A Master of Fine Arts is a terminal degree in fine arts, including visual arts, creative writing, graphic design, filmmaking, theatre, other performing arts and in some cases, theatre management or arts administration. It is a graduate degree that requires two to three years of postgraduate study after a bachelor's degree, though the term of study varies by country or university. Coursework is of an applied or performing nature with the program culminating in a thesis exhibition or performance; the first university to admit a student to the degree of Master of Fine Arts was the University of Iowa in 1940. A candidate for an MFA holds a bachelor's degree prior to admission, but many institutions do not require that the candidate's undergraduate major conform with their proposed path of study in the MFA program. Admissions requirements consist of a sample portfolio of artworks or a performance audition; the Master of Fine Arts differs from the Master of Arts in that the MFA, while still an academic program, centers around professional artistic practice in the particular field, whereas programs leading to the MA center on the scholarly, academic, or critical study of the field.
Additionally, in the United States, an MFA is recognized as a terminal degree for practitioners of visual art, dance, theatre, film/video, new media, creative writing—meaning that it is considered the highest degree in its field, qualifying an individual to become a professor at the university level in these disciplines. Bachelor of Fine Arts Doctor of Fine Arts National Association of Schools of Art and Design Improving Institutional Circumstances for Graduate Students in Languages and Literatures: Recommendations for Best Practices and Evaluative Questions
Café Royal Books is a small independent publisher of photography photobooks or zines, sometimes drawing run by Craig Atkinson and based in Southport, England. Café Royal Books produces small-run publications predominantly documenting social and architectural change in Britain, using both new work and photographs from archives, it by mid 2014 had published about 200 books and zines. Its publications are held in public collections including Britain. Martin Parr has described Café Royal Books as "a great archive of much forgotten documentary photography" and Daniel Meadows has said "Craig Atkinson has invented a publishing model for creating a exciting new history of documentary photography in Britain." Atkinson, based in Southport and a lecturer in the School of Art and Performance at the University of Central Lancashire, founded Café Royal Books in 2005. The titles are published frequently: in 2014 one per week and in short runs of 150 copies, they are sold direct and through bookshops in the UK, Europe, USA, Japan and Switzerland.
All their books have a consistent print quality and layout. Café Royal Books produce publications predominantly documenting social and architectural change, using both new work and photographs from archives. Writing in Artist's Book Yearbook: 2014-2015 Atkinson said emphasis "is given to work that encourages new ways of thinking about existing material or language which demonstrates the importance of using, documenting and observing a particular process or thing." For example, in 2013 Café Royal began publishing a series of books based loosely on Britain and Britishness by British photographers. The first six publications were collaborative group books. Since most have included the work of an individual photographer or artist. Café Royal Books specialises in collaborating with a photographer, it has published work by John Bulmer, David Carol, John Claridge, John Deakin, Peter Dench, Henrik Drescher, Alejandro Guijarro, Ken Grant, David Hurn, Daniel Meadows, Tish Murtha, Jim Mortram, Martin Parr, Simon Roberts, Victor Sloan, Brian David Stevens, Homer Sykes, Ed Templeton, Arthur Tress, Patrick Ward, Janine Wiedel, Document Scotland photographers among others.
Café Royal has worked with some photographers to produce numerous different books of their work. Many of the books are of Atkinson's own work. Café Royal Books have appeared in larger print runs: as examples, the first printings of Chris Killip's Huddersfield 1974 and of Chris Steele-Perkins' Wolverhampton 1978 were of 500 copies, and some of the publications are reprinted. Various Café Royal publications are held in public collections including: Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art: 4 publications British Library. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Tate, Britain. National Art Library and Albert Museum, London. National Gallery of Canada. University Library, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland. Café Royal Projects are occasional projects that use gallery type spaces for a purpose other than an exhibition. In 2010 the Café Royal Temporary Library invited artists to submit editions; the gallery space was presented as a reading room for the public to use, with 800 titles. In 2012 the International Drawing Project exhibited film and publications from eighty artists over three weeks.
Ten catalogues were published to document the artists. In 2013 an exhibition and reading room featured essays from academics with backgrounds in photography, artists' books and communication design. Picture Book: Co-curated with Pages, The Tetley, Leeds, UK, January–March 2016. With Café Royal Books publications as well as work from Christian Barnes, David Barton, Nous Vous, Landfill Editions. Official website'Café Royal Books: Craig Atkinson talks to Photoworks about the titles published by Café Royal Books, the weekly photobook publisher' A video showing the production of Grab The Uranium, made during a residency at Knust, a Risograph workshop in Nijmegen, Netherlands
The Original Singles: 1965–1967, Volume 1 is a compilation album by American rock'n' roll band the Byrds. Released in 1980, it offered, for the first time, all of the mono single versions of the Byrds' singles released between 1965 and early 1967; the tracks on the album are laid out chronologically by release date of the single, features the A-side first the B-side. For example, the Byrds' first single was "Mr. Tambourine Man" with "I Knew I'd Want You" on the B-side; the next single was "All I Really Want to Do" with "I'll Feel a Whole Lot Better" on the B-side, so forth. Some fans consider the sound quality of the recording. Although the 1980 album was acclaimed upon release, there were many complaints about the CD version. While the first UK version used single mono mixes sent from Columbia's studios, this was not the case with the CD version issued in the USA. Compiler and Byrds biographer Johnny Rogan was not involved in the CD version which did not include the original version of'Why' but instead featured the version from 1967's "Younger Than Yesterday".
All tracks are in mono. They were all released on 45 RPM singles and most of them were released on the mono versions of the Byrds' LPs Mr. Tambourine Man, Turn! Turn! Turn!, Fifth Dimension or Younger Than Yesterday. "Mr. Tambourine Man" - 2:20 "I Knew I'd Want You" - 2:14 "All I Really Want to Do" - 2:03 "I'll Feel a Whole Lot Better" - 2:32 "Turn! Turn! Turn!" - 3:37 "She Don't Care About Time" - 2:30 "Set You Free This Time" - 2:50 "It Won't Be Wrong" - 1:58 "Eight Miles High" - 3:35 "Why" - 3:01 "5D" - 2:34 "Captain Soul" - 2:35 "Mr. Spaceman" - 2:09 "What's Happening?!?!" - 2:33 "So You Want to Be a Rock'n' Roll Star" - 2:05 "Everybody's Been Burned" - 3:02 The single version of "All I Really Want to Do" is a different recording than the version released on the mono and stereo versions of the Mr. Tambourine Man album. "She Don't Care About Time" appeared on the B-side of the "Turn! Turn! Turn!" single, but was never included on a Byrds studio album. The single version of "Why" is a different recording than the version released on the mono and stereo versions of the Younger Than Yesterday album.
The LP release of The Original Singles: 1965-1967, Volume 1 contains this single version of "Why", but the CD release, in error, includes the mono album version of "Why" rather than the single version