degree could be awarded to individuals who had a standing of thirty-four terms from the award of a B. Litt. Degree, or of thirty-nine terms from the award of an Oxford master of arts M. A. degree, providing they could provide "fitness for the degree in published books or papers, containing an original contribution to the advancement of learning." The length of the required number of terms changed over the years, depending on the prior Oxford degree that a candidate held, the requirements became more specific. By 2015, The Oxford University Examination Regulations called for a faculty board at Oxford to "appoint judges to consider the evidence submitted by any candidate, to report thereon to the board. In making their report the judges shall state whether the evidence submitted constitutes an original contribution to the advancement of knowledge of such substance and distinction as to give the candidate an authoritative status in some branch or branches of learning."
Between 1923 and 2016, Oxford awarded 219 D. Litt. Degrees, of which 196 were awarded to men and 23 to women. Among the six higher doctoral degrees at Oxford, the D. Litt. Comprised 27.5% of the higher doctorates awarded during this 93-year period. In June 2016, the Oxford D. Litt. was suspended, pending a reform of the higher doctorates. The reforms were completed in June 2018 and applications reopened in September 2018; the new regulations reduced the higher doctorates to five by dropping the Doctor of Medicine as a higher doctorate. The standards for the remaining doctorates, including the D. Litt. Require the judges "to consider whether the evidence submitted demonstrates excellence in academic scholarship and is: a) of the absolute highest quality. There is, however, at least one earned D. Litt. Programme at Drew University, where the degree requires 36 graduate credit hours post-Master's and a prepared and defended nine-credit doctoral dissertation. In France the doctorat is awarded with a speciality.
Candidates for a doctorat in literature are awarded a Doctorat ès lettres, abbreviated Dr ès l. There is a higher degree, the Habilitation à diriger des recherches, obtained following different rules in each field. In literature, the candidates must present a new and unpublished work; the habilitation allows holders to apply for a position of professor in French universities. Before the 1950s, the now-abolished Doctorat d'État degree was called Doctorat ès lettres; the highest educational attainment at Sanskrit Colleges in India is the Vidya Vachaspati recognized as the equivalent to the Western D. Litt. Enrollment in a Vidya Vachaspati program requires both having published
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to
Drew University is a private university in Madison, New Jersey. Drew has been nicknamed the "University in the Forest" because of its wooded 186-acre campus; as of fall 2017, more than 2,000 students were pursuing degrees at the university's three schools. In 1867, financier and railroad tycoon Daniel Drew purchased an estate in Madison to establish a theological seminary to train candidates for Christian ministry; the seminary expanded to offer an undergraduate liberal arts curriculum in 1928 and graduate studies in 1955. The College of Liberal Arts, serving 1,417 undergraduate students, offers strong concentrations in the natural sciences, social sciences and literatures, humanities and the arts, in several interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary fields; the Drew Theological School, the third-oldest of thirteen Methodist seminaries affiliated with the United Methodist Church enrolls 436 students preparing for careers in the ministry and the academic study of theology. The Caspersen School of Graduate Studies, enrolling 351 graduate students, offers master's and doctoral degrees in a variety of specialized and interdisciplinary fields.
While affiliated with the Methodist faith, Drew University makes no religious demands of its students. Although many of the Theological School's students and faculty are Methodists, students of all faiths are admitted to any program within the university; the United Methodist Church's General Commission on Archives and History is located on campus. Drew University is located in Madison, New Jersey, a borough 25 miles west of New York City. Known as "the Rose City" because of its rose-cultivating industry in the nineteenth century, Madison is an affluent commuter town in New Jersey's Morris County, it is connected with the northern section of the state and Midtown Manhattan through the NJ Transit's Morris & Essex Lines. The university hosts the Shakespeare Theatre of New Jersey, an independent professional theatre company; the university sits on the former estate of William Gibbons, a southern gentleman who owned the New York–New Jersey steamboat business that became famous from the Gibbons v. Ogden case, who pieced together a 95-acre estate in Madison, New Jersey in 1832.
He named his holdings "The Forest", which gives Drew its nickname of the "University in the Forest". The following year, Gibbons commissioned the design and construction of a Greek revival antebellum-style residence, completed in 1836. In 1867, financier and railroad tycoon Daniel Drew purchased Gibbons' estate from his descendants for $140,000. Drew, a devout Methodist, donated the estate to the church to establish a Methodist theological seminary; the estate's mansion would be renamed "Mead Hall" in honor of Roxanna Mead. Several motion pictures, TV productions, music videos have used Drew University as a filming location; the campus has been featured in films such as So Fine, Deconstructing Harry, The Family Stone, Spinning into Butter, The Incredible Hulk. Drew's academic buildings feature a mix of Greek Revival, Collegiate Gothic, neoclassical architecture on a 186-acre campus, a serene, wooded oasis in the middle of a bustling suburban town; the campus features the Drew Forest Preserve, an 80-acre expanse, restored with the planting of 1,100 native trees and shrubs by the university community and volunteer assistance from pharmaceutical manufacturer Pfizer, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the New Jersey Audubon Society.
The university's campus features the Florence and Robert Zuck Arboretum, named for two botany faculty members, containing a mixture of native and non-native trees and two small glacial ponds supporting populations of turtles, goldfish and muskrats, various species of birds including migratory fowl such as Canada geese and herons. The preserve and arboretum both provide a natural laboratory for the instruction of students in the study of biology and life sciences and for research, but is open to the public by appointment. According to the New Jersey chapter of the Audubon Society, the arboretum and forest preserve is "important for groundwater recharge and runoff reduction within the Passaic River watershed and the Buried Valley Aquifer System". In 1866, Daniel Drew approached church leaders during the Methodist Centenary Celebration with an offer to build and endow a theological seminary near New York City. Drew asked that John McClintock, be appointed lead the seminary as its first president.
Instruction began under the direction of McClintock as both president and professor of practical theology after the first students were admitted in 1867. Drew is the third-oldest of thirteen Methodist seminaries affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Drew offered professional training for candidates to the ministry augmented by "an opportunity for a broad culture through the study of the humanities." The seminary attracted a faculty that made influential contributions to Methodist theology and biblical scholarship, including James Strong, a professor of exegetical theology, collaborated with McClintock on the ten-volume Cyclopaedia of Biblical and Ecclesiastical Literature, researched and published Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible during his tenure at the seminary. Writ
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education at a college or university. These institutions offer degrees at various levels including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees; the most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. The doctorate appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach at a medieval university, its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee; the Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.
This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the emancipating universities, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach. However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree, it was reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching. At the University, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild; the traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Master of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. The terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. Today the terms "master", "Doctor" and "Professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university..
The earliest doctoral degrees reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into these three fields. Over time, the D. D. has become less common outside theology and is now used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more for earned degrees. Studies outside theology and medicine were called "philosophy", due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation; the degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is a much time and was not introduced in England before 1900. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as humanities; the University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century. The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium and the quadrivium, together known as the Liberal Arts and who had passed examinations held by their master, would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term used of a squire to a knight. Further study and in particular successful participation in and moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, "master", entitling one to teach these subjects. Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology and earn first a bachelor's and master or doctor's degrees in these subjects, thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", based on the Latin gradus. The naming of degrees became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "master", but those in theology and law were known as "doctor".
As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy, which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts; the practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world. The French terminology is tied to the original meanings of the terms; the baccalauréat is conferred upon French students who have completed the
Ad eundem degree
An ad eundem degree is an academic degree awarded by one university or college to an alumnus of another, in a process known as incorporation. The recipient of the ad eundem degree is a faculty member at the institution which awards the degree, e.g. at the University of Cambridge, where incorporation is expressly limited to a person who "has been admitted to a University office or a Headship or a Fellowship of a College, or holds a post in the University Press... or is a Head-elect or designate of a College". The ad eundem degree is an earned degree, not an honorary one, because it recognises formal learning; as it is a separate substantive degree, it is acceptable to list both the original degree and the incorporated degree when listing post-nominals. Before modern transport had shrunk the world, it was common, when a graduate from one university moved into the neighborhood of another, for the new university to admit the graduate as a courtesy, "at the same degree", thus if someone was a bachelor of arts in the university that they had attended, they would be a bachelor of arts of their new university.
The practice of incorporation diminished in the early 19th century, but it continues at the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Trinity College, Dublin. At the University of Oxford, incorporation first appears in the University Statutes in 1516, though the practice itself is older: In the 15th and early 16th centuries, incorporation was granted to members of universities from all over Europe; this continued until the 19th century, when in 1861 incorporation was restricted to members of Cambridge University and Trinity College, Dublin. In 1908, incorporation was further restricted to specific degrees from these universities. A number of female students at Oxford and Cambridge were awarded ad eundem University of Dublin degrees at Trinity College, between 1904 and 1907, at a time when their own universities refused to confer degrees upon women. Several US universities, including Harvard, Brown, Penn and Wesleyan, follow a tradition that only alumni may be tenured faculty. Faculty of those universities who are granted tenure but do not hold an earned degree from the institution that employs them are therefore awarded an honorary master's degree ut in grege nostro numeretur.
Yale refers to this degree as the "M. A. Privatum." At Amherst College a similar custom is followed, with the granting of a Master of Arts degree by the college to its faculty though the college grants only bachelor's degrees to its own matriculated students. Because these degrees do not involve any further study, most faculty members do not list them on their curricula vitae. Rhodes University in South Africa uses the term "ad eundem gradum" to give a student status to undertake a research higher degree based on experience, as opposed to an explicit qualification. In this case the student is exempt from an entry requirement. In yet another variation, the University of Sydney may confer an ad eundem gradum degree on a retiring staff member who has had at least 10 years' service and is not a Sydney graduate, though in this case, the Sydney award is at the same level as an existing qualification. Master of Arts