Mbeya is a city located in southwest Tanzania, Africa. Mbeya's urban population was 280,000 in 2005. Mbeya is the capital of the surrounding rural Mbeya region. Mbeya is the first large urban settlement encountered when travelling overland from the neighbouring nation of Zambia. Mbeya is situated at an altitude of 1,700 metres, sprawls through a narrow highland valley surrounded by a bowl of high mountains; the main language is colloquial Swahili, the English language is extensively taught in schools. Following the 1905 gold rush, Mbeya was founded as a gold mining town in the 1920s; the TAZARA railway attracting farming migrants and small entrepreneurs to the area. Mbeya and its district was administered by the British until 1961. Mbeya Region was created in 1961. Mbeya City is now a growing metropolis and business centre for the southern regions and the neighbouring countries of Malawi and Congo; the City is well connected with an all-weather road that forms part of the "Great North Road" running from Cape Town to Alexandria.
The City has several tribes including the Safwa, Nyakyusa and Ndali all being agricultural peoples. Mbeya boasts as one of the regions that form the bread basket of Tanzania. Local government is administered via a Regional Commissioner. Mbeya has weather with enough rainfall and fertile soil which enable it to be the largest producer of maize, bananas, potatoes, soya nuts and wheat in the entire country. Tanzania has a free market in agricultural produce, Mbeya transports vast amounts of its maize to other areas of Tanzania. There is extensive animal husbandry, with dairy cattle predominating. Mbeya is the biggest producer of high-value export and cash crops in Tanzania. There is some smallholder cultivation of tobacco. Firewood is collected from the wooded valleys and mountainsides. Bamboo is abundant in the forests, there are plans to teach local people about this versatile plant and its many uses; some gold is still mined by artisan miners. Mbeya is considered to be heading the Southern Highlands Regions, that's why there is a Mbeya Referral Hospital which serves the whole of the Southern Highlands regions.
The Bank of Tanzania, Mbeya Cement Company, Afri Bottlers Company Coca-Cola Company, SBC Tanzania Ltd Pepsi Cola Company, Tanzania Breweries Limited, NMB, TIB, Mbozi Coffee Curing Limited, Tukuyu Tea Company, Tanzania Oxygen Limited TOL - KYEJO, CRDB all these serve as zonal representative for southern Highlands. There are a number of companies and statutory organisations with zonal offices in Mbeya. Besides a growing number of secondary schools, Mbeya has some institutes of higher learning education. Among the better known ones are the following five: Teofilo Kisanji University is a young institution of the Moravian Church in Tanzania offering courses in theology, arts, sciences and educational studies, as well as training pastors. Since 2005, it has grown out of the earlier Moravian Theological College; the college is situated at Soweto suburb. Mbeya University of Science and Technology known as Mbeya institute of Science and Technology is a public institution offering degrees, advanced diplomas, ordinary diplomas in various engineering disciplines.
The College is at Iyunga area. Mzumbe University Mbeya Campus is situated in Forest area next to the Bank of Tanzania; this public University offers bachelor's degrees and diplomas in law and business, as well as providing evening programs in postgraduate studies. Saint Augustine University of Tanzania - Mbeya Campus College is situated in Forest area opposite to Tughimbe Hall; this University offers bachelor's degrees in education and Business administration, diploma in education, business administration information and communication technology, certificates in law and communication technology, business administration, grade IIIA and program in postgraduates studies. Tanzania Institute of Accountancy-Mbeya campus offering different course such as certificate in accountancy,diploma and degree in accountancy and other related course with business operation; the college is located around the main road of airport area. Institute providing postgraduate program. University of Dar es Mbeya College of Health and Allied Sciences.
This is a college of University of Dar es Salaam offering courses in health sciencies. Mbeya has a subtropical highland climate, with dry winters; the general range of temperature is 29 °C on the lowlands. The weather from June until October, is cold; the heaviest rainfall occurs during the months December to March. The area around Mbeya town enjoys abundant and reliable rainfall which stimulates abundant agriculture on the rich volcanic soils. Average rainfall per year is around 900 mm; the rainy season is from March to May. The area around Mbeya has been called the "Scotland of Africa"; the hills are clad in heather and bracken, but botanically they are more related to the Fynbos of South Africa's Western Cape Province than the Highlands of Scotland. The nearest mountain to Mbeya is Loleza Mountain, which rises behind the town. Mbeya Peak is visible but some distance away. Mount Rungwe is the highest mountain in the wider Mbeya region and it dominates the skyline for several kilometers around, it is composed of ten or more dormant volcanic domes.
Rising above the sma
Tanzania the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania; the first humans known lived in Pliocene Tanzania 6 million years ago. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them. In the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia.
These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 1,700 years ago. European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I; the mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania; the United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic and religious groups; the sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, some government ministries are located.
Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power. Tanzania is densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi; the eastern shore is humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area; the Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa. Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa; the country does not have a de jure official language.
Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, up to 90 percent speak it as a second language. The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar, it comprises the first three letters of the two states, "Tan" and "Zan" as well as the only two vowels in the names of two states, "I" and "a" to form Tanzania. The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga and nyika, creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness", it is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika. The name of Zanzibar comes from "zenji", the name for a local people, the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.
The indigenous populations of eastern Africa are thought to be the linguistically isolated Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia and Somalia into Tanzania, they are ancestral to the Iraqw and Burunge. Based on linguistic evidence, there may have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana. Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago; these movements took place at the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the p
A fishing village is a village located near a fishing ground, with an economy based on catching fish and harvesting seafood. The continents and islands around the world have coastlines totalling around 356,000 kilometres. From Neolithic times, these coastlines, as well as the shorelines of inland lakes and the banks of rivers, have been punctuated with fishing villages. Most surviving fishing villages are traditional. Coastal fishing villages are somewhat isolated, sited around a small natural harbour which provides safe haven for a village fleet of fishing boats; the village needs to provide a safe way of securing boats when they are not in use. Fishing villages may operate from a beach around lakes. For example, around parts of Lake Malawi, each fishing village has its own beach. If a fisherman from outside the village lands fish on the beach, he gives some of the fish to the village headman. Village fishing boats are characteristic of the stretch of coast along which they operate. Traditional fishing boats evolve over time to meet the local conditions, such as the materials available locally for boat building, the type of sea conditions the boats will encounter, the demands of the local fisheries.
Some villages move out onto the water itself, such as the floating fishing villages of Ha Long Bay in Vietnam, the stilt houses of Tai O built over tidal flats near Hong Kong, the kelong found in waters off Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia. Other fishing villages are built on floating islands, such as the Phumdi on Loktak Lake in India, the Uros on Lake Titicaca which borders Peru and Bolivia. Apart from catching fish, fishing villages support enterprises found in other types of village, such as village crafts, transport and health clinics and community water supplies. In addition, there are enterprises that are natural to fishing villages, such as fish processing and marketing, the building and maintenance of boats; until the 19th century, some villagers supplemented their incomes with smuggling. In less developed countries, some traditional fishing villages persist in ways that have changed little from earlier times. In more developed countries, traditional fishing villages are changing due to socioeconomic factors like industrial fishing and urbanization.
Over time, some fishing villages outgrow their original function as artisanal fishing villages. Seven hundred years ago, beside the Yangtze River delta, was a small fishing village. In recent times, fishing villages have been targeted for tourist and leisure enterprises. Recreational fishing and leisure boat pursuits can be big business these days, traditional fishing villages are well positioned to take advantage of this. For example, Destin on the coast of Florida, has evolved from an artisanal fishing village into a seaside resort dedicated to tourism with a large fishing fleet of recreational charter boats; the tourist appeal of fishing villages has become so big that the Korean government is purpose-building 48 fishing villages for their tourist drawing power. In 2004 China reported. Skara Brae on the west coast of the Orkney mainland, off Scotland, was a small Neolithic agricultural and fishing village with ten stone houses, it was occupied from about 3100 to 2500 BC, is Europe's most complete Neolithic village.
The ancient Lycian sunken village of Kaleköy in Turkey, dates from 400 BCE. Clovelly, a fishing hamlet north Devon coast of England, an early Saxon settlement, is listed in the Domesday Book. Kaunolu Village, a Hawaiian fishing village, is thought to date from about 1500 CE. Recent archaeological excavations of earlier fishing settlements are occurring at some pace. A fishing village excavated in Khanh Hoa, Vietnam, is thought be about 3,500 years old. Excavations on the biblical fishing village Bethsaida, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee and birthplace of the apostles Peter and Andrew, have shown that Bethsaida was established in the tenth century BCE. A Tongan fishing village excavated, appears to have been founded 2900 years ago; this makes it the oldest known settlement in Polynesia. Another recent excavation has been made of Walraversijde, a medieval fishing village on the coast of West Flanders in Belgium. Artisanal fishing Community-supported fishery Fishing stage List of fishing villages Newfoundland outport Norwegian Fishing Village Museum Traditional fishing boat Beare RJ and K E Rushoke Integrated Development of Fishing Villages in Kagera Region, Tanzania FAO, Rome.
Belcher, W. R; the Ethnoarchaeology of a Baluch Fishing Village. Archaeology of Seafaring: The Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period, Himanshu Prabha Ray ed. pp. 22–50. Drewes, Edeltraud Three Fishing Villages In Tamil Nadu - A Socio-Economic Study With Special Reference To The Role and Status of Women FAO Working Paper BOBP/WP/14. Rome McGoodwin JR Understanding the cultures of fishing communities. A key to fisheries management and food security FAO Fisheries, Technical Paper 401. ISBN 978-92-5-104606-7. Poonnachit-Korsieporn A Coastal fishing communities in Thailand FAO: Regional Office for Asia, Publication 2000/06. Rome. Seilert H and S Sangchan Small-Scale Fishery in Southeast Asia: A Case Study in Southern Thailand: Social and geographic background Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Publication 2001/19, FAO, Rome. Seilert H and S Sangchan Small-Scale Fishery in Southeast Asia: A Case Study in Southern Thailand: Fishing activities and their social implications Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Publication 2001/19, FAO, Rome.
Sciortino JA Construction and Maintenance of Artisanal Fishing Harbours and Villa
Lake Malawi known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is an African Great Lake and the southernmost lake in the East African Rift system, located between Malawi and Tanzania. It is the fourth largest fresh water lake in the world by volume, the ninth largest lake in the world by area—and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. Lake Malawi is home to more species of fish than any other lake, including at least 700 species of cichlids; the Mozambique portion of the lake was declared a reserve by the Government of Mozambique on June 10, 2011, while in Malawi a portion of the lake is included in Lake Malawi National Park. Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake; the permanent stratification of Lake Malawi's water and the oxic-anoxic boundary are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. Lake Malawi is between 560 kilometres and 580 kilometres long, about 75 kilometres wide at its widest point; the lake has a total surface area of about 29,600 square kilometres.
The lake is 706 m at its deepest point, located in a major depression in the north-central part. Another smaller depression in the far north reaches a depth of 528 m; the southern half of the lake is shallower. The lake has shorelines on western Mozambique, eastern Malawi, southern Tanzania; the largest river flowing into it is the Ruhuhu River, there is an outlet at its southern end, the Shire River, a tributary that flows into the large Zambezi River in Mozambique. Evaporation accounts for more than 80% of the water loss from the lake more than the outflowing Shire River; the lake is about 350 kilometres southeast of Lake Tanganyika, another of the great lakes of the East African Rift. The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the southern end of the lake. Malawi is one of an ancient lake; the lake lies in a valley formed by the opening of the East African Rift, where the African tectonic plate is being split into two pieces. This is called a divergent plate tectonics boundary. Malawi has been estimated to be 1—2 million years old, but more recent evidence points to a older lake with a basin that started to form about 8.6 mya and deep-water condition first appeared 4.5 mya.
The water levels have varied over time, ranging from 600 m below current level to 10–20 m above. During periods the lake dried out completely, leaving only one or two small alkaline and saline lakes in what are Malawi's deepest parts. A water chemistry resembling the current conditions only appeared about 60,000 years ago. Major low-water periods are estimated to have occurred about 1.6 to 1.0—0.57 million years ago, 420,000 to 250,000—110,000 years ago, about 25,000 years ago and 18,000–10,700 years ago. During the peak of the low-water period between 1390 and 1860 AD, it may have been 120–150 m below current water levels; the lake's water is alkaline and warm with a typical surface temperature between 24 and 29 °C, while deep sections are about 22 °C. The thermocline is located at a depth of 40–100 m; the oxygen limit is at a depth of 250 m restricting fish and other aerobic organisms to the upper part. The water is clear for a lake and the visibility can be up to 20 m, but less than half this figure is more common and it is below 3 m in muddy bays.
However during the rainy season months of January to March, the waters are more muddy due to muddy river inflows. The Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. David Livingstone reached the lake in 1859, named it Lake Nyasa, he referred to it by a pair of nicknames: Lake of Stars and Lake of Storms. The Lake of Stars nickname came after Livingstone observed lights from the lanterns of the fishermen in Malawi on their boats, that resemble, from a distance, stars in the sky. After experiencing the unpredictable and violent gales that sweep through the area he referred to it as the Lake of Storms. On 16 August 1914, Lake Malawi was the scene of a brief naval battle when the British gunboat SS Gwendolen, commanded by a Captain Rhoades, heard that World War I had broken out, he received orders from the British Empire's high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only gunboat on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt.
Rhoades's crew found the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near Sphinxhaven, in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disabled the German boat with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres; this brief gunboat conflict was hailed by The Times in England as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I. The partition of the lake's surface area between Malawi and Tanzania is under dispute. Tanzania claims. On the other hand, Malawi claims the whole of the surface of this lake, not in Mozambique, including the waters that are next to the shoreline of Tanzania. Both sides cite the Heligoland Treaty of 1890 between Great Britain and Germany concerning the border; the wrangle in this dispute occurred when the British colonial government, just after they had captured Tanganyika from Germany, placed all of the waters of the lake under a single jurisdiction, that of the territory of Nyasaland, without a sepa
Mbeya Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. It is located in the country's southwest; the regional capital is the city of Mbeya. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 2,707,410, lower than the pre-census projection of 2,822,396. For 2002-2012, the region's 2.7 percent average annual population growth rate was tied for the tenth highest in the country. It was tied for the eighteenth most densely populated region with 45 people per square kilometre. In 2016, the town of Tunduma and the districts of Ileje, Mbozi and Songwe were split from Mbeya Region to create Songwe Region. Mbeya Region is now bordered to the northwest by Tabora Region, to the northeast by Singida Region, to the east by Iringa Region, to the south by Songwe Region and Malawi, to the west by Songwe Region. Prior to the creation of Songwe Region, Mbeya Region covered an area of 62,420 square kilometres, it now covers an area of 35,954 square kilometres. The commissioner for Mbeya Region is Amos Gabriel Makalla.
In 2012, the region was administratively divided into eight districts: After the 2016 reorganization, Mbeya now comprises seven districts: Busokelo, Kyela, Mbeya City, Mbeya Rural, Rungwe. It was announced in February 2012 that the collapsed volcano 200 km north of Mbeya, Mount Ngualla, contained one of the largest rare earth oxide deposits in the world. Godfrey Mwakikagile Christopher Mwashinga Fadhy Mtanga Christopher Zacharia Lameck