Briggs Swift Cunningham II was an American entrepreneur and sportsman, who raced automobiles and yachts. Born into a wealthy family, he became a racing car constructor and team owner as well as a sports car manufacturer and automobile collector, he skippered the first victorious 12-metre yacht Columbia in the 1958 America's Cup race, invented the cunningham downhaul to increase the speed of racing sailboats. He was featured on the April 26, 1954 cover of Time magazine, with three of his Cunningham racing cars; the caption reads: Road Racer Briggs Cunningham: Horsepower, Sportsmanship. He became an early member of the Road Racing Drivers Club, an invitation-only club formed to honor notable road racing drivers; the October 2003 Road & Track magazine article, "Briggs Swift Cunningham—A Life Well Spent", states that "by building and sailing his own ships, building and racing his own cars, Briggs Cunningham epitomized the definition of the American sportsman." He was inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1993, the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1997, named to the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 2003.
Cunningham died in Las Vegas, of complications from Alzheimer's disease, at the age of 96. In 1931 Cunningham was a crew member on the Dorade. In 1958 he skippered the first victorious 12-metre yacht Columbia in the first post war America's Cup race, he invented the eponymous Cunningham used to control a sailboat's luff tension and improve sail shape. Introduced to motorsports as a youngster when his uncle took him to road races just after the first world war, Cunningham began international racing in 1930 with his Yale College friends Miles and Samuel Collier, who in 1933 founded the Automobile Racing Club of America, he continued in competition for 36 years. By 1940 he was building sports cars for others to race, his first race as a driver was with his Bu-Merc, a modified Buick chassis with Buick engine and Mercedes-Benz SSK body, at Watkins Glen shortly after World War Two. Some of his other hybrids involved Cadillacs and Fords. Cunningham was one of the first to purchase a Ferrari Tipo 166 Corsa Spyder, raced along with other marques he constructed or owned.
In 1950 Briggs Cunningham entered two Cadillac cars for Le Mans, one a stock-appearing Cadillac Series 61 Coupé, the other a special-bodied sports car dubbed "Le Monstre." They finished 10th and 11th overall. On December 31, 1950 Cunningham participated in the 6-hour Sam Collier Memorial Race, the first automobile race held on the Sebring Airport race track, won by a Crosley HotShot. Cunningham finished 3rd in class and 17th overall in his Aston Martin DB2 Vantage LML/50/21, the first produced. 1955 was last year for the Cunningham marque of cars. The Internal Revenue Service rules of the time allowed such prototype low volume manufacturers 5 years to reach profitability before classifying the business as a non-deductible hobby. By 1956 Team Cunningham, which fielded other marques, was described as a dominant force in SCCA sports car racing — a distinction the team retained for the next decade; the team traveled in a caravan with tractor trailer vans that contained the automobiles and equipment, set up in the pits to serve every mechanical or personal need of the team.
This contrasted with the typical arrival into the pits of a single race car on a trailer, was described as "impressive" by driver Lake Underwood. The team's chief mechanic was Alfred Momo. Cunningham concentrated on competition automobiles. A few, adapted for street use, were personal vehicles. In 1952, Cunningham introduced the Continental C3 road car; this model established his bona fides as a car manufacturer with the race organisers at Le Mans and elsewhere, justifying his entries of prototype sports-racing cars. Production began in his West Palm Beach plant where his team of mechanics installed 331-cubic-inch Chrysler hemi V-8s in Cunningham C-2R racing chassis; these were shipped to Turin, Italy to be fitted with aluminum and steel bodies by coachbuilder Vignale, after which they were returned to the Florida plant for completion. There were 25 Continental C3s produced: five convertibles, they sold for $8,000 to $12,000. Notable owners included a member of the Du Pont family. In 2017, Jay Leno completed an extensive restoration on a C3.
All 25 cars still exist. Cunningham's announcement in 1951 of his intention to build an American contender for outright victory at the Le Mans race caused a stir on both continents, his team was a favorite with the Le Mans fans, the announcement demonstrated his commitment to fielding a winning team of American drivers and automobiles. One of the cars, the Chrysler-powered Cunningham C2-R built by The B. S. Cunningham Company of West Palm Beach and driven by Phil Walters and John Fitch, finished 18th out of 60 starters; the other, driven by George Rand and Fred Wacker Jr. failed to finish. In 1952, the C4-R of Briggs Cunningham and Bill Spear finished fourth overall at Le Mans. A C4-R won the 1953 Sebring 12 Hours. At Le Mans and Fitch finished first in class and third overall with a C5-R, the two other Team Cunningham cars finished seventh and tenth, they returned to take third and fifth place in 1954. These years were to be the high point of achievement for Cunningham-built cars at Le Mans. With victory unattained, the effort was described as a "gallant failure" by American journalist Ozzie Lyons.
In 1954, a C4-R driven by Briggs Cunningham and Sherwood Johnston finished sixth in the Reims 12 Hour sports car race, behin
Alsab was an American Hall of Fame Thoroughbred racehorse. As a two-year-old, Alsab won the Washington Park Futurity, Champagne Stakes, Mayflower Stakes. In his three-year-old season, he was ridden by Basil James, he finished second to Shut Out in the Kentucky Derby and won the Preakness Stakes. In the third leg of the Triple Crown he finished second to Shut Out in the Belmont Stakes. On September 19, 1942, Alsab defeated the 1941 U. S. Triple Crown Champion Whirlaway in a match race at Narragansett Park in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Alsab was voted the 1941 U. S. Champion Two-Year-Old Colt, he won 1942 U. S. Champion Three-Year-Old Colt honors. In the Blood-Horse magazine List of the Top 100 U. S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, Alsab was voted #65. In 1976, he was inducted in the United States' National Museum of Hall of Fame. Alsab's pedigree and partial racing stats
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Whirlaway was an American champion thoroughbred racehorse. The chestnut horse was sired by English Derby winner Blenheim, out of the broodmare Dustwhirl. Whirlaway was bred at Calumet Farm in Kentucky. Trained by Ben A. Jones and ridden by Eddie Arcaro, Whirlaway won the U. S. Triple Crown in 1941. Whirlaway was known as "Mr. Longtail" because his tail was long and thick and it would blow far out behind him during races, flowing in the wind, he was voted the American Champion Two-Year-Old Colt in 1940 by Sports Digest magazine. The rival Daily Racing Form award was won by Our Boots. Jimmy Jones, son of the colt's trainer, recalled. You had to create habits for him. So we created the habits we wanted him to do." Whirlaway was regarded as having a "quirky" personality. The champion colt had a habit of "bearing out," drifting toward the middle of the racetrack, during the latter part of his races and losing as a result. In preparations for the Kentucky Derby, this had been such a problem that trainer Ben A. Jones fitted the colt with a full-cup blinker over his right eye.
In Whirlaway's final workout before the Derby, Jones cut a small hole in the blinker so that the horse had a tiny field of vision. Jones positioned himself ten feet off the inner rail and told jockey Eddie Arcaro to ride the horse through that space. Whirlaway was able to see his trainer, Arcaro was able to keep him on a straight path, Whirlaway won the Kentucky Derby by tying the current record margin of 8 lengths. Trained by Ben A. Jones and ridden by Arcaro, Whirlaway won the U. S. Triple Crown in 1941, he won the Lawrence Realization Stakes and the Travers Stakes that year. He was voted the Horse of the Year in 1941, beating Alsab by 96 votes to 91 in a poll conducted by the Turf and Sport Digest magazine. A year Whirlaway repeated his win in the poll, beating Alsab with 76 votes to his rival's 45. Arcaro was the sole rider for Whirlaway in all of his 3-year-old victories, but dismounted for most of the 1942 season, when he served a long suspension for racing infractions. Jockey George Woolf took the reins for the majority of the 1942 season.
In a major upset on July 4, 1942 at Empire City Race Track, Whirlaway ran second to Tola Rose who won by four lengths in track record time. Whirlaway and Alsab continued their 1941 rivalry through 1942. On September 19, 1942, Alsab defeated the Triple Crown champion in a match race at Narragansett Park in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Although Whirlaway closed through the stretch, Alsab lasted by a nose as both horses flew home through the stretch run. Whirlaway was named Horse of the Year for 1942 after defeating Alsab in a subsequent race and having 12 wins for the year to Alsab's 9. Woolf, who had won the Pimlico Special in 1938 on Seabiscuit and in 1940 on Challedon, rode the 1941 Triple Crown winner at a leisurely pace during the 1942 Pimlico Special in a walkover victory. No opponent had been found to challenge Whirlaway for the race. On December 12, more than twenty thousand people turned out to watch Whirlaway win the inaugural Louisiana Handicap at the Fair Grounds Race Course; the newly formed Thoroughbred Racing Association staged this event as a war-relief effort.
Whirlaway entered stud at Calumet Farm in the spring of 1944 at age six. Among his best offspring were Scattered. In August 1950, Calumet Farm leased Whirlaway to French breeder Marcel Boussac, who stood the horse at his breeding farm, Haras de Fresnay-le-Buffard. Boussac purchased Whirlaway from Calumet in September 1952; the stallion died at Boussac's French stud in 1953. Whirlaway was elected to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1959. In The Blood-Horse magazine's ranking of the top 100 U. S. thoroughbred champions of the 20th century, he was No. 26. Whirlaway has a race named in his honor at Saratoga Race Course. Whirlway's pedigree Whirlaway's Kentucky Derby Every horse that has participated in a classic: Kentucky Derby, Preakness, or Belmont Whirlway's Triple Crown History
Nashua was an American-born thoroughbred racehorse, best remembered for a 1955 match race against Swaps, the horse that had defeated him in the Kentucky Derby. Nashua's sire was the European champion Nasrullah; the dam was a broodmare who has had influence through her female descendants. Owned by William Woodward, Jr.'s famous Belair Stud in Bowie, Nashua was trained by Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons and ridden by jockey Eddie Arcaro. As a two-year-old in 1954, Nashua entered eight races, winning six and finishing second twice, which earned him champion 2-year-old honors; the following year he earned United States Horse of the Year awards from the Thoroughbred Racing Association, the publishers of Daily Racing Form. Nashua won his famous match race with the great thoroughbred Swaps, who had defeated him in the 1955 Kentucky Derby. Following the death of William Woodward, Jr. the Belair Stud horses were auctioned off. In 1955, a syndicate purchased Nashua for a record $1,251,200 from the Woodward estate, with majority interests owned by Christopher J. Devine.
In 1956 the syndicate leased Nashua to Combs to race under the Combs colors. At the end of his 1956 season, after thirty career races with a record of 22–4–1, Nashua was retired to stand at stud at Spendthrift Farm in Lexington, Kentucky, he retired. His earnings of $1,288,565 surpassed the great Citation's record and stood as the earnings mark until surpassed by Round Table in the autumn of 1958. At stud, Nashua was consistent, though his fillies were better runners than his colts, his progeny included the Hall of Fame racemare Shuvee, Gold Digger, Melbourne Cup winner Beldale Ball. In 1965, Nashua was inducted into the National Museum of Hall of Fame. In The Blood-Horse ranking of the top 100 U. S. thoroughbred champions of the 20th Century, he was ranked 24. Nashua is buried at Spendthrift Farm. In the mid-eighties, the farm commissioned a statue to be raised over him; the sculptor was the daughter of Mike Todd and Elizabeth Taylor. In 2010, sportswriter Bill Christine wrote that Nashua "...belongs on that short list of best horses never to have won the Kentucky Derby".
Nashua's pedigree Bowen, Edward L. Nashua Eclipse Press ISBN 978-1-58150-050-9
Narragansett Park was an American race track for Thoroughbred horse racing in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. On May 18, 1934, Rhode Island voters approved a measure legalizing parimutuel betting by an 3 to 1 margin; the following day, the Narragansett Racing Association announced plans for a $1 million race track and steeplechase course on the site of the former What Cheer Airport and filed articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State of Rhode Island. The Association chose to name their track after Narragansett Park, a former trotting park in Cranston, Rhode Island. On June 6, 1934, the Narragansett Racing Association was awarded the state's first horse racing permit. Construction was completed in less than two months at a cost of $1.2 million. The track consisted of a one-mile racing oval, a 14,000 seat grandstand, 270 betting and paying booths, a clubhouse, 22 barns with stalls that could hold more than 1,000 horses; the City of Pawtucket constructed a new four-lane highway leading to the entrance of the track and a double track railway was built near the stands.
Narragansett Park opened on August 1, 1934, with 37,281 people in attendance, including Jack Dempsey, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt II, Jesse H. Metcalf; the track's first card consisted of eight races. The feature race was a $5,000 added six furlongs sprint for three-year-olds and up won by Chinese Empress, a three-year-old chestnut filly; the mutuel handle for the day was $351,482. On Labor Day 1934 the track drew 53,922 patrons, the most for any sporting event in the history of Rhode Island. During its early years, Narragansett Park was one of the most financially successful tracks in the country. From the time it opened to September 30, 1936 it posted a net profit of $2,017,381.54. In 1934 Rhode Island received over $800,000 in revenue from the track, more than 10% of the state's entire budget. Narragansett became known as somewhat of a “High Society” due to its proximity to Newport, Rhode Island – the summer resort of many wealthy owners from New York City; the track was frequented by celebrities, including Cab Calloway, Jimmy Durante, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Mickey Rooney, Milton Berle.
For decades, the track received patrons from Boston via the New Haven Railroad. During the racing season, daily trains, known as "'Gansett Specials" ran from Boston's South Station to the station tracks at Naragansett Park; the trains left Boston around noon to arrive in time for the first race and returned following the last race. Narragansett Park was part of many horse racing innovations; the track was one of the first in the country to install a starting gate. It was one of the first to institute a $1,000 minimum purse. On June 22, 1935, Seabiscuit broke his maiden at Narragansett and equaled the five-furlong track record. Four days in the Watch Hill Claiming Stakes he once again broke the track record, this time by a full second. In 1937, Seabiscuit finished third in the Narragansett Special; the loss ended a streak of seven consecutive stakes wins for Seabiscuit, one shy of Discovery's record. In the summer of 1937, track president Walter E. O'Hara got into an altercation with the state racing steward.
The state Horse Racing Division ordered that O'Hara be removed as a track official of the race track for intimidating and interfering with the steward. The Horse Racing Division ordered an audit of the Narragansett Racing Association's books, which resulted in six new charges against the track to revoke its license for the fall racing season. O'Hara responded to the charges in his newspaper, the Providence Star-Tribune, in an article which he implied that Governor Robert E. Quinn was or would end up in Butler Hospital, a psychiatric hospital that specialized in the treatment of substance abuse. On September 15, 1937, the Rhode Island Supreme Court unanimously decided to quash the division's order to remove O'Hara. However, Quinn filed two charges with the division seeking O'Hara's removal as a track official and the revocation of the Narragansett Racing Association's license for O'Hara's attacks in the newspaper; the division sided with the Governor and ordered O'Hara's removal and indefinitely suspended the track's license at the end of the summer races.
The summer racing season ended on September 30, 1937, the track did not remove O'Hara. The Supreme Court quashed the division's order to suspend the track's license. However, Quinn refused to permit racing at the track. On October 17, Quinn declared that Narragansett Park was "in a state of insurrection," and ordered the National Guard to enforce martial law. O'Hara, in Maryland on business, flew back to the track and was escorted by guardsmen to his penthouse on the track's roof, where he entertained journalists and politicians and played March of the Wooden Soldiers over the public address system for the guardsmen. On February 9, 1938, sheriff's deputies battered down the Narragansett Racing Association' doors and seized records on order of the Superior Court. O'Hara resigned as the association's president and managing director, he was succeeded by track secretary James Dooley. The track reopened in 1938 and attracted the same huge crowds it drew before the "war". On September 19, 1942, the track hosted a match race between Triple Crown winner Whirlaway and 1942 Preakness Stakes winner Alsab.
The race was organized after members of the media accused track president James Dooley of concealing the fact that Alsab would not run against Whirlaway in the September 12 Narragansett Special until after a large crowd had come to the track. The race was attended by 35,000 people and all three major radio networks provided live coverage. Whirlaway entered the $25,000 match race a 3 to 10 favorite, while Alsab went off at 8 to 5. Alsab jumped out to an early
Sailing at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Sailing at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was held 29 July – 11 August at Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy in Weymouth. The 2012 sailing program consisted of a total of ten events. Eleven fleet races were scheduled off the coast at Weymouth Bay for each event, except for the 49er and the Elliott 6m classes. For the 49er class, a total of 16 races were scheduled. Of the 11 races, 10 were scheduled as the last one as medal race. For the Elliott 6m a series of match races was scheduled; the sailing was done on different types of courses. According to the IOC statutes the contests in all sport disciplines must be held either in, or as close as possible to the city which the IOC has chosen. Among others, an exception is made for the Olympic sailing events, which customarily must be staged on the open sea. On account of this principle and Portland was selected for the honor to carry out the Olympic yachting regattas. For that purpose the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy was reconstructed.
The land based part of the WPNSA includes: Administrative and game management center Media center The "Hangar" for measurement, social events and logistic center. National sailing center Craning and slipway facilities A total of five race areas were set on Weymouth Bay of the coast of the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy; the exclusion area was limited by a fictive line between the mainland. All racing took place within this exclusion zone; the five course areas were positioned according to the table below the map but could be moved anywhere within the exclusion zone. Fifty-seven nations qualified for the sailing events and a further six were allocated places not taken up by qualified nations to give a total of 63 nations participating; the only countries to have qualified in all events were France, New Zealand, the USA and the hosts, Great Britain. Africa Asia Oceania Europe North America South America "Digital Library Collection". Digital Library Collection at la84.org. La84foundation.
Retrieved 3 March 2014. "London 2012". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Sailing at the 2012 Summer Olympics at the UK Government Web Archive Sailing at the 2012 Summer Olympics at SR/Olympics