Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, behavior through space and time, that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, chemistry and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics which are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies.
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have transformed modern-day society, such as television, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. Early civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization, had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun and stars; the stars and planets were worshipped, believed to represent gods. While the explanations for the observed positions of the stars were unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for astronomy, as the stars were found to traverse great circles across the sky, which however did not explain the positions of the planets. According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
Egyptian astronomers left monuments showing knowledge of the constellations and the motions of the celestial bodies, while Greek poet Homer wrote of various celestial objects in his Iliad and Odyssey. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period, when pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause, they proposed ideas verified by reason and observation, many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics. In the sixth century Isidore of Miletus created an important compilation of Archimedes' works that are copied in the Archimedes Palimpsest. In sixth century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noting its flaws.
He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until John Philoponus appeared, unlike Aristotle who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote: “But this is erroneous, our view may be corroborated by actual observation more than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a small one, and so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other”John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo cited Philoponus in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed. In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus, it was a step toward the modern ideas of momentum. Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method; the most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn al-Haytham, in which he conclusively disproved the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he presented a study of the phenomenon of the camera obscura (his thousand-year-old
Wolfram Demonstrations Project
The website is organized by topic: for example, mathematics, computer science, art and finance. They cover a variety of levels, from elementary school mathematics to much more advanced topics such as quantum mechanics and models of biological organisms; the site is aimed at both educators and students, as well as researchers who wish to present their ideas to the broadest possible audience. Wolfram Research's staff organizes and edits the Demonstrations, which may be created by any user of Mathematica freely published and downloaded; the Demonstrations are open-source, which means that they not only demonstrate the concept itself but show how to implement it. The use of the web to transmit small interactive programs is reminiscent of Sun's Java applets, Adobe's Flash, the open-source Processing. However, those creating Demonstrations have access to the algorithmic and visualization capabilities of Mathematica making it more suitable for technical demonstrations; the Demonstrations Project has similarities to user-generated content websites like Wikipedia and Flickr.
Its business model is similar to Adobe's Acrobat and Flash strategy of charging for development tools but providing a free reader. Official site
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.e. it is a type of read-only memory. During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software and data for computers and fourth generation video game consoles; some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data is only usable on a computer. The CD-ROM format was developed by Japanese company Denon in 1982, it was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a storage capacity of 553 MiB. CD-ROM was introduced by Denon and Sony at a Japanese computer show in 1984; the Yellow Book is the technical standard. One of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats, the Yellow Book, standardized by Sony and Philips in 1983, specifies a format for discs with a maximum capacity of 650 MiB. CD-ROMs are identical in appearance to audio CDs, data are stored and retrieved in a similar manner.
Discs are made from a 1.2 mm thick disc of polycarbonate plastic, with a thin layer of aluminium to make a reflective surface. The most common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter, though the smaller Mini CD standard with an 80 mm diameter, as well as shaped compact discs in numerous non-standard sizes and molds, are available. Data is stored on the disc as a series of microscopic indentations. A laser is shone onto the reflective surface of the disc to read the pattern of lands; because the depth of the pits is one-quarter to one-sixth of the wavelength of the laser light used to read the disc, the reflected beam's phase is shifted in relation to the incoming beam, causing destructive interference and reducing the reflected beam's intensity. This is converted into binary data. Several formats are used for data stored on compact discs, known as the Rainbow Books; the Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, standardized in 1989 as the ISO/IEC 10149 / ECMA-130 standard.
The CD-ROM standard builds on top of the original Red Book CD-DA standard for CD audio. Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, further define formats based on the CD-ROM specifications; the Yellow Book itself is not available, but the standards with the corresponding content can be downloaded for free from ISO or ECMA. There are several standards that define how to structure data files on a CD-ROM. ISO 9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM. ISO 13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions; the ISO 13346 standard was designed to address most of the shortcomings of ISO 9660, a subset of it evolved into the UDF format, adopted for DVDs. The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, is called El Torito. Data stored on CD-ROMs follows the standard CD data encoding techniques described in the Red Book specification.
This includes cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, eight-to-fourteen modulation, the use of pits and lands for coding the bits into the physical surface of the CD. The structures used to group data on a CD-ROM are derived from the Red Book. Like audio CDs, a CD-ROM sector contains 2,352 bytes of user data, composed of 98 frames, each consisting of 33-bytes. Unlike audio CDs, the data stored in these sectors corresponds to any type of digital data, not audio samples encoded according to the audio CD specification. To structure and protect this data, the CD-ROM standard further defines two sector modes, Mode 1 and Mode 2, which describe two different layouts for the data inside a sector. A track inside a CD-ROM only contains sectors in the same mode, but if multiple tracks are present in a CD-ROM, each track can have its sectors in a different mode from the rest of the tracks, they can coexist with audio CD tracks as well, the case of mixed mode CDs. Both Mode 1 and 2 sectors use the first 16 bytes for header information, but differ in the remaining 2,336 bytes due to the use of error correction bytes.
Unlike an audio CD, a CD-ROM cannot rely on error concealment by interpolation. To achieve improved error correction and detection, Mode 1, used for digital data, adds a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check code for error detection, a third layer of Reed–Solomon error correction using a Reed-Solomon Product-like Code. Mode 1 therefore contains 288 bytes per sector for error detection and correction, leaving 2,048 bytes per sector available for data. Mode 2, more appropriate for image or video data, contains no additional error detection or correction bytes, having therefore 2,336 available data bytes per sector. Note that both modes, like audio CDs, still benefit from the lower layers of error correction at the frame level. Before being stored on a disc with the techniques described above, each CD-ROM sector is scrambled to prevent some problematic patterns from showing up; these scrambled sectors follow the same encoding process described in the Red Book in order to be stored
Theodore W. "Theo" Gray is a co-founder of Wolfram Research, science author, co-founder of app developer Touch Press. Theodore Gray was educated at the University of Illinois Laboratory High School, he would graduate with a B. S. in chemistry from University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1986. In 1987, Gray left a PhD program in theoretical chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley to work with Stephen Wolfram. In that same year, he co-founded Wolfram Research, his initial work for the company involved creating the user interface for Mathematica. Gray would leave Wolfram Research to become a writer and publisher full-time. After amassing thousands of samples of elements, he assembled them into a four-legged physical table representing the periodic table; the finished table was awarded the 2011 ACS Grady Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public, as well as the 2002 Ig Nobel Award for Chemistry. Gray's love of the periodic table would lead him to team up with photographer Nick Mann in creating The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe and Elements Vault.
For many years, Gray wrote a regular column for Popular Science entitled "Gray Matter." The column was a finalist for a National Magazine Award for Best Column in 2010. In 2009, a collection of articles by Gray was published under the title Mad Science: Experiments You Can Do at Home—But Probably Shouldn't. A sequel to the book, Mad Science 2: Experiments You Can Do At Home, But STILL Probably Shouldn't was published in 2013. In 2010, Gray founded Touch Press together with Max Whitby, John Cromie and Stephen Wolfram shortly after the announcement of the launch of the iPad; the company was created to develop innovative educational apps using the technology of the iPad to its full potential. The first published app was "The Elements," and in 2014 Gray released "Molecules", which allows users to touch and discover the basic building blocks of the world. Of Touch Press's "Disney Animated,", named the best iPad app of 2013 worldwide by Apple, iTunes's App Editor noted, "We’re spellbound."He has developed a range of acrylic "Mechanical Gifs" to show "how common and uncommon machines, mechanisms and devices work."In July 2018, Gray was invited to Beijing on behalf of The Newton Project by its founder, Jizhe Xu, to serve as a consulting advisor.
Throughout his career, Gray has been an advocate for a broader engagement between the scientific community and the public at large. Reactions: An Illustrated Exploration of Elements and Change in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2017, 240pp. ISBN 978-0316391221 Molecules: The Elements and the Architecture of Everything, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2014, 240pp. ISBN 1-57912-971-4 Theodore Gray's Elements Vault: Treasures of the Periodic Table with Removable Archival Documents and Real Element Samples—Including Pure Gold! Black Dog & Leventhal, 2011, 128pp. ISBN 1-57912-880-7 The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009, 240pp. ISBN 1-57912-814-9 Theo Gray's Mad Science: Experiments You Can Do At Home—But Probably Shouldn't, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009, 240pp. ISBN 1-57912-791-6 The Beginner's Guide to Mathematica Version 3, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 355pp. LSBN 0521622026 Theo Gray's Mad Science 2: Experiments You Can Do At Home, But STILL Probably Shouldn't, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2013, 240pp.
ISBN 1-57912-932-3 Amateur chemistry Ig Nobel Prize Winners Stephen Wolfram Touch Press Personal website Periodictable.com Mechanical Gifs official website Amazon author page Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers "Theodore Gray: Element enthusiast talks about making a periodic table for the 21st century" by Bethany Halford. C&EN, 26 November 2007, page 50. Periodic Table display makes the elements more than elemental by Greg Kline, The News-Gazette, November 27, 2003. Science Friday interview with Theodore Gray, July 2002. Steve Jobs's Apple Keynote Speech, Theodore Gray appearance, 2005
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a public research university in Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana; the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2017, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $642 million; the campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States by holdings after Harvard University. The university hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus; the university contains 16 schools and colleges and offers more than 150 undergraduate and over 100 graduate programs of study.
The university holds 651 buildings on 6,370 acres and its annual operating budget in 2016 was over $2 billion. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign operates a Research Park home to innovation centers for over 90 start-up companies and multinational corporations, including Abbott, AbbVie, Capital One, State Farm, Yahoo, among others; as of October 2018, 30 Nobel laureates, 2 Turing Award winners, 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. The University of Illinois named "Illinois Industrial University", was one of the 37 universities created under the first Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided public land for the creation of agricultural and industrial colleges and universities across the United States. Among several cities, Urbana was selected in 1867 as the site for the new school. From the beginning, President John Milton Gregory's desire to establish an institution grounded in the liberal arts tradition was at odds with many state residents and lawmakers who wanted the university to offer classes based around "industrial education".
The university opened for classes on March 2, 1868, had two faculty members and 77 students. The Library, which opened with the school in 1868, started with 1,039 volumes. Subsequently, President Edmund J. James, in a speech to the board of trustees in 1912, proposed to create a research library, it is now one of the world's largest public academic collections. In 1870, the Mumford House was constructed as a model farmhouse for the school's experimental farm; the Mumford House remains the oldest structure on campus. The original University Hall was the fourth building built. In 1885, the Illinois Industrial University changed its name to the "University of Illinois", reflecting its agricultural and liberal arts curriculum. During his presidency, Edmund J. James is credited for building the foundation for the large Chinese international student population on campus. James established ties with China through the Chinese Minister to the United States Wu Ting-Fang. In addition, during James's presidency, class rivalries and Bob Zuppke's winning football teams contributed to campus morale.
Alma Mater, a prominent statue on campus created by alumnus Lorado Taft, was unveiled on June 11, 1929. It was established from donations by the Alumni Fund and the classes of 1923–1929. Like many Universities, the economic depression slowed expansion on the campus; the university replaced the original university hall with the Illini Union. After World War II, the university experienced rapid growth; the enrollment doubled and the academic standing improved. This period was marked by large growth in the Graduate College and increased federal support of scientific and technological research. During the 1950s and 1960s the university experienced the turmoil common on many American campuses. Among these were the water fights of the fifties and sixties. By 1967 the University of Illinois system consisted of a main campus in Champaign-Urbana and two Chicago campuses, Chicago Circle and Medical Center, people began using "Urbana–Champaign" or the reverse to refer to the main campus specifically; the university name changed to the "University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign" around 1982, using the reverse of the used designation for the metropolitan area, "Champaign-Urbana".
The name change established a separate identity for the main campus within the University of Illinois system, which today includes campuses in Springfield and Chicago. In 1998, the Hallene Gateway Plaza was dedicated; the Plaza features the original sandstone portal of University Hall, the fourth building on campus. In recent years, state support has declined from 4.5% of the state's tax appropriations in 1980 to 2.28% in 2011, a nearly 50% decline. As a result, the university's budget has shifted away from relying on state support with nearly 84% of the budget now coming from other sources. On March 12, 2015, the Board of Trustees approved the creation of a medical school, being the first college created at Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years; the Carle-Illinois College of Medicine began classes in 2018. The main research and academic facilities are divided evenly between the twin cities of Urbana and Champaign, which form part of the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area; the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences' research fields stretch south from Urbana and Champaign into Savoy and Champaign County.
All rights reserved
"All rights reserved" is a copyright formality indicating that the copyright holder reserves, or holds for its own use, all the rights provided by copyright law. Originating in the Buenos Aires Convention of 1910, it is unclear if it has any legal effect in any jurisdiction. However, it is still used by many copyright holders; the phrase originated as a result of the Buenos Aires Convention of 1910. Article 3 of the Convention granted copyright in all signatory countries to a work registered in any signatory country, as long as a statement "that indicates the reservation of the property right" appeared in the work; the phrase "all rights reserved" met this requirement. Other copyright treaties did not require this formality. For example, in 1952 the Universal Copyright Convention adopted the © symbol as an indicator of protection; the Berne Convention rejected formalities altogether in Article 4 of the 1908 revision, so authors seeking to protect their works in countries that had signed on to the Berne Convention were not required to use the "all rights reserved" formulation.
However, because not all Buenos Aires signatories were members of Berne or the UCC, in particular the United States did not join UCC until 1955, a publisher in a Buenos Aires signatory seeking to protect a work in the greatest number of countries between 1910 and 1952 would have used both the phrase "all rights reserved" and the copyright symbol. The requirement to add the "all rights reserved" notice became obsolete on August 23, 2000, when Nicaragua became the final member of the Buenos Aires Convention to become a signatory to the Berne Convention; as of that date, every country, a member of the Buenos Aires Convention was a member of Berne, which requires protection be granted without any formality of notice of copyright. The phrase continues to hold popular currency and serves as a handy convention used by artists and content creators to prevent ambiguity and spell out the warning that their content cannot be copied freely. Copyright formalities Copyright notice Creative Commons, which uses Some rights reserved Public domain