Vuk Jeremić is a Serbian diplomat who served as Serbia's Minister of Foreign Affairs between 2007 and 2012, President of the 67th session of the United Nations General Assembly between September 2012 and September 2013. Jeremić is a native of Belgrade, was raised in a mixed Christian and Muslim household, his father was the CEO of a prominent state-owned oil company and his mother hailed from a well-known Partisan family, two of whose members were posthumously declared Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem for saving Jews during The Holocaust. In the early 1990s, while he was still a teenager, Jeremić and his parents were forced to leave Yugoslavia after falling out with the country's communist government. Jeremić graduated from Cambridge and Harvard in 1998 and 2003 and was active in several pro-democracy student movements during the 1990s. In the early 2000s, he joined what The New York Times deemed Serbia's "most westward-leaning government" as an advisor to President Boris Tadić. In May 2007, while Tadić was still in office, Jeremić was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs.
During his tenure, he spearheaded Serbia's fervent opposition to Kosovo's unilateral secession, Serbian authorities arrested a number of war crimes suspects and extradited them to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, there was a significant improvement in relations between Serbia and the West. In 2009, the European Union lifted all visa restrictions on citizens of Serbia, in 2012, declared the country a candidate for membership. Jeremić remains the youngest person to have served as President of the United Nations General Assembly, having been elected in 2012, his tenure saw Palestine granted non-member observer status in the General Assembly, the General Assembly's adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, which aimed to regulate international conventional weapons commerce, the proclamation of 6 April as the International Day of Sport for Development and Peace. Jeremić describes himself as a "fervent, pro-European politician", he is the current president of the Center for International Relations and Sustainable Development and editor-in-chief of Horizons, an English-language global public policy magazine.
Jeremić was a candidate in the race to succeed Ban Ki-moon as United Nations Secretary-General in 2016, finishing second overall, behind eventual winner António Guterres. He unsuccessfully ran in the 2017 Serbian presidential election as an independent candidate. In October 2017, he founded the center-right People's Party. Vuk Jeremić was born in Belgrade on 3 July 1975. Jeremić's parents are Mihajlo and Sena Jeremić, his father is a Serb from Belgrade and his mother is a Muslim Bosniak whose ancestors hailed from the northwestern Bosnian town of Cazin. During the 1980s, Jeremić's father was the CEO of a large state-owned oil company. Jeremić's paternal grandfather, was an officer in the Royal Yugoslav Army. In April 1941, at the height of World War II, he was captured by the Germans during the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia and imprisoned, first at Matthausen and at Dachau, he returned to Yugoslavia by foot, only to be arrested as a political dissident by the country's new communist authorities and jailed at the Goli Otok prison camp, where he spent the next five years.
Through his mother, Jeremić stems from the prominent Pozderac family considered the most influential Bosnian Muslim political dynasty in post-war Yugoslavia. Jeremić's maternal great-grandfather, Nurija Pozderac, was a prominent Bosnian Muslim politician in Depression-era Yugoslavia. A staunch anti-fascist, he joined Josip Broz Tito's Partisans in the early 1940s and was killed in action in 1943. Nurija and his wife Devleta were posthumously declared Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem for saving Jews during The Holocaust, Jeremić accepted a medal and certificate identifying them as such at a ceremony in Belgrade in November 2012. According to survivors, the couple sheltered Jews who snuck out of a train destined for the Jasenovac concentration camp, operated by Croatia's fascist ruling party, the Ustaše. Pozderac's nephews Hamdija and Hakija featured prominently in Yugoslav political circles during the 1980s. Jeremić completed his elementary schooling in Belgrade, moving on to the First Belgrade Gymnasium where he began his high school studies.
There, he met Boris Tadić, a pro-Western psychology professor and future President of Serbia whom the young Jeremić came to regard as a role model and mentor. Before long, Jeremić's family was blacklisted by the authoritarian government of Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milošević, had to flee the country, they settled in the United Kingdom, Jeremić finished his high school education in London. Jeremić continued his post-secondary studies at the University of Cambridge, graduating with a bachelor's degree in theoretical physics in 1998, his years there coincided with the Yugoslav Wars, which negatively affected Serbia's reputation abroad. Jeremić's time at Cambridge provided him with insight into how his country was perceived overseas during the war years. "It was hard to explain that you come from Serbia and you’re not a children-eating radical," Jeremić recalled. Jeremić began his Ph. D studies in quantitative finance at the University of London, worked for Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Kleinwort and AstraZeneca in the British capital.
Beginning in 2001, he studied under Jeffrey Sachs at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government as a Fellow of the Kokkalis Foundation's Program on Southeastern and East-Central Europe, graduating in 2003 with a master's degree in public administration and international devel
Raymond Walter Kelly is the longest serving Commissioner in the history of the New York City Police Department and the first person to hold the post for two non-consecutive tenures. According to its website, Kelly— a lifelong New Yorker—had spent 47 years in the NYPD, serving in 25 different commands and as Police Commissioner from 1992 to 1994 and again from 2002 until 2013. Kelly was the first person to rise from Police Cadet to Police Commissioner, holding all of the department's ranks, except for Three-Star Bureau Chief, Chief of Department, Deputy Commissioner, having been promoted directly from Two-Star Chief to First Deputy Commissioner in 1990. After his handling of the World Trade Center bombing in 1993, he was mentioned for the first time as a possible candidate for FBI Director. After Kelly turned down the position, Louis Freeh was appointed. Kelly was a Marine Corps Reserve Colonel, Director of Police under the United Nations Mission in Haiti, an Interpol Vice President. During the Clinton administration, Kelly served as Treasury Department Under Secretary for Enforcement, as Customs Service Commissioner, was in the running to become the first United States Ambassador to Vietnam, after President Bill Clinton extended full diplomatic relations to that country in 1995.
In March 2011, New York Senator Chuck Schumer endorsed Kelly to become the next Director of the FBI, in July 2013, he endorsed Kelly to become Secretary of Homeland Security. In March 2014, he was appointed as President of Risk Management Services at Cushman & Wakefield, a New York City-based commercial real estate services firm. In 2015, the New York Post reported that Kelly was considering a run for New York City Mayor, citing his "Love for New York City". Kelly graduated from Archbishop Molloy High School in 1959, he graduated with a Bachelor of Business Administration from Manhattan College in 1963. He holds a J. D. from the St. John's University School of Law, a LL. M. from the New York University School of Law, an M. P. A. from the Harvard Kennedy School. Kelly has been the recipient of honorary degrees from Marist College, Manhattan College, the College of St. Rose, St. John's University, the State University of New York, New York University, Iona College, Pace University, Quinnipiac University, St. Thomas Aquinas College and the Catholic University of America.
Kelly was born in 1941 and raised on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, to James F. Kelly, a milkman, Elizabeth Kelly, a dressing-room checker at Macy's. A fitness buff since his teens, Kelly still lifts weights and does aerobic exercises, he is a fashionable dresser, favoring custom-made shirts that he takes to Geneva, a shirtmaker, for laundering. He favors silk ties by Charvet. "A tie is the only true way men can make some sort of statement", Kelly has stated, citing Barack Obama as another fan of the high-end French label. "I can tell when someone's wearing Charvet from a distance – dark colors stand out." Claiming that good-quality clothing enhances his public image as an authority figure, he orders custom hand-tailored suits from master tailor Martin Greenfield, who numbers politicians and movie stars among his clientele and whose suits run in the four figures. Kelly met his future wife Veronica on the beach at Island Park, New York where his family had a summer residence. Kelly is the father of Greg Kelly, former co-host of the local Fox morning television show Good Day New York.
Kelly is a combat veteran of the Vietnam War. He received his commission as a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in 1963. In 1965, he went to the Republic of Vietnam with the 2nd Battalion 1st Marines; as a First Lieutenant in Vietnam, Kelly led Marines in battle for most of his 12 months in country, including participation in Operation Harvest Moon. Upon returning to the U. S. Raymond Kelly joined the Reserves and retired after 30 years of service with the rank of Colonel from the Marine Corps Reserves. Kelly joined the New York City Police Department as a police cadet in 1960. Six years in 1966, Kelly joined NYPD, he graduated first in his class from the New York City Police Academy and passed the sergeant's test upon returning from Vietnam. This meteoric ascent combined with relative inexperience as a beat cop has prompted some criticisms from colleagues. According to Geoffrey Gray who wrote in New York Magazine, "Some retired cops say Kelly's swift ascent makes him a boss who doesn't understand the street.'He's not a cop,' says one retired chief, dismissively.'He's on patrol for a blink of an eye and tells guys on patrol ten years how to do their jobs.'
Says another,'He gives you all the ingredients to make shrimp scampi and says he wants sirloin steak.'"However, his long service stands in stark contrast to that of his predecessor, Bernard Kerik. Kerik served as an NYPD officer for only 8 years before he was appointed commissioner by Mayor Rudy Giuliani. On February 9, 1990, Kelly was appointed First Deputy Commissioner during the administration of Mayor David Dinkins. Kelly's boss was New York City Police Commissioner Lee Brown, a former Houston Police Chief and the future mayor of Houston. Kelly was promoted from a Two-Star Assistant Chief to the First Deputy position over several Three-Star Bureau Chiefs, the Four-Star Chief of Department, Robert J. Johnston Jr. At the time Johnston was so powerful, Brown altered the traditional hierarchy by announcing that Johnston would report directly to the Police Commissioner rather than the First Deputy as had been called for under the former departmental structure; this was done to prevent Johnston from having to report to Kelly.
On October 16, 1992, Mayor Dinkins appointed Kelly as the 37th Police Commissioner of the City of New York. Kelly took over a police departmen
Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa, is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 1 December 2006 to 30 November 2012. He was a member of the National Action Party for thirty years before quitting the party in November 2018. Prior to the presidency, Calderón received two master's degrees and went on to work within the PAN while it was still an important opposition party. Calderón served as National President of the party, Federal Deputy, Secretary of Energy in Vicente Fox's cabinet, he served in the cabinet of the previous administration up until he resigned to run for the Presidency and secured his party's nomination. In the 2006 Presidential election, he ran as the PAN candidate. After a heated campaign and a controversial electoral process, the Federal Electoral Institute's official results gave Calderón a tiny lead above PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. While López Obrador and the PRD disputed the results and called for a complete recount of the votes, Calderón's victory was confirmed months on September 5, 2006, by the Federal Electoral Tribunal.
Calderón's inauguration ceremony at the Congress of the Union was tense and lasted less than five minutes, as he only recited the oath of office while the PRD legislators shouted in protest against the alleged electoral fraud, afterwards he left the building for security reasons as some of the legislators engaged in violent brawls. His presidency was marked by the ignition of the Mexican Drug War, which began immediately after he took office, was considered by many observators as a strategy to gain popular legitimacy for the new President after the convoluted elections. Calderón sanctioned Operation Michoacán, the first large-scale deployment of federal troops against the drug cartels. By the end of his administration, the official number of deaths related to the drug war was at least 60,000; the murder rate skyrocketed during his presidency parallel to that of the ignition of the drug war, with the murder rate peaking in 2010 and decreasing during the last two years of his term. Calderón's term was marked by the Great Recession, which resulted in a 4.7% drop in gross domestic product for 2009.
An economic recovery the following year resulted in growth of 5.11%. In 2007, Calderón established ProMéxico, a public trust fund that promotes Mexico's interests in international trade and investment; the total foreign direct investment during Calderón's presidency was US$70.494 billion. As a result of the countercyclical package passed in 2009 to address the effects of the global recession, the national debt increased from 22.2% to 35% of GDP by December 2012. The poverty rate increased from 43 to 46%. Other significant events during Calderón's presidency include the 2008 passing of criminal justice reforms, the 2009 flu pandemic, the 2010 establishment of the Agencia Espacial Mexicana, the 2011 founding of the Pacific Alliance and the achievement of universal healthcare through Seguro Popular in 2012. Under the Calderón administration sixteen new Protected Natural Areas were created, he began a one-year fellowship at John F. Kennedy School of Government in January 2013, returned to Mexico following the end of his tenure.
He left the National Action Party on 11 November 2018, stated that he intends to form his own political party. Felipe Calderón was born in Michoacán, he is the youngest of five brothers and son of Carmen Hinojosa Calderón and the late Luis Calderón Vega. His father was a co-founder of an important political figure; the elder Calderón served a term as federal deputy. He spent most of his life working within the party and spent most of his free time promoting the PAN; the young Calderón was active in his father's campaigns. As a boy, he distributed party pamphlets and flyers, rode PAN campaign vehicles and chanted slogans at rallies. After growing up in Morelia, Calderón moved to Mexico City, where he received a bachelor's degree in law from the Escuela Libre de Derecho, he received a master's degree in economics from the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México and a Master of Public Administration degree in 2000 from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Following his father's example, he joined the PAN, with the desire of one day becoming Mexico's president.
It was in the National Action Party that Calderón met his wife, Margarita Zavala, who served in Congress as a federal deputy. They have María, Luis Felipe and Juan Pablo. Calderón is Roman Catholic. To demands for detailed revelation of his personal positions on abortion, Calderón responded that he voted for life. Calderón's administration sought to maintain moderate positions on social policy and supported Mexican legislation guaranteeing abortion for rape victims, when pregnancy endangers a woman's life or in cases of severe fetal deformity; as for his economic policies, he supports balanced fiscal policies, flat taxes, lower taxes, free trade. Calderón was president of the PAN's youth movement in his early twenties, he was a local representative in the Legislative Assembly and, on two different occasions, in the federal Chamber of Deputies. He ran for the governorship of Michoacán in 1995 and served as national president of the PAN from 1996 to 1999. During his tenure, his party maintained control
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function"; some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs". Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, regional and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration".
The field is multidisciplinary in character. In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, the potentials of the citizen. One year Gordon Clapp Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration "as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more realized." This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, with things". According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, "The Study of Administration" in 1887 is regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
The key term "product" refers to "those items that are constructed or produced" such as prisons, laws and security. "As implementors, public managers engage these products." They participate in the making of the "living" democracy. A living democracy is "an environment, changing, organic", imperfect and teaming with values. "Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned "with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values". More scholars claim that "public administration has no accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". Public administration is a field of an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration, he argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants; the North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration sector states that public administration "... comprises establishments engaged in activities of a governmental nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation of laws and their pursuant regulations, the administration of programs based on them".
This includes "Legislative activities, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines the study of public administration as "
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students