Charles Frederick Gurney Masterman PC was a radical Liberal Party politician and man of letters. He worked with such Liberal leaders as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill in designing social welfare projects, including the National Insurance Act of 1911. During the First World War, he played a central role in the main government propaganda agency, he was distantly related to the Gurney family of Norfolk. His great-grandfather was William Brodie Gurney. Masterman was educated at Weymouth College, Christ's College, where he was President of the Union, joint Secretary of Cambridge University Liberal Club from 1895 to 1896, he was elected a junior Fellow of Christ′s College in February 1900. At university he had two primary interests: literature, his first published work was From The Abyss, a collection of articles he had written anonymously whilst living in the slums of south east London. These were impressionistic pieces, reflected his literary leanings. Following this he became involved in journalism and co-edited the English Review with Ford Madox Ford.
In 1901, he edited a collection of essays by eminent people of the day, entitled The Heart of the Empire: a discussion of Problems of Modern City Life in England. A second edition of that book was published in 1907. In 1905 he published In Peril of a collection of his own essays, he wrote a biography of the Reverend F. D. Maurice, published in 1907. During the period of his life up to 1906, he established many of the literary friendships that would be important in his role as head of British propaganda in the First World War, he was an unsuccessful candidate at the Dulwich by-election, 1903, but in the Liberal Party landslide victory at the 1906, he was elected as Member of Parliament for West Ham North. He married Lucy Blanche Lyttelton, a poet and writer, in 1908. In 1909, he published his best known book The Condition of England, a survey of contemporary society with particular focus on the state of the working class. Masterman worked with Liberal leaders Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George on the People's Budget of 1909.
By 1911, he was playing a major role in writing parts of the Finance Bill, the Development Bill, the Shop Hours Bill, the Coal Mines Bill, he was responsible for the passage through parliament of the National Insurance Act 1911. He had a mediocre record as a candidate by losing more than winning, he was re-elected in January 1910 and in December 1910, but the December election was declared void. He was returned to Parliament at a by-election in July 1911, for the Bethnal Green South West constituency, he joined the Privy Council in 1912, in 1914, he obtained his most important position, an appointment to the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However, the law at that time required him to recontest his seat in a by-election on joining the Cabinet. Masterman lost his own seat in February and stood in a May by-election at Ipswich, losing again, he resigned from the government as a result. Masterman supported entry into the First World War, he served as head of the British War Propaganda Bureau, known as "Wellington House."
His Bureau enlisted eminent writers as well as painters such as Paul Nash. Until its abolition, in 1917, the department published 300 books and pamphlets in 21 languages, distributed over 4,000 propaganda photographs every week and circulated maps and lantern slides to the media, he commissioned films about the war such as The Battle of the Somme, which appeared in August 1916, while the battle was still in progress, as a morale-booster. It was received a favourable reception; the Times reported on 22 August 1916, "Crowded audiences... were interested and thrilled to have the realities of war brought so vividly before them, if women had sometimes to shut their eyes to escape for a moment from the tragedy of the toll of battle which the film presents, opinion seems to be general that it was wise that the people at home should have this glimpse of what our soldiers are doing and daring and suffering in Picardy". A major objective of his department was to encourage the United States to enter the war on the British and French side.
Lecture tours and exhibitions of paintings were organised in the US, drawing on an extensive network of the most important and influential figures in the London arts scene, Masterman devised the most comprehensive arts patronage schemes to be supported in the country. It was subsumed into Buchan's Department of Information, it became a template for the war art scheme in the Second World War, headed by Sir Kenneth Clark. Lloyd George demoted Masterman in February 1917; the agency was peremptorily closed as soon as the war ended, neither Masterman nor Buchan received the usual public honorus. However, Masterman followed Lloyd George in his Liberal party maneuvers after 1918. Masterman played a crucial role in publicising reports of the Armenian Genocide, in part to strengthen the moral case against the Ottoman Empire. For his role, Masterman has been the target of repeated Turkish allegations that he fabricated, or at least embellished, the events for propaganda purposes. For the 1918 general election, Masterman returned to West Ham where he had sat for five years before the war.
He contested the new seat of Stratford West Ham. However, his old boss, Lloyd George, chose to endorse his Unionist opponent, he was badly beaten. Back into private life, Masterman continued his high output of books and essa
John Cecil Masterman
Sir John Cecil Masterman OBE was a noted academic and author. His highest-profile role was as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford, but he was well-known as chairman of the Twenty Committee, which during the Second World War ran the Double-Cross System, controlling double agents in Britain. Masterman was born in Kingston upon Thames, educated at the Royal Naval College and Dartmouth at Worcester College, where he read modern history. In 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, he was an exchange lecturer at the University of Freiburg, as a result spent four years interned as an enemy alien in the Ruhleben internment camp. During his internment, Masterman took the opportunity to further polish his German. After his return from captivity, Masterman became a tutor in Modern History at Christ Church, where he was censor. In the 1920s he became notable as a player of cricket and hockey, participating in international competitions, in 1931 toured Canada with the Marylebone Cricket Club.
After the Second World War Masterman returned to Oxford, becoming Provost of Worcester College and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford during 1957 and 1958. In 1959 he was knighted for his services to education. In 1933, he wrote a murder mystery novel entitled An Oxford Tragedy, set in the fictional Oxford college of St. Thomas's, it was written in the point of view of an Oxford don named Francis Wheatley Winn, Senior Tutor at St. Thomas', he served as Watson to the novel's Sherlock Holmes, an amateur sleuth named Ernst Brendel, a Viennese lawyer "of European reputation". He was giving a series of lectures to the Law Faculty, as he had a good reputation as a detective with the quality of "a man to whom secrets will be confided"; when an unpopular tutor was found shot in the Dean's rooms, he took it upon himself to solve the crime. He of course solved the case, the murderer thus exposed committed suicide; the novel itself was quite unusual for its time in providing an account of how murder affects the tranquil existence of Oxford dons.
While it was a variation of the old theme of evil deeds done in a tranquil setting, it did establish the tradition of Oxford-based crime fiction, notably in the works of Michael Innes and Edmund Crispin. Despite the acclaim that An Oxford Tragedy had garnered, Masterman did not publish a follow-up until 1957; the novel, again starring Ernst Brendel, was called The Case of the Four Friends, "a diversion in pre-detection". In the novel, Brendel is persuaded by a group of friends to relate a story of how he "pre-constructed" a crime, rather than reconstructing it as in the conventional manner; as he says, "To work out the crime before it is committed, to foresee how it will be arranged, to prevent it! That's a triumph indeed, is worth more than all the convictions in the world", his tale was about four men, each of them either a potential victim or potential murderer. The pacing of the story is quite slow and the narrative is interrupted from time to time by discussion between Brendel and his listeners.
So, the novel maintains its interest on the reader throughout because of the originality of its approach. This novel was the last of his crime stories and he wrote no more works of fiction. However, his best known work was still to come, it would involve his wartime experiences as part of the Twenty Committee; when World War II broke out, Masterman was drafted into the Intelligence Corps. After investigating and producing a report into the evacuation of Dunkirk. Masterman was appointed as a Civil Assistant in MI5. Within MI5 he was the chairman of the Twenty Committee, a group of British intelligence officials, including wartime amateurs, who held the key to the Double Cross System, which turned German spies into double agents working for the British, its name was a pun based on its double-cross purpose. Speaking, the Committee was responsible for providing information for the agents to be transmitted to the Abwehr and other German intelligence agencies, deceiving them of Allied intentions and war plans.
It was Section B1 of MI5, established by Lt. Col. T. A. Robertson, who had the task of finding and handling the agents themselves. Masterman became an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in June 1944. Robertson was appointed an OBE in the same London Gazette, they are both listed as War Office. In November 1945 at the Savoy Hotel in London, Masterman and a select few of B1 section were awarded the Order of the Yugoslav Crown by the exiled King Peter II. Although Masterman ran the system, he credited MI5 with originating the idea, it is assumed that the writer Ian Fleming, himself involved in wartime intelligence, adapted Masterman's name for the character of Jill Masterson in his James Bond novel Goldfinger. Information about the double-cross system remained secret after the war. In 1958 Masterman began pressing the British intelligence establishment for permission to publish a book about it. Roger Hollis, the head of MI5 at that time, refused to authorize publication, as did Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home.
However, Masterman was not to be deterred. Revelations about the Cambridge Spy Ring in the 1960s resulted in low morale throughout the intelligence community, Masterman felt that the publication of a book about the double-cross system would restore public confidence, he pressed his suit once again on the matter. Masterman received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1966. In April 1970, when the government again refused, he decided to have it published in the United
Julia R. Masterman School
The Julia Reynolds Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School is a middle and secondary school located in Philadelphia. It is a magnet school, located in the Spring Garden neighborhood. Prior to 1958 the school building was used by the Philadelphia High School for Girls and the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places under that name in 1986. Masterman is ranked first in the state of Pennsylvania, it is considered one of the best college-preparatory public schools in the country. The school has twice been named a National Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. U. S. News & World Report ranked it as the top public school in Pennsylvania since 1996, 51st in the nation in 2017; the acceptance rate for the middle school is 7%. Acceptance for the high school is 3%, making it one of the most difficult schools to get into in the country; the Julia R. Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School was established in September 1958 as an academic magnet school for elementary school students in grades 4, 5 and 6.
A junior high school program was initiated in 1959, a senior high school was added in 1976. In 1990 Masterman was re-organized as a high school. Masterman is located in the former Philadelphia High School for Girls building. Students are admitted from all areas of Philadelphia based on academic performance, staff members are selected based on professional expertise; the mission of the school is the pursuit of excellence in both learning. The high school is a preparatory school for select students of superior ability; the school was named for Julia Reynolds Masterman, instrumental in establishing the Philadelphia Home and School Council and served as its first president. The Masterman family still contributes awards at commencement. In 2007, Masterman was a filming location for the 2008 M. Night Shyamalan film The Happening starring Mark Wahlberg; the film shows interior shots of a science lab on the fourth floor, the auditorium, the main corridor of the first floor hallway, along with various other shots of the school.
In 2010, President Barack Obama chose Masterman as the site of his second annual back-to-school speech, broadcast nationally. There, he spoke about how the core of America's future is represented by the students of this generation. In 2014 Jessica Brown, a Masterman alumna who had worked as a principal intern there, became the school principal; the current vice principals are Tonya Broussard. The current dress code states that students must wear clothing, appropriate and not offensive in any way. Jeans can not be ripped in inappropriate places. Flip-flops, crop-tops, tank tops are not allowed. References to alcohol, illegal drugs, profanities, or slurs of any sort are not permitted on any personal property. Beginning in 2001 the School District of Philadelphia required all schools to enact school uniforms or strict dress codes. To comply with the district-wide policy, the administration of Masterman banned shirts with logos and emblems. Kevin Bacon and musician Ellen Forney, graphic artist Andrea Gardner, former WNBA basketball player Stephanie Gatschet, actress — middle and high school Leila Josefowicz, concert violinist Shana Knizhnik and lawyer Emtithal Mahmoud, poet Angela Nissel, writer — middle school Leslie Odom Jr. actor and singer Gregory Shahade, chess player and poker professional Jennifer Shahade, chess player — high school Eric and Julie Slick, musicians — middle and high school Will Smith and actor — seventh grade Raymond Teller and writer — middle school Masterman School Website Masterman Alumni Association Masterman Home and School Association Former websites: Home page at the Wayback Machine - 2001-2007 Home page at the Wayback Machine - 1999-2001
Air Commodore Edward Alexander Dimsdale Masterman, was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force in the first half of the 20th century. After retiring from the RAF, he served as the first Commandant of the Observer Corps. Masterman started his service career in the Royal Navy, attending the Britannia Naval College around 1894, he served on HMS Revenge in the late 1890s and early 1900s, was promoted to lieutenant in January 1900. After attending Torpedo Specialist Course he in 1907 worked as a Russia interpreter on HMS Vernon. By 1911 Masterman had become involved in the Navy's efforts to build an experimental airship and the following year he was appointed Officer Commanding the Naval Airship Section. During the First World War, Masterman served in the Royal Naval Air Service, commanding the Farnborough Airship Station and working in several technical posts. With the establishment of the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918, Masterman transferred to the new service. Just before the end of the war, he was promoted to brigadier general and appointed General Officer Commanding No. 22 Group.
His rank was commuted to air commodore. In 1922 Masterman was appointed as Commandant of the RAF's Central Flying School. Between 1 March 1929 when he retired from the RAF and 1 April 1936, Masterman was the Commandant of the Observer Corps and was the first former RAF officer to hold this appointment. Headquarters Royal Observer Corps was located at Hillingdon House, RAF Uxbridge, only relocating to RAF Bentley Priory after Masterman retired, he was succeeded as Commandant Observer Corps by Air Commodore Alfred Warrington-Morris. Following his retirement as Commandant, Air Commodore Masterman rejoined the Royal Observer Corps as a civilian part-time volunteer with the rank of Observer Captain and served as the ROC's Western Area Commandant between 1937 and 1942, although by special permission of Warrington-Morris, he was permitted to wear his RAF Air Commodore's uniform and rank braid after April 1941 when the Observer Corps became the Royal Observer Corps and part of RAF Fighter Command. Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation – Air Commodore Edward Masterman
Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet
Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, 1st Baronet, GCB was a Royal Navy officer. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797, the Battle of the Nile in August 1798 and the Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801 during the French Revolutionary Wars, he served as flag captain to Admiral Lord Nelson, commanded HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. Nelson was shot as he paced the decks with Hardy, as he lay dying, Nelson's famous remark of "Kiss me, Hardy" was directed at him. Hardy went on to become First Naval Lord in November 1830 and in that capacity refused to become a Member of Parliament and encouraged the introduction of steam warships. Born the second son of Joseph Hardy and Nanny Hardy at Kingston Russell House in Long Bredy, Hardy joined the navy with his entry aboard the brig HMS Helena on 30 November 1781 as a captain's servant, but left her in April 1782 to attend Crewkerne Grammar School. During his time at school his name was carried on the books of the sixth-rate HMS Seaford and the third-rate HMS Carnatic.
Hardy joined the fifth-rate HMS Hebe on 5 February 1790 as a midshipman. Hardy served off Marseilles and Toulon and was commissioned second lieutenant of the fifth-rate HMS Meleager under Captain Charles Tyler on 10 November 1793. Command of Meleager passed to Captain George Cockburn in June 1794. Horatio Nelson a commodore, moved his broad pennant to Minerve in December 1796. While en route to Gibraltar, in the action of 19 December 1796, Minerve and her consort, the fifth-rate HMS Blanche, engaged two Spanish frigates and forced Santa Sabina to surrender. Lieutenants Hardy and Culverhouse were sent aboard Santa Sabina with a prize crew, the three ships continued on towards Gibraltar. Before the night was out, Nelson ran into the Spanish fleet and only managed to get away when Hardy drew the Spanish away from Minerve and fought until being dismasted and captured. Hardy and Culverhouse were immediately exchanged for the captain of Santa Sabina, Don Jacobo Stuart, were able to rejoin Minerve at Gibraltar on 9 February 1797.
Three days Minerve left Gibraltar to join the main fleet off the south-east coast of Spain under Sir John Jervis. With two enemy ships pursuing him, Cockburn ordered more sail. During this operation, a topman fell overboard; the ship hove to and a boat with Hardy. As the enemy ships were closing fast, Cockburn thought it prudent to withdraw, but Nelson overruled him crying "By God, I'll not lose Hardy, back that mizzen topsail!" This confused the Spaniards who checked their own progress, allowing Hardy to return to his ship and make good his escape. Hardy remained with Minerve until May 1797 when, following a successful cutting out expedition of which he was in charge, he was promoted to master and commander of the newly captured corvette HMS Mutine. Under Hardy's command, Mutine joined a squadron under Captain Thomas Troubridge which met up with Nelson off Toulon in June 1798, located Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt and destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in August 1798. Afterwards, Nelson's flag captain, Edward Berry was sent home with dispatches and Hardy was promoted to captain of Nelson's flagship, HMS Vanguard, in his place on 2 October 1798.
HMS Vanguard carried King Ferdinand IV and the British ambassador Sir William Hamilton and his wife Emma from Naples to safety in Sicily in December 1798: Hardy did not altogether approve of Lady Hamilton who had once tried to intervene on behalf of a boat's crew – Hardy had the crew flogged twice, once for the original offence and again for petitioning the lady. Nelson transferred his flag to the third-rate HMS Foudroyant on 8 June 1799. In June 1799, the main fleet, led by Foudroyant, landed marines at Naples to assist with the overthrow of the Parthenopean Republic so allowing Ferdinand's kingdom to be re-established. Hardy handed over command of Foudroyant to Sir Edward Berry on 13 October 1799, transferred to the fifth-rate HMS Princess Charlotte and returned to England. After a year ashore, Hardy went to Plymouth Dock in December 1800 to take command of the first-rate HMS San Josef, which had just been refitted, he transferred to the second-rate HMS St George and became Nelson's flag captain once more in February 1801.
Nelson was appointed second in command of the Baltic fleet, sent to force the Danes to withdraw from the League of Armed Neutrality. On the night of 1 April 1801, Hardy was sent in a boat to take soundings around the anchored Danish fleet. Hardy's ship drew too much water and so took no part in the Battle of Copenhagen the following day, though his work proved to be of great value; the only two ships that went aground, the third-rates HMS Agamemnon and HMS Bellona, were taken in by local pilots and did not follow Hardy's recommended route. Hardy stayed on as flag captain to the new fleet commander, Vice-Admiral Charles Pole, until August 1801 when he took command of the fourth-rate HMS Isis. In July 1802, Hardy was appointed to the fifth-rate HMS Amphion which after taking the new British ambassador to Lisbon, returned to Portsmouth. Nelson was in Portsmouth, as he was due to hoist his flag in the first-rate HMS Victory in May 1803, but on finding the ship not ready for him, transferred his flag to the Amphion and set sail for the Mediterranean.
Nelson and Hardy fina