Ancient universities of Scotland
The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day. The majority of the ancient universities of the British Isles are located within Scotland, have a number of distinctive features in common, being governed by a series of measures laid down in the Universities Acts 1858–1966; the Universities Act 1966 uses the term'older universities' to refer to St Andrews, Glasgow and Edinburgh. The same act provided for the independence from St Andrews of Dundee, granted a similar form of governance under its royal charter. In common with the other ancient universities of the United Kingdom, the Scottish ancients find themselves administered in a quite different fashion from these new universities and are granted a number of privileges as a result of their different status; the existing ancient universities of Scotland are, in order of foundation: University of St Andrews – founded 1413 University of Glasgow – founded 1451 University of Aberdeen – founded 1495 University of Edinburgh – founded 1583Following the creation of the ancient universities before the end of the 16th century, no other universities were formed in Scotland until the twentieth century.
The first'new university' of the era was the University of Strathclyde which received its royal charter in 1964, although it traces its origins back to the Andersonian Institute founded in 1796. Despite being held as an ancient university, the University of Aberdeen was only created in 1860; the university was formed by the amalgamation of two existing ancient universities within Aberdeen, which were: University and King's College of Aberdeen. The Act of Parliament uniting the two universities specified that the date of the foundation of the new united university would be taken to be that of the older King's College, viz 1495. Another, short lived, university existed in the Aberdeenshire town of Fraserburgh from 1595 to 1605. All of the ancient universities, with the exception of St Andrews, were both universities and colleges, with both titles being used; the University of St Andrews was, however, a traditional collegiate university with a number of colleges. Today, only two statutory colleges exist: United College and the much smaller St Mary's College for students of theology – a third non-statutory college, St Leonard's College was founded in 1972 using the name of an earlier institution as a formal grouping of postgraduate students.
Queen's College in Dundee became an independent university, the University of Dundee, in 1967. In modern times, former college names may refer to specific university buildings, such as the King's College and Marischal College buildings in Aberdeen, the Old College and New College at Edinburgh and the'Old College' to refer to the former buildings of the University of Glasgow before its move in the 19th century to Gilmorehill; the University of St Andrews owed its origin to a society formed in 1410 by Laurence of Lindores, archdeacon Richard Cornwall, bishop William Stephenson and others. Bishop Henry Wardlaw issued a charter in 1411 and attracted the most learned men in Scotland as professors. In 1413 Avignon Pope Benedict XIII issued six bulls confirming the charter and constituting the society a university. University College Dundee was absorbed into St Andrews University, subsequently becoming Queen's College; the University of Dundee separated from the University of St Andrews in 1967. The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 by a papal bull of Pope Nicholas V, at the request of King James II, giving Bishop William Turnbull permission to add the university to the city's cathedral.
Its founding came about as a result of King James II's wish that Scotland have two Universities, to equal Oxford and Cambridge of England. No college is mentioned in the foundation bill, only a university and it was the "University of Aberdeen" by that name, established in 1495. Subsequently, a single college known as St. Mary of the Nativity, was established. Soon the entity came to be called King's College, after its royal founder James IV. A separate university was founded in 1593. In 1860, King's merged with Marischal College. While both institutions were universities, would be considered ancient, the Act of Parliament uniting the two specified that the date of the foundation of the new united university would be taken to be that of the older King's College. Aberdeen was unusual at this time for having two universities in one city: as 20th-century University prospectuses observed, Aberdeen had the same number as existed in England at the time. In addition, a further university was set up to the north of Aberdeen in Fraserburgh from 1595, but was closed down about a decade later.
A further institute, established in 1750 under the wishes of Robert Gordon, a wealthy University of Aberdeen alumnus has since evolved into the modern Robert Gordon University. The founding of the University is attributed to Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney, who left the funds on his death in 1558 that ulti
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries. The term is used for a person who holds this degree; the term derives from Latin licentia, "freedom", applied in the phrases licentia docendi meaning permission to teach and licentia ad practicandum signifying someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title. For the student in the medieval university the "licentia docendi" was of a somewhat different nature than the academic degrees of bachelor, master or doctor; the latter indicated the rank of seniority in the various faculties, whereas the licentia was the licence to teach. It was awarded not by the university but by the church, embodied in the chancellor of the diocese in which the university was located; the licentia would only be awarded however upon recommendation by the university shortly before the candidate would be awarded the final degree of master or doctor, the requirements for which beyond having been awarded the licentia were only of a ceremonial nature.
Over time however, this distinction in nature between the licentia on the one hand and the bachelor and doctor degrees on the other began to fade. In the continental European universities the licentia became an academic degree between the bachelor's degree on the one hand and the master or doctor degree on other, in particular in the higher faculties. Moreover, the costs for obtaining the doctorate could be significant; as a result, most students not intending on an academic career would forgo the doctorate, as a result the licentiate became the common final degree. A notable exception to this development were the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the universities modelled after them; as their locations were not the seats of bishops, the granting of the licentia docendi happened by proxy, its significance faded away. In Argentina, the Licentiate degree, by which one becomes a licenciada or a licenciado, is a four- to six-year degree. It's equivalent to an M. Sc. or M. A. in North American universities, or Master in any country of Europe given by the Bologna Process and World Universities affiliates.
The achievement of the "Licentiate" degree does not require the formal writing of a thesis, although always, some amount of research is required. The successful defense of the "Tesis de Licenciatura" automatically habilitates the candidate to apply to a Master's or Doctorate degree in a related field of science. D. degree. The only institutions in Australia to grant licentiates, apart from theological colleges, are the Australian Music Examinations Board and the Australian College of Music, which confer licentiate diplomas, including the Licentiate in Music, Australia; the status of this award is similar to that of an Australian diploma—currently one year of post-secondary education—and so it is a lesser award than a degree, although this award can take two or more years to complete due to its high standard. For theological colleges in former times, the licentiate was a specific post graduate award, analogous to a current graduate diploma, it was used because some theological colleges did not enjoy university status, could not award degrees such as baccalaureates and doctorates.
Though this was never the case in Catholic Colleges where the Licentiate cannot be earned until one has completed 7 years of study. In such an instance, it sits well above the level of graduate diploma between that of master's and doctorate; the Catholic Institute of Sydney is a Pontifical Faculty and as such offers the Licentiate of Sacred Theology which ranks above a master's degree and can only be earned after seven years of study. The licentiate is part of the three cycles of theological education in the Roman Catholic Church, instituted in 1931: baccalaureate, it is the licentiate. See John Paul II's apostolic constitution, Sapientia Christiana. At Belgian universities, a person titled Licentiate holds the equivalent education of a Master's degree. A female Licentiate was called Licentiate in Licenciée in French; the years spent to obtain the degree of Licentiate were called Licentiaat or Licentie in Dutch and Licence in French. It was the second level of university study, after that of Candidate.
A female Candidate was called Kandidate in Candidate in French. The years spent to obtain the degree of Candidate were called Kandidaats or Kandidatuur in Dutch and Candidature in French; each of those two levels required at least two years of successful study. Licentiates were required to write a thesis; this candidate-licentiate system is now being replaced by an American-style bachelor-master system. Civil engineer, Doctor of medicine, Doctor of law (o
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D. C, it was chartered in 1821 by an act of the United States Congress. The university is organized into 14 colleges and schools, including the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Elliott School of International Affairs, the GW School of Business, the School of Media and Public Affairs, the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, the GW Law School and the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design. George Washington's main Foggy Bottom Campus is located in the heart of Washington, D. C. with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank located on campus and the White House and the U. S. Department of State within blocks of campus. GWU hosts numerous research centers and institutes, including the National Security Archive and the Institute for International Economic Policy. GWU has two satellite campuses: the Mount Vernon Campus, located in D. C.'s the Virginia Science and Technology Campus.
It is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia. George Washington, the first President of the United States, advocated the establishment of a national university in the U. S. capital in his first State of the Union address in 1790 and continued to promote this idea throughout his career and until his death. In his will, Washington left shares in the Potomac Company to endow the university. However, due to the company's financial difficulties, funds were raised independently. On 9 February 1821, the university was founded by an Act of Congress, making it one of only five universities in the United States with a Congressional charter. George Washington offers degree programs in seventy-one disciplines, enrolling an average of 11,000 undergraduate and 15,500 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries; the Princeton Review ranked GWU 1st for Top Universities for Internship Opportunities. As of 2015, George Washington had over 1,100 active alumni in the U. S. Foreign Service, the nation's diplomatic corps.
GWU is ranked by The Princeton Review in the top "Most Politically Active" Schools. George Washington is home to extensive student life programs, as well as a strong Greek culture, over 450 other student organizations; the school's athletic teams, the George Washington Colonials, play in the Atlantic 10 Conference. GW is known for the numerous prominent events it holds yearly, from hosting U. S. presidential debates and academic symposiums to the being the host of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's Annual Meetings in DC, since 2013. George Washington alumni and affiliates include numerous prominent politicians, including the current U. S. Attorney General, heads of state and government, CEOs of major corporations, Nobel laureates, MacArthur fellows, Olympic athletes, Academy Award and Golden Globe winners and Time 100 notables. Historical records have shown that the first president of the United States, President George Washington, had made indications to Congress that he aspired to have a university established in the capital of the United States.
He included the subject in his last will and testament. Baptist missionary and leading minister Luther Rice raised funds to purchase a site in Washington, D. C. for a college to educate citizens from throughout the young nation. A large building was constructed on College Hill, now known as Meridian Hill, on February 9, 1821, President James Monroe approved the congressional charter creating the non-denominational Columbian College; the first commencement in 1824 was considered an important event for the young city of Washington, D. C. In attendance were President Monroe, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Marquis de Lafayette and other dignitaries; the George Washington University, like much of Washington, D. C. traces many of its origins back to the Freemasons. The Bible that the President of the George Washington University use to swear an oath on upon inauguration is the Bible of Freemason George Washington. Freemasonry symbols are prominently displayed throughout the campus including the foundation stones of many of the university buildings.
During the Civil War, most students left to join the Confederacy and the college's buildings were used as a hospital and barracks. Walt Whitman was among many of the volunteers to work on the campus. Following the war, in 1873, Columbian College became the Columbian University and moved to an urban downtown location centered on 15th and H streets, NW. In 1904, Columbian University changed its name to the George Washington University in an agreement with the George Washington Memorial Association to build a campus building in honor of the first U. S. President. Neither the university nor the association were able to raise enough funds for the proposed building near the National Mall; the university moved its principal operations to the D. C. neighborhood of Foggy Bottom in 1912. Many of the Colleges of the George Washington University stand out for their history; the Law School is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences is the 11th oldest medical school in the nation.
The Columbian College was founded in 1821, is the oldest unit of the university. The Elliott School of International Affairs was formalized in 1898; the majority of the present infrastructure and financial stability at GW is due to the tenures of GW Presidents Cloyd Heck Marvin, Lloyd Hartman Elliott and Stephen Joel Trachtenberg. In the 1930s, the university was a major center for theoretical physics; the cosmologist George Gamow produced critica
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of