The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Chinese University of Hong Kong
The Chinese University of Hong Kong is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. It is the territory's second oldest university and was founded as a federation of three existing colleges – Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College – the oldest of, founded in 1949. Today, CUHK is organized into nine constituent colleges and eight academic faculties, remains the only collegiate university in the territory; the university operates in both English and Chinese, although classes in most colleges are taught in English. Four Nobel laureates are associated with the university, it is the only tertiary institution in Hong Kong with recipients of the Nobel Prize, Turing Award, Fields Medal and Veblen Prize sitting as faculty in residence; the university was formed in 1963 as a federation of three existing colleges. The first of these, New Asia College, was established in 1949 by anti-Communist Confucian scholars from Mainland China amid the revolution there.
Among the founders were Ch'ien Mu, Tang Junyi, Tchang Pi-kai. Curriculum focused on Chinese heritage and social concerns; the early years of this school were tumultuous, with the campus relocating several times between rented premises around Kowloon. Academics there were self-exiled from the mainland and they struggled financially, with students sometimes sleeping on rooftops and teachers foregoing pay to sustain the college. Funds were raised and the school moved to a new campus in Kau Pui Lung, built with the support of the Ford Foundation, in 1956. Following the Communist revolution and the breakdown in relations between China and the United States at the 1950 outbreak of the Korean War, all Christian colleges and universities in the People's Republic of China were shut down. Chung Chi College was founded in 1951 by Protestant churches in Hong Kong to continue the theological education of mainland churches and schools; the 63 students of its first year operating were taught in various church and rented premises on Hong Kong Island.
The college moved to its present location in Ma Liu Shui in 1956. By 1962, a year before the founding of CUHK, Chung Chi had 531 students in 10 departments taught by a full-time faculty of 40, excluding tutors. United College was founded in 1956 with the merging of five private colleges in Guangdong province: Canton Overseas, Kwang Hsia, Wah Kiu, Wen Hua, Ping Jing College of Accountancy; the first school president was Dr F. I. Tseung; the original campus on Caine Road on Hong Kong Island accommodated over 600 students. These three colleges helped fill a void in the post-secondary education options available to Hong Kong Chinese students. Before 1949, such students could attend a university in the mainland, but with this option spoiled by the upheavals in China, students were unable to further their studies at a university unless their English proficiency was sufficient to enrol at the University of Hong Kong the only university in the territory. In 1957, New Asia College, Chung Chi College, United College came together to establish the Chinese Colleges Joint Council.
In June 1959, the Hong Kong government expressed its intent to establish a new university with a medium of instruction of Chinese. The same year the Post-Secondary Colleges Ordinance was announced to provide government funding and official recognition to New Asia, Chung Chi and United colleges in hopes that the money would "enable them to raise their standards to a level at which they might qualify for university status on a federal basis"; the ordinance was enacted on 19 May 1960. The Chinese University Preparatory Committee was established in June 1961 to advise the government on possible sites for the new university; the following May, the Fulton Commission was formed to assess the suitability of the three government-funded Post-Secondary Colleges to become constituent colleges of the new university. The commission, headed by Vice-Chancellor John Fulton of the newly established University of Sussex, visited Hong Kong over the summer and produced an interim report recommending the establishment of the federal university comprising the three colleges.
The Fulton Commission report was tabled in the Legislative Council in June 1963, the Chinese University of Hong Kong Ordinance was passed in September of that year. The school was inaugurated in a ceremony at City Hall on 17 October 1963, officiated by the founding chancellor, Sir Robert Brown Black; the next year Dr. Li Choh-ming was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor of the university; the university comprised the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Social Science. Construction began at the site of the new campus in the Ma Liu Shui area, where Chung Chi College was established, for new facilities to house central administration and the relocated New Asia and United colleges. Construction on the new campus continued throughout the 1960s to a development plan produced by W. Szeto and Partners. Above the valley occupied by Chung Chi College, on two plateaux formed by granite quarrying for the Plover Cove dam, the quarters for the other two colleges would flank the Central campus housing administration and shared facilities.
Some of the most iconic buildings on campus, like the University Library, were built in this period along the monumental axis of the University Mall in the subdued concrete aesthetic for which the school is known. The School of Education, which would become a faculty, was founded in 1965; the Graduate School, the first in Hong Kong, was founded in 1966 and the first batch of master's degrees were awarded the following year. In the early 1970s, New Asia and United Co
A magister degree is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education. The magister degree arose in mediaeval universities in Europe and was equal to the doctorate. In some countries, the title has retained this original meaning until the modern age, while in other countries, magister has become the title of a lower degree, in some cases parallel with a master's degree. In Argentina, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration by depending on each university's statutes; the admission to a Master program in an Argentine University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years duration from any recognized university. Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is equivalent to a Ph. D. or Doctorate in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna comparison system among academic programs.
In Egypt, Magister degree is a postgraduate degree, awarded after three to 6 years duration. It is equivalent to MSc degree, it is a prerequisite to have an MSc before applying to a Ph. D. or Doctorate degrees. In Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Latvia and Slovakia, obtaining the Magister requires at least five years of study including coursework and a final thesis, similar to a Diplom degree. Magisters tend to be awarded in the humanities and the social sciences, while Diplomas dominate in the natural sciences and in engineering. In Austria, major universities have partitioned all their Mag. Phil. Programs into a three- or four-year bachelor's and two-year master's program; this move is an attempt to standardize requirements with other EU countries as part of the Bologna process, would give students the option to exit with a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree after four years, or continue with additional coursework towards a Mag. Phil. Degree a two-year program. In Poland magister is awarded after 5 years of University level education and it is an equivalent to Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Laws, Master of Music in an academic discipline.
Before around 1999 and the implementation of the Bologna Process the first academic degree awarded in Poland was magister. After implementation of the Bologna Process the person who obtained a Licentiate degree can continue education to the magister level. With the implementation of the Bologna Process, curriculums leading to Magister degrees have been phased out in many countries. In the United States, the Department of Education calls the Magister an equivalent to the master's degree. Evaluations by U. S. "high research activity" universities vary. For example, the Oregon State University consider holders of a German or Austrian Magister for admission to graduate studies; the University of California, Los Angeles requires the Magister and considers the Vordiplom, the Diplom or a German bachelor's degree as insufficient. In Canada the German or Austrian Magister is at most universities the prerequisite to enter a graduate study program. There is no consensus between Canadian Universities whether a Mag.
Phil. Degree should be regarded as equivalent to Bachelor's with Honours degree. In the United Kingdom Aberystwyth University, University College London and the University of Sheffield consider the Magister as being equivalent to an honours bachelor's degree, while the University of Edinburgh states that it considers the Magister degree as sufficient to enter postgraduate programmes; the title magister has had many different meanings in the Swedish educational system, from a degree equal to the doctorate to a graduate degree. Since 2007 in Sweden, the Magister Examination is a one-year graduate degree which requires at least three years of undergraduate studies, it is translated into either Master of Arts, Master of Social Science or Master of Science depending on the subject. In Sweden, magister was the highest degree at the faculties of philosophy and was equivalent to the doctorate used in theology and medicine; the degree was abolished in 1863, replaced with the Doctor of Philosophy. The magister degrees used in Denmark and Norway most resemble this degree.
Magister has since referred to several degrees in Sweden which are unrelated to the original magister degree and unrelated to the magister degrees in the other Scandinavian countries. Some universities conferred a degree called magister between 1908 and 1969, comparable to a master's degree; this master's degree was traditionally taken as a first degree before the Bologna Process. The degree lasted about 5–6 years and is structured into Basic and Advanced progressional components. A new undergraduate magister degree, requiring at least 4 years of studies, was introduced in 1993. Since the introduction of the Bologna Process in 2005, the Magister has been broken into bachelor and master components. However, the vast majority of students continue right through to complete the maste
Troy University is a comprehensive public university, located in Troy, United States. It was founded on February 26, 1887 as Troy State Normal School within the Alabama State University System by an Act of the Alabama Legislature, it is the flagship university of the Troy University System. Troy University is regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award associate, master's, education specialist, doctoral degrees. In August 2005, Troy State University, Montgomery. Prior to the merger, each campus was independently accredited and merging of these campuses helped to create a stronger institution by eliminating overlapping services and barriers to students; the merger combined staff and administrators into a single university. Today, the university serves the educational needs of students in four Alabama campuses and 60 teaching sites in 17 U. S. States and 11 countries. Troy University has in other countries. Troy University is a public university with its main campus located in Alabama.
It was founded as a normal school in 1887 with a mission to train new teachers. Over time, the school evolved into a four-year college and in 1957 the Alabama Board of Education adopted the name "Troy State College" and granted it the right to issue master's degrees. In the 1960s the College opened satellite sites in Montgomery, Phenix City, Dothan to serve the military personnel posted at Maxwell AFB, Fort Benning and Fort Rucker. More sites associated with military centers located throughout the United States and abroad followed in the subsequent decades; as a leader in online education, Troy University began offering online courses in the Fall Semester of 1997. Troy University is known for its innovation in offering in-class and online academic programs in servicing traditional and military students. In spring 2018, Troy University was ranked #19 among the “Most Innovative Schools” in U. S. News and World Report’s annual peer assessment survey; the main campus enrollment as of the fall of 2016 is 7,911 students.
The campus consists of 36 major buildings on 650 acres plus the adjacent Troy University Arboretum. At least three prominent political figures have been associated with Troy University. George Wallace, Jr. son of the late Governor George C. Wallace, is a former administrator at the university. Max Rafferty, the California Superintendent of Public Instruction from 1963 to 1971, was dean of the education department from 1971 until his death in 1982. Former Governor John Malcolm Patterson, an intra-party rival of George Wallace, taught U. S. history at the institution during the 1980s. On April 16, 2004, the Board of Trustees voted to change the name of the institution from Troy State University to Troy University; the transition to the new name was completed in August 2005 and was the fifth in the school's history. When created by the Alabama Legislature on February 26, 1887, it was named the Troy State Normal School; the school was located in downtown Troy until moving to the present location on University Avenue in 1930.
In 1929, the name was changed to Troy State Teachers College and it subsequently conferred its first baccalaureate degree in 1931. In 1957, the legislature voted both to change the name to Troy State College and to allow it to begin a master's degree program; the name was changed once again in 1967 to Troy State University. In 2017 Troy University started the first staff and faculty led, Open Educational Resources initiative in the state. Troy University under the leadership of the OER Committee and Coordinator Joshua Hill, M. Ed. was able to save students nearly $300,000 in textbook costs. The committee helped convert over 100 course sections to OER. Troy University formed the first open publishing house in the state, The Alabama Open Publishing House at Troy University, they were the first university in Alabama to become members, publish an open textbook with the Open Textbook Network. Troy University cumulatively offers 46 bachelor's degree programs, 22 master's degree programs, two doctoral programs.
The University is composed of five colleges, a graduate school, a division of general studies, listed as follows: Established in 2007, the Confucius Institute at Troy University is a public institution affiliated with the Chinese Ministry of Education and is charged with bringing to the people of Alabama knowledge of China that will serve the state in the areas of business, education and public interests throughout the state of Alabama. The institute offers lectures on Chinese culture and language, summer camps for high school students, consultation for economic development, promotion of Chinese outreach programs. Troy University was the first college in Alabama to open a Confucius Institute. Troy has been ranked as one of the top 10 universities in the United States that offers the Confucius Institutes curriculum. Troy is one of only 400 universities in the nation to offer a Confucius Institute; the university has over 800 international students from 75 countries on the main campus, offers special programs for students such as the English as Second Language Center.
Troy has a dormitory named Pace Hall. In 2008, Troy University was ranked as the 25th best university in the United States for international students by the Institute of International Education. In 2018, Troy University's overall acceptance rate was 91%, the on-time graduation rate was 35%. In 2018, 58 % of the freshman class ha
An undergraduate degree is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is an oxymoron, since one cannot hold a degree as an undergraduate. In the United States, it is offered at an institution of higher education, such as a college or university; the most common type of these undergraduate degrees are bachelor's degree. Bachelor's degree takes at least three or four years to complete; these degrees can be categorised as basic degrees. In the United Kingdom, a bachelor's degree is the most common type of "undergraduate degree"; some master's degrees can be undertaken after finishing secondary education. Most bachelor's degrees take three years to complete, with some notable exceptions, such as Medicine taking five years. Students can enroll in a 4-year program leave after three years and be awarded a bachelor's degree. First professional degrees sometimes contain the word Doctor, but are still considered undergraduate degrees in most countries, including Canada.
For example, the Doctor of Medicine program in Canada is considered an "undergraduate degree." However, in the United States, most first professional degrees are considered graduate programs by the U. S. Department of Education and require students to possess an "undergraduate degree" before admission; these degrees are not research doctorates and are therefore not equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy Many countries offer bachelor's degrees that are equivalent to American graduate degrees. For example, the Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degrees offered in the U. S. are equivalent to the Bachelor of Surgery degree. In the United States and sometimes in Canada, an Associate's Degree is a two-year degree, it is undertaken as the beginning of a four-year degree. Some two-year institutions have articulation agreements with four-year institutions, which specify which courses transfer without problems; the Arizona General Education Curriculum certification, awarded for the completion of an Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, or Associate of Business degree indicates the completion of all bachelor's degree lower level course work and permits the student to block transfer to any of the three state universities and several private universities as a third-year student or "Junior."To obtain an AGEC certification, one must: Complete all associate degree credits at regionally accredited colleges.
Associates degrees with an AGEC certification are custom tailored with electives to meet the prerequisite requirements for the program and university the student wishes to transfer to. Virginia’s community college has signed system-wide agreements, allowing students who graduate from one of the 23 community colleges with a transfer associate degree and a minimum grade point average to obtain guaranteed admission to more than 20 of the Commonwealth's four-year colleges and universities. Argentine higher education system is based, since its conception during the colonial period, on the old and dogmatic Spanish higher education system, a Continental education system. A historic event took place in the University Reform of 1918, a popular series of reforms that took place in the oldest university of the country, the Universidad de Córdoba that paved the way to the modernization of the Argentinian higher university systems as it is known nowadays. Since its foundation, it was focused on the teaching of Professions offering Professional degrees.
It is divided into three levels. Tertiary Education level: 1- to 4-years degrees related to education or technical professions like Teachers, Technicians. University level: 4- to 6-years Professional education taught at Universities offering many different degrees Licentiate, Engineering degree, Medic Title, Attorney Title, Translation degrees, etc. Post-graduate level: This is a specialized and research-oriented education level, it is divided in a first sub-level where a Specialist degree can be obtained in a 12–18 months period or Master degree, requiring 24–30 months and an original research work and a higher sub-level where a Doctorate degree could be achieved. The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria.
Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school.
Roskilde University is a Danish public university founded in 1972 and located in Trekroner in the Eastern part of Roskilde. The university awards bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, Ph. D. degrees in a wide variety of subjects within social sciences, the humanities, natural sciences. The university was founded in 1972 and was intended as an alternative to the traditional Danish universities, the scene of several student uprisings in the late 1960s; the students considered the traditional universities undemocratic and controlled by the professors and wanted more influence as well as more flexible teaching methods. In the 1970s the university was known for its liberal education as opposed to the usual lectures provided by the more traditional universities of Copenhagen and Aarhus; the focus was shifted from traditional lectures to group orientated methods and projects rather than traditional exams. Back in 1972, these educational ideas were both unorthodox and controversial, but the traditional universities in Denmark have now adopted much of the original RU concept themselves, not least the concept of group project work, today a recognised academic method.
RU can be said to have brought to Denmark the Anglo-Saxon concepts of interdisciplinarity and less well-defined boundaries between academic fields. The university is governed by a board consisting of 9 members: 5 members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, 1 member is appointed by the scientific staff, 1 member is appointed by the administrative staff, 2 members are appointed by the university students; the Rector is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints deans appoint heads of departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads. Hence the university has no faculty governance. Roskilde University offers higher education at bachelor-, Ph. D. levels within four main areas: humanities, humanistic technologies, social science and science. The traditional educational setup at RU was based on two years of general studies in one of the main scientific areas and four years of specialization.
Today, the university follows the general educational structure in Denmark based on three years of bachelor studies qualifying for a two-year master study. Roskilde University has 4 departments specializing in different areas from Mathematics to International Development: Department of Communication and Arts Department of Science and Environment Department of People and Technology Department of Social Sciences and BusinessThe university offers three international bachelor programmes: International Bachelor Study Programme in the Humanities International Bachelor Study Programme in the Natural Sciences International Bachelor Study Programme in Social Science QS World University Rankings 2015/6: Politics & International Studies, 151-200, Communication & Media Studies, 151-200. Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2017: ranked 501-600 Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016: unranked Some notable alumni and professors from RUC include: Andreas Bang Hemmeth Johanne Schmidt-Nielsen, politician Lars Hulgård, author Simon Emil Ammitzbøllm politician Vincent F.
Hendricks Hartmut Haberland Pernille Andersen Christine Lorentzen Eyðgunn Samuelsen Anders Bæksgaard, political editor at Politiken List of universities and colleges in Denmark Open access in Denmark The website of Roskilde University About Roskilde University History of Roskilde University