National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland is a federal university system of constituent universities and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, amended by the Universities Act, 1997. The constituent universities are for all essential purposes independent universities, except that the degrees and diplomas are those of the National University of Ireland with its seat in Dublin. In post-nominals, the abbreviation NUI is used for degrees from all the constituent universities of the National University of Ireland. Queen's Colleges at Belfast and Galway were established in 1845. In 1849 teaching commenced and a year they were united under the Queen's University of Ireland; the Catholic University of Ireland was created as an independent university on 3 November 1854 for the education of Catholics. This university did not offer recognised degrees. In 1880 the Royal University of Ireland took over the degree awarding functions of the two former universities and offered recognised degrees to the graduates of the new University College Dublin and St Patrick's College, Maynooth awarded under the Catholic University.
The Catholic University became University College Dublin in 1882 under the direction of the Jesuits. In the 1890s its students achieved more distinctions than their counterparts in Belfast and Galway, established as secular institutions; the 1908 reforms created the National University of Ireland and a separate Queen's University of Belfast. The Royal University was dissolved in 1909, in 1910 Maynooth became a recognised college of the NUI; the National University, unlike the Royal University, did not award degrees for part-time or external students. To the Royal University, the National University was still banned from awarding degrees in Theology. In 1975 the teacher training colleges of Carysfort College, Blackrock, St. Patrick's College Drumcondra and Mary Immaculate College, Limerick became recognised colleges of the NUI. During 1976 and 1977 Thomond College of Education, Limerick was a recognized college of the NUI, also. In 1978 St. Angela's College, Sligo became affiliated to the NUI. In 1996 the National College of Art and Design became a recognised college of the NUI.
The 1997 reforms restructured the National University of Ireland, an additional university at Maynooth was created from certain faculties of the previous recognised college, St Patrick's College, Maynooth. These reforms removed the prohibition on theology, imposed on the National University and its predecessors. Since 1918 the university's graduates have formed a constituency in parliamentary elections. In 1918 it was formed as a constituency for the UK House of Commons. After the first election Eoin MacNeill sat in the first Dáil; the NUI graduates elected four TDs from 1921 until 1934 when the university constituencies were abolished by Fianna Fáil. Under the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, the graduates of the university elect three members of Seanad Éireann. All graduates that are Irish citizens are entitled to vote if on the university's register of electors. An honorary degree does not give the entitlement to vote; the election is conducted by postal vote. The most recent election was in 2016, for the 25th Seanad, returned three independents: Alice Mary Higgins, Michael McDowell and Rónán Mullen.
The governing body of the NUI is styled the Senate under its 1908 charter. Members are called "Members of the Senate" rather than Senators; the NUI Senate meets in the Phelan Room, called after Edward J. Phelan, who funded its refurbishment; the Universities Act 1997 increased the size of the Senate and devolved power from it to the constituent universities. The NUI's Convocation comprises the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Members of Senate, the Professors and Lecturers, the Graduates of the University. Eight Members of the NUI Senate are elected for terms of five years; the chancellor is the notional head of the university, constituent universities and recognised colleges have their own heads, which exercise most powers in practice. When the university was established in 1908 by Royal Charter, the first chancellor was appointed; the chancellor is elected by graduates and staff. William Joseph Walsh Éamon de Valera T. K. Whitaker Garret FitzGerald Maurice Manning Within the university there is a common faculty structure in operation in the constituent universities.
These ten faculties are: Agriculture. The constituent universities are: University College Cork University College Dublin NUI Galway Maynooth UniversityThe recognised college is: Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland++++++ Since April 2009 the Senate of the NUI decided that medical graduates of RCSI Bahrain will be eligible to receive the NUI degrees of MB BCh BAO. Former recognised colleges, now colleges of constituent universities, are: Institute of Public Administration †† National College of Art and Design †† Shannon College of Hotel Management † St. Angela's College, Sligo †† St Angela's College and Shannon College of Hotel Management are each "A Colleg
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
An undergraduate degree is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is an oxymoron, since one cannot hold a degree as an undergraduate. In the United States, it is offered at an institution of higher education, such as a college or university; the most common type of these undergraduate degrees are bachelor's degree. Bachelor's degree takes at least three or four years to complete; these degrees can be categorised as basic degrees. In the United Kingdom, a bachelor's degree is the most common type of "undergraduate degree"; some master's degrees can be undertaken after finishing secondary education. Most bachelor's degrees take three years to complete, with some notable exceptions, such as Medicine taking five years. Students can enroll in a 4-year program leave after three years and be awarded a bachelor's degree. First professional degrees sometimes contain the word Doctor, but are still considered undergraduate degrees in most countries, including Canada.
For example, the Doctor of Medicine program in Canada is considered an "undergraduate degree." However, in the United States, most first professional degrees are considered graduate programs by the U. S. Department of Education and require students to possess an "undergraduate degree" before admission; these degrees are not research doctorates and are therefore not equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy Many countries offer bachelor's degrees that are equivalent to American graduate degrees. For example, the Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degrees offered in the U. S. are equivalent to the Bachelor of Surgery degree. In the United States and sometimes in Canada, an Associate's Degree is a two-year degree, it is undertaken as the beginning of a four-year degree. Some two-year institutions have articulation agreements with four-year institutions, which specify which courses transfer without problems; the Arizona General Education Curriculum certification, awarded for the completion of an Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, or Associate of Business degree indicates the completion of all bachelor's degree lower level course work and permits the student to block transfer to any of the three state universities and several private universities as a third-year student or "Junior."To obtain an AGEC certification, one must: Complete all associate degree credits at regionally accredited colleges.
Associates degrees with an AGEC certification are custom tailored with electives to meet the prerequisite requirements for the program and university the student wishes to transfer to. Virginia’s community college has signed system-wide agreements, allowing students who graduate from one of the 23 community colleges with a transfer associate degree and a minimum grade point average to obtain guaranteed admission to more than 20 of the Commonwealth's four-year colleges and universities. Argentine higher education system is based, since its conception during the colonial period, on the old and dogmatic Spanish higher education system, a Continental education system. A historic event took place in the University Reform of 1918, a popular series of reforms that took place in the oldest university of the country, the Universidad de Córdoba that paved the way to the modernization of the Argentinian higher university systems as it is known nowadays. Since its foundation, it was focused on the teaching of Professions offering Professional degrees.
It is divided into three levels. Tertiary Education level: 1- to 4-years degrees related to education or technical professions like Teachers, Technicians. University level: 4- to 6-years Professional education taught at Universities offering many different degrees Licentiate, Engineering degree, Medic Title, Attorney Title, Translation degrees, etc. Post-graduate level: This is a specialized and research-oriented education level, it is divided in a first sub-level where a Specialist degree can be obtained in a 12–18 months period or Master degree, requiring 24–30 months and an original research work and a higher sub-level where a Doctorate degree could be achieved. The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria.
Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school.
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria; the university has a number of campuses, four of which are in Victoria, one in Malaysia. Monash has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Suzhou, China. Monash University courses are delivered at other locations, including South Africa. Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Monash Law School, the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct, the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2016, its total revenue was over $2.2 billion dollars, with external research income around $282 million. In 2016, Monash enrolled over 22,000 graduate students, it has more applicants than any other university in the state of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight, a coalition of Australia's eight leading research Universities, a member of the ASAIHL, is the only Australian member of the M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers and National Academies.
Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the École des Mines de Paris ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. The original campus was in the City of Clayton; the university was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton. The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony. From its first intake of 357 students at Clayton on 13 March 1961, the university grew in size and student numbers so that by 1967, it had enrolled more than 21,000 students since its establishment. In its early years, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, science, economics, politics and law, it was a major provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan, which saw the first Asian students enter the Australian education system. In its early years of teaching and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices. Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo.
A modern administrative structure was set up. The university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash; this was the first time in Australia that a university had been named after a person, rather than a city or state. From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia, it was the site of many mass student demonstrations concerning Australia's role in Vietnam War and conscription. By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades and sit-ins. In one extraordinary event that came to be known as the Monash Siege, students forced Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to hide in a basement at the Alexander Theatre, in a major protest over the Whitlam dismissal. In the late 1970s and 1980s, some of Monash's most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation. Led by Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the world's first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973.
In 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia. This became a massive source of revenue for the university at a time when university funding in Australia was beginning to slow down. In the late 1980s, the Dawkins Reforms changed the landscape of higher education in Australia. Under the leadership of Vice-Chancellor Mal Logan, Monash transformed dramatically. In 1988, Monash University had only one campus in Clayton, with around 15,000 students. Just over a decade it had 8 campuses, a European research and teaching centre, more than 50,000 students, making it the largest and most internationalised Australian university. Expansion of the university began in 1990 with a series of mergers between Monash, the Chisholm Institute of Technology, the Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education. In 1991 a merger with the Victorian College of Pharmacy created a new faculty of the university; this continued with the establishment of the Berwick campus. In 1998, the university opened the Malaysia campus, its first overseas campus and the first foreign university in Malaysia.
In 2001, Monash South Africa opened its doors in Johannesburg, making Monash the first foreign university in South Africa. The same year, the university secured an 18th-century Tuscan palace to open a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy. At the same time, Australian universities faced unprecedented demand for international student places, which Monash met on a larger scale than most. Today, around 30% of its students are from outside Australia. Monash students come from over 100 different countries, speak over 90 different languages; the increase in international students, combined with the university's expansion, meant that Monash's income increased throughout the 1990s, it is now one of Australia's top 200 exporters. In recent years, the university has been prominent in medical research. A highlight of this came in 2000, when Alan Trounson led the team of scientists which announced to the world that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells, a discovery which led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells.
It has led to Monash being ranked in the top
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
Sewanee: The University of the South
Sewanee: The University of the South known as Sewanee, is a private, liberal arts college in Sewanee, Tennessee. It is owned by 28 southern dioceses of the Episcopal Church, its School of Theology is an official seminary of the church; the university's School of Letters offers graduate degrees in American Literature and Creative Writing. The campus consists of 13,000 acres of scenic mountain property atop the Cumberland Plateau, with the developed portion occupying about 1,000 acres; the school was ranked 41st in the 2017 U. S. News & World Report list of liberal arts colleges. In 2016, Forbes ranked it 94th on its list of Top Colleges in the United States. Sewanee is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. On July 4, 1857, delegates from ten dioceses of the Episcopal Church in the United States — Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina and Texas—were led up Monteagle Mountain by Bishop Leonidas Polk — an ardent defender of slavery — for the founding of their denominational college for the region.
The goal was to create a Southern university free of Northern influences. As one of its founders, Bishop James Otey of Tennessee, put it: the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us." John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, "the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the entire country," was by far the most influential in bankrolling the new university. His purchase of the site where the university continues to exist today and his promise of $25,000 per year far exceeded any other donations and was considered a "princely offer" by a Nashville newspaper. Today, Sewanee admits students from all backgrounds and downplays the role of this slave trader in the University's founding; the six-ton marble cornerstone, laid on October 10, 1860, consecrated by Bishop Polk, was blown up in 1863 by Union soldiers. A few were donated back to the university, a large fragment was installed in a wall of All Saints' Chapel.
Several figures prominent in the Confederacy, notably Bishop-General Leonidas Polk, Bishop Stephen Elliott, Jr. and Bishop James Hervey Otey, were significant founders of the university. Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, Josiah Gorgas and Francis A. Shoup were prominent in the university's postbellum revival and continuance; because of the damage and disruptions during the Civil War, construction came to a temporary halt. Polk died in action during the Atlanta campaign, he is remembered always through his portrait Sword Over the Gown, painted by Eliphalet F. Andrews in 1900. After the original was vandalized in 1998, a copy by Connie Erickson was unveiled on June 1, 2003. In 1866 building was resumed, this date is sometimes used as the re-founding of the university and the year from which it has maintained continuous operations; the university's first convocation was held on September 18, 1868, with nine students and four faculty members present. Presiding was the Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, Vice Chancellor of the University, Second Bishop of Tennessee and "Chaplain of the Confederacy".
He attended the first Lambeth Conference in England and received financial support from clergy and laity of the Church of England for rebuilding the school. Quintard is known as the "Re-Founder" of the University of the South. During World War II, the University of the South was one of 131 tertiary institutions nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission. Schools of dentistry, law and nursing once existed, a secondary school was part of the institution into the second half of the 20th century. However, for financial reasons it was decided to focus on the College and the School of Theology. In June 2006, Sewanee opened its School of a second graduate school; the School of Letters offers a Master of Arts in American Literature and a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing. The institution has combined its two historical names in all university publications that are not official documents and bills itself as "Sewanee: The University of the South".
Version three of the university's style guide, a document reflecting the official policies of the university with respect to its public image following the name change, stated in part: First, it must be understood that the official and legal name of this institution is "The University of the South". In the past, unorganized use of this official name and the university's familiar name, has been confusing to those unfamiliar with the institution. In addition, college guides and Web sites that have become so crucial in young people's college searches may list the institution under as many as four different entries—beginning with "The", "University", "South", or "Sewanee". To avoid confusion and to honor the history and character of the institution, a consistent reference to the name of the institution is critical. So, for extended audiences unfamiliar with the institution, the naming convention "Sewanee: The University of the South" should be used on a first reference. Subsequent references may be to "Sewanee" or "the University".
When this naming system was proposed in 2004, it was misinterpreted by some alumni to reflect a change in the official name of the university. A minor scandal ensued, with more conservative commentators insinuating that the change was