Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings; the university embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala has an important historical place in Swedish national culture and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography, literature and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap, originated in Uppsala, it shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University and the University of Helsinki. Uppsala belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities and to the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university has nine faculties distributed over three "disciplinary domains". It has 2,300 doctoral students, it has a teaching staff of 1,800 out of a total of 6,900 employees. Twenty-eight per cent of the 716 professors at the university are women. Of its turnover of SEK 6.6 billion in 2016, 29% was spent on education at Bachelor's and Master's level, while 70% was spent on research and research programs. Architecturally, Uppsala University has traditionally had a strong presence in Fjärdingen, the neighbourhood around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, Uppsala's historic centre continues to be dominated by the presence of the university; as with most medieval universities, Uppsala University grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century. Uppsala had long been a hub for regional trade, had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages.
As was the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had been chartered through a papal bull. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna; this included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law and philosophy, to award the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees. The archbishop of Uppsala was named as the university's Chancellor, was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members; the turbulent period of the reformation of King Gustavus Vasa resulted in a drop in the relatively insignificant number of students in Uppsala, seen as a center of Catholicism and of potential disloyalty to the Crown. Swedish students travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany Wittenberg. There is some evidence of academic studies in Uppsala during the 16th century.
At the end of the century the situation had changed, Uppsala became a bastion of Lutheranism, which Duke Charles, the third of the sons of Gustavus Vasa to become king used to consolidate his power and oust his nephew Sigismund from the throne. The Meeting of Uppsala in 1593 established Lutheran orthodoxy in Sweden, Charles and the Council of state gave new privileges to the university on 1 August of the same year. Theology still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology. A fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus, appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, functioning for a few years but closed in 1593. An eighth chair, in Medicine, received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was 150.
In 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place. In the same year, the antiquarian and mystic Johannes Bureus designed and engraved the seal of the university, today used as part of the logotype; the medieval university had been a school for theology. The aspirations of the emergent new great power of Sweden demanded a different kind of learning. Sweden both grew through conquests and went through a complete overhaul of its administrative structure, it required a much larger class of civil educators than before. Preparatory schools, were founded during this period in various cathedral towns, notably Västerås in 1623. Beside Uppsala, new universities were founded in more distant parts of the Swedish Realm, the University of Dorpat in Estonia and the University of Åbo in Finland. Af
University College, Durham
University College, informally known as Castle, is a college of the University of Durham in England. Centred on Durham Castle on Palace Green, it was founded in 1832 and is the oldest of Durham's colleges; as a constituent college of Durham University, it is listed as a higher education institution under section 216 of the Education Reform Act 1988. All academic activities, such as research and tutoring, occur at a university level. University College moved into its current location in 1837. Around 150 students are accommodated within Durham Castle. Other college buildings, including converted 18th century houses and purpose-built accommodation from the 1950s, 1970s and 1980s, are within five minutes' walk of the castle; the college has 700 undergraduates and is the most over-subscribed college of the University. In 1987 it admitted women undergraduates for the first time, having had an all-male student body. From January 2012 until March 2019 the Master of the college was political theorist David Held.
University College was formed upon the creation of University of Durham in 1832. It was the first college of the university, is therefore known as the "foundation college", but the university was founded explicitly on the Oxbridge model, the intention was for the university to develop along collegiate lines in the manner of Oxford and Cambridge, as indeed it has. Durham Castle had been the home of the Prince Bishops of Durham, William van Mildert, one of the founders of the university, had intended for the castle to be given to the college. Temporary accommodation for students was provided at the Archdeacon's Inn on Palace Green until University College moved into its permanent home. Castle moved to its current location at Durham Castle in 1837 after van Mildert's successor, Edward Maltby, completed renovations of the building; the castle's keep a ruin, was redeveloped for student accommodation. Since high levels of maintenance have been, still are, necessary to preserve the buildings of the castle.
The university's second college, Hatfield Hall, was formed in 1846 as a response to the high costs of maintaining Castle. These costs arose from the students' expectations of being provided with servants and room furnishings; the university struggled for the rest of the 19th century, held back by a lack of prestige and a distance from the centres of power in the UK. By 1882, Castle contained some 79 undergraduates out of 205 at the university as a whole. Despite the university failing to gain recognition and prestige, a number of other colleges had opened by the end of the nineteenth century. Of these, Bishop Cosin's Hall failed to become financially viable and was absorbed into University College in 1864. Enrolment numbers continued to fluctuate; the inter-war years were transformative for Castle. The college was the smallest in Durham university, with just 34 undergraduates in 1928, was struggling to meet maintenance costs; the Castle, situated on the banks of "The Peninsula", was in danger of collapsing into the River Wear and many of its internal structures were weak.
The combination of high costs and low undergraduate numbers meant that the college was threatened with closure or merger with Hatfield. Castle was saved through charitable donations. A visit in the 1920s from Edward, Prince of Wales, helped increase the profile of the cause. In the 1920s, the castle's foundations were secured through reinforcement with concrete. Following these and other extensive building refurbishments of the 1920s and 1930s the college was now able to expand. One of its most successful periods followed during the Second World War when personnel of the Durham University Air Squadron were posted in the castle, doing short courses before joining the Royal Air Force; those from the college who died during World War II were commemorated by the redevelopment of the Norman Gallery area of the Castle in the 1950s. This period saw the launch of Castellum, an annual journal of the Castle Society, created to keep former students in touch with college life. In order to continue this expansion, the college purchased Lumley Castle in 1946 to house students, by 1948 seventy five students were housed there.
This section of the college developed a spirit of its own and is still remembered today through activities such as the Lumley Run. During the 1950s and 1960s the college expanded through developments at Owengate and Bailey Court, both around Palace Green. In the 1970s, the college's lease of Lumley Castle ended. Moatside Court was instead developed, meant that all the college's students were now housed within five minutes of the main castle. During this period there was rapid change in the size and structure of the college, which expanded to over 300 undergraduates by 1979. Female students were admitted to the college for the first time in 1987. Since this time the college has become mixed, with undergraduate numbers expanding to nearly seven hundred. Expansion caused a strain on college numbers, in 2004 the college was unable to provide accommodation for all of its fresher students for the first time in its history. Following the foundation of Josephine Butler, Durham's first new college to be opened since 1972, pressure from the university to take on additional students has lessened, undergraduate numbers have been intentionally reduced in recent years.
Construction of Durham Castle began in 1072, which makes it the oldest building in use at any University in the world. The castle retains much of its original design and structure, is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site with Durham Cathedral; the castle's northern wing contai
Pleiades (Greek mythology)
The Pleiades, companions of Artemis, were the seven daughters of the titan Atlas and the sea-nymph Pleione born on Mount Cyllene. They were the sisters of Calypso, the Hyades, the Hesperides; the Pleiades were nymphs in the train of Artemis, together with the seven Hyades were called the Atlantides, Dodonides, or Nysiades and teachers to the infant Dionysus. They were thought to have been translated to the night sky as a cluster of stars, the Pleiades, were associated with rain. Classicists debate the origin of the name Pleiades, it ostensibly derives from the name of their mother, Pleione meaning "daughters of Pleione". However, the name of the star-cluster came first, Pleione was invented to explain it. According to another suggestion Pleiades derives from πλεῖν because of the cluster's importance in delimiting the sailing season in the Mediterranean Sea: "the season of navigation began with their heliacal rising". Several of the most prominent male Olympian gods engaged in affairs with the seven heavenly sisters.
These relationships resulted in the birth of their children. Maia, eldest of the seven Pleiades, was mother of Hermes by Zeus. Electra was mother of Iasion, by Zeus. Taygete was mother of Lacedaemon by Zeus. Alcyone was mother of Hyrieus and Aethusa by Poseidon. Celaeno was mother of Nycteus by Poseidon. Sterope was mother of Oenomaus by Ares. Merope, youngest of the seven Pleiades, was wooed by Orion. In other mythic contexts she married Sisyphus and, faded away, she bore Sisyphus several sons. Sometimes they are related to nymphs of the morning star. After Atlas was forced to carry the heavens on his shoulders, Orion began to pursue all of the Pleiades, Zeus transformed them first into doves, into stars to comfort their father; the constellation of Orion is said to still pursue them across the night sky. One of the most memorable myths involving the Pleiades is the story of how these sisters became stars, their catasterism. According to some versions of the tale, all seven sisters committed suicide because they were so saddened by either the fate of their father, Atlas, or the loss of their siblings, the Hyades.
In turn Zeus, the ruler of the Greek gods, immortalized the sisters by placing them in the sky. There these seven stars formed the star cluster known thereafter as the Pleiades; the Greek poet Hesiod mentions the Pleiades several times in his Days. As the Pleiades are winter stars, they feature prominently in the ancient agricultural calendar. Here is a bit of advice from Hesiod: "And if longing seizes you for sailing the stormy seas, when the Pleiades flee mighty Orion and plunge into the misty deep and all the gusty winds are raging do not keep your ship on the wine-dark sea but, as I bid you, remember to work the land." The Pleiades would "flee mighty Orion and plunge into the misty deep" as they set in the West, which they would begin to do just before dawn during October–November, a good time of the year to lay up your ship after the fine summer weather and "remember to work the land". The poet Lord Tennyson mentions the Pleiades in his poem Locksley Hall: "Many a night I saw the Pleiads, rising through the mellow shade, Glitter like a swarm of fire-flies tangled in a silver braid."The loss of one of the sisters, Merope, in some myths may reflect an astronomical event wherein one of the stars in the Pleiades star cluster disappeared from view by the naked eye.
In the account of Diodorus, the Pleiades were called Atlantides after their father Atlas and Hesperides from their mother Hesperis, daughter of Hesperus, brother of Atlas. These sisters excelled in beauty and chastity and thus, the king of the Egyptians, was seized with desire to get the maidens into his power. On, Heracles conquered this prince when the latter attempted to sacrifice the hero. Meanwhile the pirates who had seized the girls while they were playing in a certain garden and carried them off, fleeing swiftly to their ships had sailed away with them. Heracles came upon these pirates as they were taking their meal on a certain strand, learning from the maidens what had taken place he slew the pirates to a man and brought the girls back to Atlas. In return, the father was so grateful to Heracles for his kindly deed that he not only gladly gave him such assistance as his Labour called for, but he instructed him quite in the knowledge of astrology. A scholia added that after this events, the Pleiades were persecuted by Orion.
Although most accounts are uniform as to the number and main myths concerning the Pleiades, the mythological information recorded by a scholiast on Theocritus' Idylls with reference to Callimachus has nothing in common with the traditional version. According to it, the Pleiades were daughters of an Amazonian queen, they were credited with inventing ritual dances and nighttime festivals. Alexandrian Pleiad Krittika Peleiades Parveen
Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Times Higher Education magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds to publish the joint THE–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009 before it turned to Thomson Reuters for a new ranking system; the publication now comprises the world's overall and reputation rankings, alongside three regional league tables, Latin America, BRICS & Emerging Economies which are generated by different weightings. THE Rankings is considered as one of the most observed university rankings together with Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankings, it is praised for having a new, improved ranking methodology since 2010. The creation of the original Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World, to then-editor of Times Higher Education, John O'Leary.
Times Higher Education chose to partner with educational and careers advice company QS to supply the data. After the 2009 rankings, Times Higher Education took the decision to break from QS and signed an agreement with Thomson Reuters to provide the data for its annual World University Rankings from 2010 onwards; the publication developed a new rankings methodology in consultation with its readers, its editorial board and Thomson Reuters. Thomson Reuters will collect and analyse the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education; the first ranking was published in September 2010. Commenting on Times Higher Education's decision to split from QS, former editor Ann Mroz said: "universities deserve a rigorous and transparent set of rankings – a serious tool for the sector, not just an annual curiosity." She went on to explain the reason behind the decision to continue to produce rankings without QS' involvement, saying that: "The responsibility weighs heavy on our shoulders...we feel we have a duty to improve how we compile them."Phil Baty, editor of the new Times Higher Education World University Rankings, admitted in Inside Higher Ed: "The rankings of the world's top universities that my magazine has been publishing for the past six years, which have attracted enormous global attention, are not good enough.
In fact, the surveys of reputation, which made up 40 percent of scores and which Times Higher Education until defended, had serious weaknesses. And it's clear that our research measures favored the sciences over the humanities."He went on to describe previous attempts at peer review as "embarrassing" in The Australian: "The sample was too small, the weighting too high, to be taken seriously." THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings; the Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential."In 2014 Times Higher Education announced a series of important changes to its flagship THE World University Rankings and its suite of global university performance analyses, following a strategic review by THE parent company TES Global.
The inaugural 2010-2011 methodology contained 13 separate indicators grouped under five categories: Teaching, citations, international mix, industry income. The number of indicators is up from the Times-QS rankings published between 2004 and 2009, which used six indicators. A draft of the inaugural methodology was released on 3 June 2010; the draft stated that 13 indicators would first be used and that this could rise to 16 in future rankings, laid out the categories of indicators as "research indicators", "institutional indicators", "economic activity/innovation", "international diversity". The names of the categories and the weighting of each was modified in the final methodology, released on 16 September 2010; the final methodology included the weighting signed to each of the 13 indicators, shown below: The Times Higher Education billed the methodology as "robust and sophisticated," stating that the final methodology was selected after considering 10 months of "detailed consultation with leading experts in global higher education," 250 pages of feedback from "50 senior figures across every continent" and 300 postings on its website.
The overall ranking score was calculated by making Z-scores all datasets to standardize different data types on a common scale to better make comparisons among data. The reputational component of the rankings came from an Academic Reputation Survey conducted by Thomson Reuters in spring 2010; the survey gathered 13,388 responses among scholars "statistically representative of global higher education's geographical and subject mix." The magazine's category for "industry income – innovation" came from a sole indicator, institution's research income from industry scaled against the number of academic staff." The magazine stated that it used this data as "proxy for high-quality knowledge transfer" and planned to add more indicators for the category in future years. Data for citation impact, comprising 32
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators. Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an independent organization focusing on higher education. In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions; the publication includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking. ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings, it is praised for the objectivity and transparency of its methodology, but draws some criticism as it does not adequately adjust for the size of the institution, thus larger institutions would tend to rank above smaller ones.
ARWU is praised by several institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most used annual ranking of the world's research universities." In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities". EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were evaluated using several indicators of research performance." Chancellor of University of Oxford, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks solid... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." And "The SJTU rankings were reported and around the world... offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." Respectively. Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's'consistency, clarity of purpose, transparency' as significant strengths. While ARWU has originated in China, the ranking have been praised for being unbiased towards Asian institutions.
The ranking is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities. A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng. A 2013 paper in the same journal showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced. In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making, their main conclusions are. The ARWU researchers themselves, N. C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial, they suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions".
For instance, ARWU is criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system and the unreasonable weight given to research performed decades ago. It is criticised in France for its use as a motivation for fusing universities into larger ones. Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g. number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research quality. As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Institute created alternative rankings excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance; the weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%. There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects.
The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, the number of cited scholars. Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched. Academic Ranking of World Universities Website Jambor, Paul Z.'The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World' Department of Education – The United States of America: Educational Resources Information Center, September 26, 2009 Csizmazia Roland A. Jambor, Paul Z. "Korean Higher Education on the Rise: Time to Learn From the Success – Comparative Research at the Tertiary Education Level", Human Resource Management Academic Research Society: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development,Volume 3, Issue 2
Queen's University at Kingston is a public research university in Kingston, Canada. Founded on 16 October 1841, via a royal charter issued by Queen Victoria, the university predates Canada's founding by 26 years. Queen's holds more than 1,400 hectares of land throughout Ontario and owns Herstmonceux Castle in East Sussex, England. Queen's is organized into ten undergraduate and professional faculties and schools; the Church of Scotland established Queen's College in 1841 with a royal charter from Queen Victoria. The first classes, intended to prepare students for the ministry, were held 7 March 1842 with 13 students and two professors. Queen's was the first university west of the maritime provinces to admit women and to form a student government. In 1883, a women's college for medical education affiliated with Queen's University was established. In 1888, Queen's University began offering extension courses, becoming the first Canadian university to do so. In 1912, Queen's ended its affiliation with the Presbyterian Church, adopted its present name.
Queen's is a co-educational university with more than 23,000 students and over 131,000 alumni living worldwide. Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders and 57 Rhodes Scholars. Queen's was a result of an outgrowth of educational initiatives planned by Presbyterians in the 1830s. A draft plan for the university was presented at a synod meeting in Kingston in 1839, with a modified bill introduced through the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada during a session in 1840. On 16 October 1841, a royal charter was issued through Queen Victoria establishing Queen's College at Kingston. Queen's resulted from years of effort by Presbyterians of Upper Canada to found a college for the education of ministers in the growing colony and to instruct youth in various branches of science and literature, they modelled the university after the University of Glasgow. Classes began on 7 March 1842, in a small woodframe house on the edge of the city with two professors and 15 students; the college moved several times during its first eleven years, before settling in its present location.
Prior to Canadian Confederation, the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, the Canadian government, private citizens financially supported the college. After Confederation, the college faced ruin when the federal government withdrew its funding and the Commercial Bank of the Midland District collapsed, a disaster which cost Queen's two-thirds of its endowment; the college was rescued after Principal William Snodgrass and other officials created a fundraising campaign across Canada. The risk of financial ruin worried the administration until the century's final decade, they considered merging with the University of Toronto as late as the 1880s. With the additional funds bequeathed from Queen's first major benefactor, Robert Sutherland, the college staved off financial failure and maintained its independence. Queen's was given university status on 17 May 1881. In 1883, Women's Medical College was founded at Queen's with a class of three. Theological Hall, completed in 1880 served as Queen's main building throughout the late 19th century.
In 1912, Queen's separated from the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and changed its name to Queen's University at Kingston. Queen's Theological College remained in the control of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, until 1925, when it joined the United Church of Canada; the theological college merged with the Queen's department of religious studies and the program closed in 2015. The university faced another financial crisis during World War I from a sharp drop in enrollment due to the military enlistment of students and faculty. A $1,000,000 fundraising drive and the armistice in 1918 saved the university. 1,500 students fought in the war and 187 died. On 18 August 1939, weeks prior to the start of World War II, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Queen's to accept an honorary degree. In a broadcast heard around the world, the President voiced the American policy of mutual alliance and friendship with Canada. During World War II, 2,917 graduates from Queen's served in the armed forces, suffering 164 fatalities.
The Memorial Room in Memorial Hall of the John Deutsch University Centre lists Queen's students who died during the world wars. Queen's grew after the war, propelled by the expanding postwar economy and the demographic boom that peaked in the 1960s. From 1951 to 1961, enrolment increased from just over 2,000 students to more than 3,000; the university embarked on a building program, constructing five student residences in less than ten years. After the reorganization of legal education in Ontario in the mid-1950s, Queen's Faculty of Law opened in 1957 in the new John A. Macdonald Hall. Other construction projects at Queen's in the 1950s included the construction of Richardson Hall to house Queen's administrative offices and Dunning Hall. By the end of the 1960s, like many other Canadian universities, Queen's tripled its enrolment and expanded its faculty and facilities, as a result of the baby boom and generous support from the public sector. By the mid-1970s, the university had 10,000 full-time students.
Among the new facilities were three more residences and separate buildings for the Departments of Mathematics, Physics and Psychology, Social Sciences and the Humanities. During this period, Queen's created the Schools of Music, Public Administration, Rehabilitation Therapy, Urban and Regional Planning were established at Queen's; the establishment of the Faculty of Education in 1968 on land about a kilometre west of the university inaugurated the university's west c