The George Foster Peabody Awards program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Peabody, honor the most powerful and invigorating stories in television and online media. Programs are recognized in seven categories: news, documentaries, children's programming, interactive programming, public service. Peabody Award winners include radio and television stations, online media, producing organizations, individuals from around the world. Established in 1940 by a committee of the National Association of Broadcasters, the Peabody Award was created to honor excellence in radio broadcasting, it is the oldest major electronic media award in the United States and some say the most prestigious, sometimes competing for recognition with the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award. Final Peabody Award winners are selected unanimously by the program's Board of Jurors. Reflecting excellence in quality storytelling, rather than popularity or commercial success, Peabody Awards are distributed annually to 30 out of 60 finalists culled from more than 1,000 entries.
Because submissions are accepted from a wide variety of sources and styles, deliberations seek "Excellence On Its Own Terms". Each entry is evaluated on the achievement of standards established within its own context. Entries, for which a US$350 fee is required, are self-selected by those making submissions. In 1938, the National Association of Broadcasters formed a committee to recognize outstanding achievement in radio broadcasting. Committee member Lambdin Kay, public-service director for WSB radio in Atlanta, Georgia, at the time, is credited for creating the award, named for businessman and philanthropist George Foster Peabody, who donated the funds that made the awards possible. Fellow WSB employee Lessie Smithgall introduced Lambdin to John E. Drewry, of the University of Georgia's Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, who endorsed the idea; the Peabody Award was established in 1940 with the Grady College of Journalism as its permanent home. The Peabody Awards were issued only for radio programming, but television awards were introduced in 1948.
In the late 1990s additional categories for material distributed via the World Wide Web were added. Materials created for theatrical motion picture release are not eligible; the Peabody Awards judging process is unusually rigorous. Each year, more than 1,000 entries are evaluated by some 30 committees composed of a number of faculty and students from the University of Georgia and other higher education institutions across the country; each committee is charged with screening or listening to a small number of entries and delivering written recommendations to the Peabody Board of Jurors, a ~17-member panel of scholars and media-industry professionals. Board members discuss recommended entries as well as their own selections at intensive preliminary meetings in California and Texas; the Board convenes at the University of Georgia in early April for final screenings and deliberations. Each entrant is judged on its own merit, only unanimously selected programs receive a Peabody Award. For many years, there was no set number of awards issued.
However, in 2016 the program instituted the Peabody 30, representing the best programs out of a field of 60 nominees. Prior to this, the all-time record for Peabody Award recipients in a single year was 46 in 2013. George Foster Peabody, namesake of the awards, was a successful investment banker who devoted much of his fortune to education and social enterprise. Lambdin Kay was the awards chairman for The National Association of Broadcasters when he was asked to create a prize to honor the nation's premier radio programs and performances. John E. Drewry was the first dean of the University of Georgia's Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, he accepted the position of dean when it was created in 1940. That same year he helped Lambdin Kay, general manager of Atlanta's WSB Radio, create the Peabody Awards recognizing excellence in broadcasting. Dr. Worth McDougald served as Director of the Peabody Awards program from 1963 until his retirement in 1991. Barry Sherman was the Director of the George Foster Peabody Awards program at the University of Georgia from 1991 until his death in 2000.
Horace Newcomb held the Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia from 2001 to 2013. Jeffrey P. Jones succeeded Horace Newcomb in July 2013 as the Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia; each spring, the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors announce award recipients for work released during the previous year. Traditionally, the winners' announcements have been made via a simple press release and/or a press conference. In recent years, organizers have taken to television to reveal some Peabody Award recipients in an effort to expand public awareness of the awards. An April 2014 segment of CBS This Morning included an announcement of 2013 Peabody winners. In April 2015, the 2014 Peabodys were revealed over an 8-day period, with the entertainment-based recipients revealed on ABC's Good Morning America. Formal presentation of the Peabody Awards are traditionally held in early June.
For many years, the awards were given during a luncheon in New York City. The ceremony moved to a red carpet evening event for the first time on May 31, 2015, with Fred Armisen serving as host. Several famous names have served as Peabody Awards ceremony hosts over the years, among them Walter Cronkite, Lesley Stahl, Jackie Gleason, Jon Stewart, Morley Safer, Cr
Laura Leggett Linney is an American actress and singer. She is the recipient of several awards, including two Golden Globe Awards and four Primetime Emmy Awards, has been nominated for three Academy Awards and four Tony Awards. Linney made her Broadway debut in 1990 before going on to receive Tony Award nominations for the 2002 revival of The Crucible, the original Broadway productions of Sight Unseen and Time Stands Still, the 2017 revival of The Little Foxes. On television, she won her first Emmy Award for the television film Wild Iris, had subsequent wins for the sitcom Frasier and the miniseries John Adams. From 2010–13, she starred in the Showtime series The Big C, which won her a fourth Emmy in 2013, in 2017 she began starring in the Netflix crime series Ozark. Linney is an established film actress, she made her film debut with a minor role in Lorenzo's Oil and went on to receive Academy Award nominations for the dramas You Can Count On Me, The Savages. Her other films include Primal Fear, The Truman Show, Mystic River, Love Actually, The Squid and the Whale, The Nanny Diaries, Hyde Park on Hudson, Mr. Holmes and Nocturnal Animals.
Linney was born in Manhattan. Her mother Miriam Anderson "Ann" Perse was a nurse at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, her father Romulus Zachariah Linney IV was a playwright and professor. Linney's paternal great-great-grandfather was Republican U. S. Congressman Romulus Zachariah Linney, she grew up in modest circumstances. She has a half-sister named Susan from her father's second marriage. Linney is a 1982 graduate of Northfield Mount Hermon School, an elite preparatory school in New England for which she serves as the chair of the Arts Advisory Council, she attended Northwestern University before transferring to Brown University, where she studied acting with Jim Barnhill and John Emigh and served on the board of Production Workshop, the university's student theater group. During her senior year at Brown, she performed in one of her father's plays as Lady Ada Lovelace in a production of Childe Byron, a drama in which poet Lord Byron mends a taut, distant relationship with his daughter Ada.
Linney graduated from Brown in 1986. She went on to study acting at the Juilliard School as a member of Group 19, which included Jeanne Tripplehorn, she received an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree from Juilliard when she delivered the school's commencement address in 2009. Linney first appeared in minor roles in a few early 1990s films, including Lorenzo's Oil and Dave, She was cast in a series of high-profile thrillers, including Congo, Primal Fear and Absolute Power, she made her Hollywood breakthrough in 1998, praised for playing Jim Carrey's on-screen wife in The Truman Show. In 2000, she starred Kenneth Lonergan's You Can Count On Me alongside Mark Ruffalo and Matthew Broderick; the film was met with positive reviews from critics with an approval rating of 95% on Rotten Tomatoes, the consensus reading, "You Can Count On Me may look like it belongs on the small screen, but the movie surprises with its simple yet affecting story. Beautifully acted and crafted, the movie will draw you in."
Linney was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. In 2003, Linney appeared in Clint Eastwood's Mystic River alongside Sean Penn, Tim Robbins and Marcia Gay Harden; the film received a 88% on Rotten Tomatoes with the critics consensus reading, "Anchored by the exceptional acting of its strong cast, Mystic River is a somber drama that unfolds in layers and conveys the tragedy of its story with visceral power." Linney received a BAFTA Award nomination for her performance. That same year she starred in the popular holiday film Love Actually alongside Hugh Grant, Emma Thompson, Alan Rickman, Colin Firth, Liam Neeson, she appeared in Alan Parker's The Life of David Gale alongside Kate Winslet, Kevin Spacey. In 2004, She reunited her Love Actually co-star Liam Neeson in Kinsey, as the title character's wife, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, Screen Actors Guild Award, Golden Globe Award. In 2005, Linney starred in Noah Baumbach's the comedy-drama The Squid and the Whale alongside Jeff Daniels, Jesse Eisenberg.
It received rave reviews from critic's earning a 93% on Rotten Tomatoes with the consensus reading, "this is a piercingly honest, acidly witty look at divorce and its impact on a family." She received a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance. Linney appeared in the political satire Man of the Year alongside Robin Williams and the comedy-drama The Nanny Diaries opposite Scarlett Johansson and Chris Evans, based on the book by Emma McLaughlin and Nicola Kraus,She appeared in Tamara Jenkins' The Savages with Philip Seymour Hoffman, she received a third Academy Award nomination for her performance. In 2012, she starred in Roger Mitchell's Hyde Park on Hudson alongside Bill Murray as Franklin D. Roosevelt; the film starred Olivia Colman, Olivia Williams and Samuel West. Murray won nominated for a Golden Globe Award for his performance. In 2015, she starred in Bill Condon's Mr. Holmes alongside Ian McKellen; the film received rave reviews, earning a 89% on Rotten Tomatoes with the consensus reading, "Mr. Holmes focuses on the man behind the mysteries, while it may lack Baker Street thrills, it more than compensates with tenderly wrought, well-acted drama."In 2016, She appeared in Clint Eastwood's Sully with Tom Hanks.
The film was a critical and box office success making al
Our Town is a 1938 metatheatrical three-act play by American playwright Thornton Wilder. It tells the story of the fictional American small town of Grover's Corners between 1901 and 1913 through the everyday lives of its citizens. Throughout, Wilder uses metatheatrical devices, setting the play in the actual theatre where it is being performed; the main character is the stage manager of the theatre who directly addresses the audience, brings in guest lecturers, fields questions from the audience, fills in playing some of the roles. The play is performed without a set on a bare stage. With a few exceptions, the actors mime actions without the use of props. Our Town was first performed at McCarter Theatre in Princeton, New Jersey in 1938, it went on to success on Broadway and won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It remains popular today and revivals are frequent; the Stage Manager introduces the audience to the small town of Grover's Corners, New Hampshire, the people living there as a morning begins in the year 1901.
Professor Willard speaks to the audience about the history of the town. Joe Crowell delivers the paper to Doc Gibbs, Howie Newsome delivers the milk, the Webb and Gibbs households send their children off to school on this beautifully simple morning. Three years have passed, George and Emily prepare to wed; the day is filled with stress. Howie Newsome is delivering milk in the pouring rain while Si Crowell, younger brother of Joe, laments how George's baseball talents will be squandered. George pays an awkward visit to his soon-to-be in-laws. Here, the Stage Manager interrupts the scene and takes the audience back a year, to the end of Emily and George's junior year. Emily confronts George about his pride, over an ice cream soda, they discuss the future and they confess their love for each other. George decides not to go to college, as he had planned, but to work and take over his uncle's farm. In the present and Emily say that they are not ready to marry—George to his mother, Emily to her father—but they both calm down and go through with the wedding.
Nine years have passed. The Stage Manager opens the act with a lengthy monologue emphasizing eternity, bringing the audience's attention to the cemetery outside of town and the characters who have died since the wedding, including Mrs. Gibbs, Wally Webb, Mrs. Soames, Simon Stimson. Town undertaker Joe Stoddard is introduced, as is a young man named Sam Craig who has returned to Grover's Corners for his cousin's funeral; that cousin is Emily, who died giving birth to George's second child. Once the funeral ends, Emily emerges to join the dead. Ignoring the warnings of Simon, Mrs. Soames, Mrs. Gibbs, Emily returns to Earth to relive one day, her 12th birthday. Emily watches with joy at being able to see her parents and some of the people of her childhood for the first time in years. However, her joy turns to pain as she realizes how little people appreciate the simple joys of life; the memory proves too painful for her, she realizes that every moment of life should be treasured. When she asks the Stage Manager if anyone understands the value of life while they live it, he responds, "No.
The saints and poets, maybe—they do some." Emily returns to her grave next to Mrs. Gibbs and watches impassively as George kneels weeping over her; the Stage Manager wishes the audience a good night. Stage Manager – a narrator and guide through Grover's Corners, he joins in the action of the play periodically, as the minister at the wedding, the soda shop owner, a local townsman, etc. and speaks directly to Emily after her death. Emily Webb – one of the main characters. George Gibbs – the other main character. Frank Gibbs – George's father, the town doctor. Julia Gibbs – George's mother, she doesn't get there. She saved $350 for the trip from the sale of an antique furniture piece but willed it to George and Emily. Dies while visiting her daughter in Ohio. Charles Webb – Emily's father, Editor of the Grover's Corners Sentinel Myrtle Webb – Emily and Wally’s mother. Secondary characters Joe and Si Crowell – local paperboys. Joe's intelligence earns him a full scholarship to MIT, his promise will be cut short on the fields of France during World War I, according to the Stage Manager.
Both he and his brother Si hold marriage in high disdain. Simon Stimson – the choir director and church organist. We never learn the specific cause of his alcoholism and suicide, although Joe Stoddard, the undertaker, observes that "He's seen a peck of troubles." He remains bitter and cynical beyond the grave. Howie Newsome – the milkman, a fixture of Grover's Corners. Rebecca Gibbs – George's younger sister. Elopes with a traveling salesman and settles in Ohio. Wally Webb – Emily's younger brother. Dies of a burst appendix on a Boy Scout camping trip. Professor Willard – a rather long-winded lecturer Woman in Auditorium – concerned with temperance Man in Auditorium – concerned with social justice Another Woman in Auditorium – concerned with culture and beauty Mrs. Louella Soames – a gossipy townswoman and member of the choir Constable Bill Warren – the policeman Three Baseball Players – who mock George at t
Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime murder. The detective genre began around the same time as speculative fiction and other genre fiction in the mid-nineteenth century and has remained popular in novels; some of the most famous heroes of detective fiction include C. Auguste Dupin, Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot. Juvenile stories featuring The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, The Boxcar Children have remained in print for several decades; some scholars, such as R. H. Pfeiffer, have suggested that certain ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what would be called detective fiction. In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders, the account told by two witnesses broke down when Daniel cross-examines them. In response, author Julian Symons has argued that "those who search for fragments of detection in the Bible and Herodotus are looking only for puzzles" and that these puzzles are not detective stories.
In the play Oedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the protagonist discovers the truth about his origins after questioning various witnesses. Although "Oedipus's enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenment thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries", this narrative has "all of the central characteristics and formal elements of the detective story, including a mystery surrounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects, the gradual uncovering of a hidden past." The oldest known example of a detective story was The Three Apples, one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights. In this story, a fisherman discovers a heavy, locked chest along the Tigris river, which he sells to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid; when Harun breaks open the chest, he discovers the body of a young woman, cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and to find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails in his assignment.
Suspense is generated through multiple plot twists. With these characteristics this may be considered an archetype for detective fiction; the main difference between Ja'far and fictional detectives, such as Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, is that Ja'far has no actual desire to solve the case. The whodunit mystery is solved; this in turn lead to another assignment in which Ja'far has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three days or else be executed. Ja'far again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but owing to chance, he discovers a key item. In the end, he manages to solve the case through reasoning. Gong'an fiction is the earliest known genre of Chinese detective fiction; some well-known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk, the Ming Dynasty story collection Bao Gong An and the 18th century Di Gong An story collection. The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee by Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who used the style and characters to write the original Judge Dee series.
The hero/detective of these novels was a traditional judge or similar official based on historical personages such as Judge Bao or Judge Dee. Although the historical characters may have lived in an earlier period most stories are written in the Ming or Qing Dynasty period; these novels differ from the Western style tradition in several points as described by Van Gulik: The detective is the local magistrate, involved in several unrelated cases simultaneously. Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because in his view it was closer to the Western literary style and more to appeal to non-Chinese readers. One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during the Literary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China. Moreover, in the traditional Chinese culture, this genre was low-prestige, therefore was less worthy of preservation than works such as philosophy or poetry. Only little or incomplete case volumes can be found. One of the earliest examples of detective fiction in Western Literature is Voltaire's Zadig, which features a main character who performs feats of analysis.
Things as They Are. Thomas Skinner Sturr's anonymous Richmond, or stories in the life of a Bow Street officer was published in London in 1827.
The Jewel in the Crown (TV series)
The Jewel in the Crown is a 1984 British television serial about the final days of the British Raj in India during and after World War II, based upon the Raj Quartet novels by British author Paul Scott. Granada Television produced the series for the ITV network; the serial opens in the 1940s during World War II in the fictional Indian city of Mayapore, against the backdrop of the last years of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement. Hari Kumar is a young Indian man, educated at'Chillingborough', a British public school; the bankruptcy of his father, a successful businessman, forces him to return to India to live with his aunt. Working as a journalist, Kumar sees that his position is lower in India, where he is discriminated against by many British colonists and held in some suspicion by Indian independence activists, he becomes involved with a British woman, Daphne Manners, who does not share the prejudices of most of her people. One night, after Hari and Daphne make love in the public Bibighar Gardens, at the same time that violent anti-British demonstrations are taking place elsewhere in the city, the couple are attacked by a group of unknown Indian men.
Hari is beaten and Daphne is raped showing that not only the British opposed relationships across ethnic boundaries. The local Indian Police superintendent is Ronald Merrick, a young Englishman, intelligent and from a lower-class background, he had made advances to Daphne during her first months in India and been politely but rebuffed. He arrests Hari for her rape, holding him in the local jail, where he beats and sexually humiliates him. Merrick resents Hari's privileged education and he resents Daphne's preferring the young Indian to him; because Daphne refuses to cooperate with the investigation, the police do not prosecute Hari for rape but Merrick arrests Kumar and a group of young, educated Indians, sending them to prison for detention without trial under the security regulations adopted to deal with suppressing the Indian independence movement. Word that Hari was tortured causes outrage in the Indian community. Merrick is transferred from Mayapore to a less important town in the province.
Daphne learns. She chooses to believe the father is Hari, though she cannot know whether it is he or one of the rapists, the father, she dies in childbirth. The mixed-race child, a girl, is taken in by Daphne's great-aunt, Lady Manners, widow of a former provincial governor. While Lady Manners takes the infant to the resort area of Srinagar, she meets Sarah Layton, a young British woman on vacation with her mother Mildred and her sister Susan. Sarah and Susan's father is the colonel of the Indian Army regiment in Pankot, a hill station near Mayapore, he is being held as a prisoner of war in Germany. Susan and their mother prefer to stay away from Lady Manners due to the scandal of her great-niece's illegitimate birth, but Sarah pays a call on Lady Manners and the two women become friendly. Sarah and her family soon encounter Merrick, who has left the police and procured a commission in the Indian Army. Teddie Bingham, an Indian Army officer and the fiancé of Sarah's sister Susan, is stationed in the nearby princely state of Mirat.
Because the unit is soon to leave for the border with Burma and Susan have to marry in Mirat. When Teddie's best man for the ceremony becomes ill, he asks Merrick to step in. Merrick, seeing a relationship with the upper-class Teddie and the Laytons as a means to career advancement, is pleased to help. While Merrick and Teddie are driving to the ceremony a stone is thrown at their car injuring Teddie. Merrick understands that he was the target of the attack, as this is one of a series of incidents suggesting he is being harassed because of his treatment of Kumar and the other suspects in the Manners case in Mayapore. Soon after the wedding Teddie and Merrick leave for the Burma front with their unit. Teddie is soon killed in an ambush by soldiers of the Japanese-sponsored Indian National Army. Merrick is evacuated to a hospital in Calcutta; when Sarah visits him to thank him, she learns that his arm is to be amputated and that his face will be permanently disfigured by burn scars. Merrick reveals to Sarah.
Teddie had left their unit to try to persuade two Indian soldiers of his regiment, captured by the Japanese and joined the INA, to surrender and come in. Merrick believes Teddie took this risk to prove to him that the Indian soldiers after becoming turncoats, would resume their loyalty to the British if given the chance. Faced with losing his arm and being left permanently disfigured, Merrick's hostility against Indians has increased. Lady Manners presses to gain a formal inquiry into the detention of Hari Kumar, it is conducted by an aide to the governor of the province. Only during the interview does Hari learn that Daphne is dead. After Rowan establishes that Hari was tortured by Merrick and there is no evidence of any wrongdoing by him, he arranges the young man's release from prison. No action is taken against Merrick, however. After his convalescence, Merrick is promoted and assigned to intelligence activities concerning the INA and Indian soldiers who collaborated with the enemy, he comes across the Laytons again in Bombay, where Sarah is reunited with her father, Colonel Layton, just released from a German POW camp following Germany's surrender.
Merrick is there to interrogate an Indian soldier who had served under Colon
Thornton Niven Wilder was an American playwright and novelist. He won three Pulitzer Prizes—for the novel The Bridge of San Luis Rey, for the plays Our Town and The Skin of Our Teeth — and a U. S. National Book Award for the novel The Eighth Day. Wilder was born in Madison, the son of Amos Parker Wilder, a newspaper editor and U. S. diplomat, Isabella Thornton Niven. All of the Wilder children spent part of their childhood in China, his older brother, Amos Niven Wilder, became Hollis Professor of Divinity at the Harvard Divinity School, was a noted poet, was instrumental in developing the field of theopoetics. His sister, was an accomplished writer. Both of his other sisters, Charlotte Wilder, a poet, Janet Wilder Dakin, a zoologist, attended Mount Holyoke College. Wilder began writing plays while at The Thacher School in Ojai, where he did not fit in and was teased by classmates as overly intellectual. According to a classmate, "We left him alone, just left him alone, and he would retire at the library, his hideaway, learning to distance himself from humiliation and indifference."
His family lived for a time in China, where his sister Janet was born in 1910. He attended the English China Inland Mission Chefoo School at Yantai but returned with his mother and siblings to California in 1912 because of the unstable political conditions in China at the time. Thornton attended Creekside Middle School in Berkeley, graduated from Berkeley High School in 1915. After having served a three-month enlistment in the Army's Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, in World War I, he attended Oberlin College before earning his Bachelor of Arts degree at Yale University in 1920, where he refined his writing skills as a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, a literary society, he earned his Master of Arts degree in French literature from Princeton University in 1926. After graduating, Wilder studied archaeology and Italian in Rome, taught French at the Lawrenceville School in Lawrenceville, New Jersey beginning in 1921, his first novel, The Cabala, was published in 1926.
In 1927, The Bridge of San Luis Rey brought him commercial success, his first Pulitzer Prize. He resigned from the Lawrenceville School in 1928. From 1930 to 1937 he taught at the University of Chicago, during which time he published his translation of André Obey's own adaptation of the tale, "Le Viol de Lucrece" under the title "Lucrece". In 1938 he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play Our Town, he won the prize again in 1943 for his play The Skin of Our Teeth. World War II saw him rise to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Army Air Force Intelligence, first in Africa in Italy until 1945, he received several awards for his military service. He went on to be a visiting professor at Harvard University, where he served for a year as the Charles Eliot Norton professor. Though he considered himself a teacher first and a writer second, he continued to write all his life, receiving the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 1957 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963. In 1968 he won the National Book Award for his novel The Eighth Day.
Being proficient in four languages, Wilder translated plays by André Obey and Jean-Paul Sartre, wrote the libretti to two operas, The Long Christmas Dinner, composed by Paul Hindemith, The Alcestiad, composed by Louise Talma and based on his own play. Alfred Hitchcock, whom he admired, asked him to write the screenplay to his thriller, Shadow of a Doubt, he completed the first draft of the screenplay for Hitchcock. The Bridge of San Luis Rey tells the story of several unrelated people who happen to be on a bridge in Peru when it collapses, killing them. Philosophically, the book explores the question of why unfortunate events occur to people who seem "innocent" or "undeserving", it won the Pulitzer Prize in 1928, in 1998 it was selected by the editorial board of the American Modern Library as one of the 100 best novels of the twentieth century. The book was quoted by British Prime Minister Tony Blair during the memorial service for victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001. Since its popularity has grown enormously.
The book is the progenitor of the modern disaster epic in literature and film-making, where a single disaster intertwines the victims, whose lives are explored by means of flashbacks to events before the disaster. Wilder wrote a popular play set in fictional Grover's Corners, New Hampshire, it was inspired by his friend Gertrude Stein's novel The Making of Americans, many elements of Stein's modernist style can be found in the play. Wilder suffered from writer's block. Our Town employs a choric narrator called the Stage Manager and a minimalist set to underscore the human experience. Wilder played the Stage Manager on Broadway for two weeks and in summer stock productions. Following the daily lives of the Gibbs and Webb families, as well as the other inhabitants of Grover's Corners, the play illustrates the importance of the universality of the simple, yet meaningful lives of all people in the world in order to demonstrate the value of appreciating life; the play won the 1938 Pulitzer Prize. In 1938, Max Reinhardt directed a Broadway production of The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder had adapted from Austrian playwright Johann Nestroy's Einen Jux will er sich machen.
It was a failure. His play The Skin of Our Teeth opened in New York on November 18, 1942, featuring Fredric March and Tallulah Bankhead. Again, the themes are familiar – the timeless human condition.
The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970 TV series)
The Six Wives of Henry VIII is a series of six television plays produced by the BBC and first transmitted between 1 January and 5 February 1970. The series was aired in the United States on CBS from 1 August to 5 September 1971 with narration added by Anthony Quayle; the series was rebroadcast in the United States without commercials on PBS as part of its Masterpiece Theatre series. Each of the six plays focuses on a single wife from their perspective and was written by a different dramatist; the series was produced by Mark Shivas and Ronald Travers and directed by Naomi Capon and John Glenister. Keith Michell as Henry VIII Annette Crosbie as Catherine of Aragon Dorothy Tutin as Anne Boleyn Anne Stallybrass as Jane Seymour Elvi Hale as Anne of Cleves Angela Pleasence as Catherine Howard Rosalie Crutchley as Catherine Parr Patrick Troughton as the Duke of Norfolk John Woodnutt as Henry VII Catherine of Aragon – Rosemary Anne Sisson Anne Boleyn – Nick McCarty Jane Seymour – Ian Thorne Anne of Cleves – Jean Morris Catherine Howard – Beverley Cross Catherine Parr – John Prebble Catherine's marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales, ends with his early death.
Over the next few years, Catherine faces money trouble and arrangements for her to marry Prince Henry are unclear. When Henry VII dies, Henry VIII chooses Catherine as his wife, as his dying father requested. After a short scene of Catherine's son's death, her weeping in Henry's arms, the programme cuts to her older days where Henry falls in love with Anne Boleyn. Henry wants a male heir and after several pregnancies only one child of Catherine's and Henry's has survived, the princess Mary. Catherine is heartbroken when Henry tells her he wants a divorce. There are several court scenes discussing the annulment. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey does all he can to accomplish Henry's desire for a divorce from Catherine, but fails. Henry attempts to have a Papal Trial in England, to call into question the validity of his marriage to Catherine, but when Rome and the Pope revoke this attempt, Henry begins his break with the Catholic Church and starts to sow the seeds of the eventual English Reformation. Catherine is told her marriage to Henry has been annulled, that Henry has married Anne.
Catherine is moved to Wolsey's house. While there, they receive the news that Anne has had her child, the future queen Elizabeth I; the episode ends with Catherine dying in her bed, María de Salinas beside her and Henry reading a loving final letter from Catherine. Henry crushes the letter callously, walks dominatingly towards the camera, resembling the Hans Holbein portrait. Having seen Anne's rise in the preceding episode, this episode focuses on her downfall, documenting the disintegration of her marriage in the face of two miscarriages and the king's infidelities. Anne's brother, Sir George Boleyn, is shown anxiously trying to advise and counsel her to be more prudent and cautious in her conduct with the King, but Anne continues to berate Henry for his infidelities, which elicits not-so-veiled threats from him in return. Anne's final failure to give Henry a son seals her doom; the storyline was influenced by academic theories that believed Anne was the victim of a factional and political plot, concocted by her many enemies, who capitalised on the king's disillusionment with her.
As with most media treatments of Anne's destruction, the episode followed the historical research, which has all but proved her innocence. The scriptwriter used Anne's final confession of her sins, to suggest her total innocence on charges of adultery, incest and witchcraft. Jane gives birth to Prince Edward; when she is taken to her child's christening, she is near death. She remembers how Henry fell in love with her, how her relatives, schemed to bring about the downfall of Anne Boleyn and the subsequent rise of Jane. Directly after Anne is executed and Jane are married. During her short time as queen, Jane tries with some success to reconcile the Princess Mary with Henry, her pregnancy is a guilt-filled one. She is tormented by the fact. After Jane gives birth to the prince, she falls ill. Jane dies, the last images we see here are her body lying in state, arrayed like a queen and Henry weeping by Jane's funeral bier. With three dead wives behind him, Henry is urged by his counselors to marry again and further secure the succession.
Thomas Cromwell encourages him in an alliance with Protestant Germany, so he considers one of the Duke of Cleves' sisters, Anne or Amelia. He sends artist Hans Holbein. Based on this portrait and good reports of her, Henry chooses Anne and she is sent to marry the king; when she reaches England, Henry wishes to surprise her, so he goes to see her for the first time in disguise. He arrives unannounced, Anne is horrified when she learns the obese and bawdy "messenger" is her betrothed. Henry, rattled by her reaction, declares her ugly and attempts to nullify the marriage contract, but the marriage proceeds with two unwilling participants; when the time comes to consummate their union, Anne sees a possible escape from the marriage