1.
Magic (illusion)
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Magic is one of the oldest performing arts in the world in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats using natural means. These feats are called magic tricks, effects, or illusions, the term magic etymologically derives from the Greek word mageia. In ancient times, Greeks and Persians had been at war for centuries, ritual acts of Persian priests came to be known as mageia, and then magika—which eventually came to mean any foreign, unorthodox, or illegitimate ritual practice. The first book containing explanations of magic tricks appeared in 1584, during the 17th century, many similar books were published that described magic tricks. Until the 18th century, magic shows were a source of entertainment at fairs. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, John Henry Anderson was pioneering the same transition in London in the 1840s. Towards the end of the 19th century, large magic shows permanently staged at big theatre venues became the norm, as a form of entertainment, magic easily moved from theatrical venues to television magic specials. Performances that modern observers would recognize as conjuring have been practiced throughout history, for many recorded centuries, magicians were associated with the devil and the occult. During the 19th and 20th centuries, many stage magicians even capitalized on this notion in their advertisements. The same level of ingenuity that was used to produce famous ancient deceptions such as the Trojan Horse would also have used for entertainment. They were also used by the practitioners of various religions and cults from ancient times onwards to frighten uneducated people into obedience or turn them into adherents, however, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in the 18th century, and has enjoyed several popular vogues since. Opinions vary among magicians on how to categorize a given effect, Magicians may pull a rabbit from an empty hat, make something seem to disappear, or transform a red silk handkerchief into a green silk handkerchief. Magicians may also destroy something, like cutting a head off, other illusions include making something appear to defy gravity, making a solid object appear to pass through another object, or appearing to predict the choice of a spectator. Many magical routines use combinations of effects, one of the earliest books on the subject is Gantzionys work of 1489, Natural and Unnatural Magic, which describes and explains old-time tricks. Among the tricks discussed were sleight-of-hand manipulations with rope, paper, at the time, fear and belief in witchcraft was widespread and the book tried to demonstrate that these fears were misplaced. All obtainable copies were burned on the accession of James I in 1603 and it began to reappear in print in 1651. In the early 18th century, as belief in witchcraft was waning, a notable figure in this transition was the English showman, Isaac Fawkes, who began to promote his act in advertisements from the 1720s – he even claimed to have performed for King George II. He throws up a Pack of Cards, and causes them to be living birds flying about the room and he causes living Beasts, Birds, and other Creatures to appear upon the Table

2.
Arthur T. Benjamin
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Arthur T. Benjamin is an American mathematician who specializes in combinatorics. Since 1989 he has been a professor of mathematics at Harvey Mudd College and he is known for mental math capabilities and Mathemagics performances in front of live audiences. His mathematical abilities have been highlighted in newspaper and magazine articles, at TED Talks, Benjamin earned a Bachelor of Science degree with highest honors in applied mathematics at Carnegie Mellon University in 1983. He then went on to receive a Master of Science degree in 1985 and his PhD dissertation was titled Turnpike Structures for Optimal Maneuvers, and was supervised by Alan J. Goldman. During his freshman year at CMU he wrote the lyrics and created the effects for the musical comedy, Kije. in collaboration with author Scott McGregor. This musical was the winner of a competition and was first performed as the CMUs Spring Musical in 1980. Benjamin held several positions while attending university, including stints with the National Bureau of Standards, the National Security Agency. Upon receipt of his PhD he was hired as an assistant professor of mathematics at Harvey Mudd College and he is currently a full professor at Harvey Mudd and was chair of the mathematics department from 2002 to 2004. He has published over 90 academic papers and five books and he served as co-editor of Math Horizons magazine for five years. Benjamin has long had an interest in magic, while in college he honed his skills as a magician and attended magic conferences. At one of these conferences he met well-known magician and skeptic James Randi, Randi invited him to perform his mathematical tricks on a television program called Exploring Psychic Powers Live, co-hosted by Uri Geller. Randi also encouraged Benjamin to become involved in the skeptical movement. He attended early meetings of the Southern California Skeptics in the 1990s and it was at these meetings that he met Skeptics Society President Michael Shermer, who would later become a co-author on three of Benjamins books. Benjamin regularly performs his Mathemagics program for live audiences at schools, colleges, conferences, the first, in 2005, was a demonstration of his Mathemagics show. The second, in 2009, was a plea for improved education in schools. He has appeared on television programs throughout the years, including a notable performance on the Colbert Report in 2010. He has been profiled in over 100 articles in such as the New York Times, People Magazine, USA Today. Mental calculators Mental calculations Mental Calculation World Cup Arthur Benjamins Home Page Arthur Benjamin at TED Arthur Benjamin on the Colbert Report

3.
Richard Feynman
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For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Sinichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Feynman developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles, during his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World he was ranked as one of the ten greatest physicists of all time. Along with his work in physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing. Tolman professorship in physics at the California Institute of Technology. They were not religious, and by his youth, Feynman described himself as an avowed atheist, like Albert Einstein and Edward Teller, Feynman was a late talker, and by his third birthday had yet to utter a single word. He retained a Brooklyn accent as an adult and that accent was thick enough to be perceived as an affectation or exaggeration – so much so that his good friends Wolfgang Pauli and Hans Bethe once commented that Feynman spoke like a bum. The young Feynman was heavily influenced by his father, who encouraged him to ask questions to challenge orthodox thinking, from his mother, he gained the sense of humor that he had throughout his life. As a child, he had a talent for engineering, maintained a laboratory in his home. When he was in school, he created a home burglar alarm system while his parents were out for the day running errands. When Richard was five years old, his mother gave birth to a brother, Henry Philips. Four years later, Richards sister Joan was born, and the moved to Far Rockaway. Though separated by nine years, Joan and Richard were close and their mother thought that women did not have the cranial capacity to comprehend such things. Despite their mothers disapproval of Joans desire to study astronomy, Richard encouraged his sister to explore the universe, Joan eventually became an astrophysicist specializing in interactions between the Earth and the solar wind. Feynman attended Far Rockaway High School, a school in Far Rockaway, Queens, upon starting high school, Feynman was quickly promoted into a higher math class. A high-school-administered IQ test estimated his IQ at 125—high, but merely respectable according to biographer James Gleick and his sister Joan did better, allowing her to claim that she was smarter. Years later he declined to join Mensa International, saying that his IQ was too low, physicist Steve Hsu stated of the test, I suspect that this test emphasized verbal, as opposed to mathematical, ability. Feynman received the highest score in the United States by a margin on the notoriously difficult Putnam mathematics competition exam

4.
Ronald Graham
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He has done important work in scheduling theory, computational geometry, Ramsey theory, and quasi-randomness. Graham was born in Taft, California, in 1962, he received his Ph. D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley and began working at Bell Labs and later AT&T Labs. He was director of information sciences in AT&T Labs, but retired from AT&T in 1999 after 37 years and his 1977 paper considered a problem in Ramsey theory, and gave a large number as an upper bound for its solution. Graham popularized the concept of the Erdős number, named after the highly prolific Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős, a scientists Erdős number is the minimum number of coauthored publications away from a publication with Erdős. He co-authored almost 30 papers with Erdős, and was also a good friend, Erdős often stayed with Graham, and allowed him to look after his mathematical papers and even his income. Graham and Erdős visited the young mathematician Jon Folkman when he was hospitalized with brain cancer, between 1993 and 1994 Graham served as the president of the American Mathematical Society. He has published about 320 papers and five books, including Concrete Mathematics with Donald Knuth and he is married to Fan Chung Graham, who is the Akamai Professor in Internet Mathematics at the University of California, San Diego. He has four children, daughters Ché, Laura and Christy, in 2003, Graham won the American Mathematical Societys annual Steele Prize for Lifetime Achievement. The prize was awarded on January 16 that year, at the Joint Mathematics Meetings in Baltimore, in 1999 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Graham has won other prizes over the years, he was one of the laureates of the prestigious Pólya Prize the first year it was ever awarded. And the Carl Allendoerfer prize which was established in 1976 for the reasons, however for a different magazine. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society, with Paul Erdős, Old and new results in combinatorial number theory. L’Enseignement Mathématique,1980 with Fan Chung, Erdős on Graphs, a. K. Peters,1998 with Jaroslav Nešetřil, The mathematics of Paul Erdős. Springer,1997 Rudiments of Ramsey Theory, American Mathematical Society,1981 with Donald E. Knuth & Oren Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics, a foundation for computer science. Addison-Wesley,1989,1994 with Joel H, spencer & Bruce L. Rothschild, Ramsey Theory. Wiley,1980,1990 with Martin Grötschel & László Lovász, Handbook of Combinatorics

5.
Martin Gardner
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He was considered a leading authority on Lewis Carroll. The Annotated Alice, which incorporated the text of Carrolls two Alice books, was his most successful work and sold over a million copies and he had a lifelong interest in magic and illusion and was regarded as one of the most important magicians of the twentieth century. He was considered the dean of American puzzlers and he was a prolific and versatile author, publishing more than 100 books. Gardner was one of the foremost anti-pseudoscience polemicists of the 20th century and his book Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science, published in 1957, became a classic and seminal work of the skeptical movement. In 1976 he joined with fellow skeptics to found CSICOP, an organization promoting scientific inquiry, Gardner, son of a petroleum geologist, grew up in and around Tulsa, Oklahoma. His lifelong interest in puzzles started in his boyhood when his father gave him a copy of Sam Loyds Cyclopedia of 5000 Puzzles, Tricks and he attended the University of Chicago, where he earned his bachelors degree in philosophy in 1936. Early jobs included reporter on the Tulsa Tribune, writer at the University of Chicago Office of Press Relations, during World War II, he served for four years in the U. S. Navy as a yeoman on board the destroyer escort USS Pope in the Atlantic. His ship was still in the Atlantic when the war came to an end with the surrender of Japan in August 1945, after the war, Gardner returned to the University of Chicago. He attended graduate school for a year there, but he did not earn an advanced degree, in 1950 he wrote an article in the Antioch Review entitled The Hermit Scientist. His paper-folding puzzles at that magazine led to his first work at Scientific American, appropriately enough—given his interest in logic and mathematics—they lived on Euclid Avenue. The year 1960 saw the edition of his best-selling book ever. In 1979, Gardner retired from Scientific American and he and his wife Charlotte moved to Hendersonville and he also revised some of his older books such as Origami, Eleusis, and the Soma Cube. Charlotte died in 2000 and two years later Gardner returned to Norman, Oklahoma, where his son, James Gardner, was a professor of education at the University of Oklahoma and he died there on May 22,2010. An autobiography — Undiluted Hocus-Pocus, The Autobiography of Martin Gardner — was published posthumously, the main-belt asteroid 2587 Gardner discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell at Anderson Mesa Station in 1980 is named after Martin Gardner. Martin Gardner had a impact on mathematics in the second half of the 20th century. His column was called Mathematical Games but it was more than that. His writing introduced many readers to real mathematics for the first time in their lives, the column lasted for 25 years and was read avidly by the generation of mathematicians and physicists who grew up in the years 1956 to 1981. It was the inspiration for many of them to become mathematicians or scientists themselves

6.
Mathematician
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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, one of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, the number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was All is number. It was the Pythagoreans who coined the term mathematics, and with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins, the first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria. She succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote works on applied mathematics. Because of a dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked. Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and it was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. As these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences, an example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were often polymaths. Examples include the work on optics, maths and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham, the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on mathematics and science to Europe. As time passed, many gravitated towards universities. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking. ”Thus, seminars, overall, science became the focus of universities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge. ”Mathematicians usually cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, and then proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level. In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of an understanding of mathematics, the students, who pass, are permitted to work on a doctoral dissertation. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their knowledge and professional methodology. With professional focus on a variety of problems, theoretical systems

7.
Persi Diaconis
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Persi Warren Diaconis is an American mathematician of Greek descent and former professional magician. He is the Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics at Stanford University and he is particularly known for tackling mathematical problems involving randomness and randomization, such as coin flipping and shuffling playing cards. Professor Diaconis received a MacArthur Fellowship in 1982, interestingly, when entropy is viewed as the probabilistic distance, riffle shuffling seems to take less time to mix, and the threshold phenomenon goes away. Diaconis has coauthored several more recent papers expanding on his 1992 results, among other things, they showed that the separation distance of an ordered blackjack deck drops below.5 after 7 shuffles. Separation distance is a bound for variation distance. He returned to school, learned to read Feller, and became a mathematical probabilist, according to Martin Gardner, at school, Diaconis supported himself by playing poker on ships between New York and South America. Gardner recalls that Diaconis had fantastic second deal and bottom deal, Diaconis is married to Stanford statistics professor Susan Holmes. 1982 – Awarded a MacArthur Fellowship 1982 – Awarded the Rollo Davidson Prize,1995 – Elected to the National Academy of Sciences 1997 – Gibbs Lecturer, American Mathematical Society. 2003 – Received an honorary D. Sci. degree from the University of Chicago,2006 – Awarded the Van Wijngaarden Award. 2012 – Awarded the Levi L. Conant Prize,2012 – Fellow of the American Mathematical Society 2013 – Received an Honorary Degree from the University of St Andrews. Group representations in probability and statistics, theories of data analysis, from magical thinking through classical statistics, in Hoaglin, D. C. Exploring Data Tables Trends and Shapes, freedman–Diaconis rule Patience sorting Random walk Mathemagician Interview, Persi Diaconis discusses his life, magic and mathematics on the 7th Avenue Project radio show

8.
Mentalism
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Mentalism is a performing art in which its practitioners, known as mentalists, appear to demonstrate highly developed mental or intuitive abilities. Performances may appear to include hypnosis, telepathy, clairvoyance, divination, precognition, psychokinesis, mediumship, mind control, memory feats, deduction, Mentalists are sometimes categorized as psychic entertainers, although that category also contains non-mentalist performers such as psychic readers and bizzarists. Much of what modern mentalists perform in their acts can be traced directly to tests of supernatural power that were carried out by mediums, spiritualists. However, the history of mentalism goes back even further, accounts of seers and oracles can be found in works by the ancient Greeks and in the Old Testament of the Bible. Among magicians, the mentalism performance generally cited as one of the earliest on record was by diplomat, the performance of mentalism may utilize these principles along with sleights, feints, misdirection and other skills of street or stage magic. Styles of presentation can vary greatly, traditional performers such as Dunninger and Annemann attributed their results to supernatural or psychic skills. Others, including Chan Canasta and David Berglas would make no specific claims, contemporary mentalists often take their shows onto the streets and perform tricks to a live, unsuspecting audience. They do this by approaching random members of the public and ask to demonstrate their supernatural powers, Mentalists generally do not mix standard magic tricks with their mental feats. Doing so associates mentalism too closely with the trickery employed by stage magicians. Many mentalists claim not to be magicians at all, arguing that it is a different art form altogether, mentalism plays on the senses and a spectators perception of tricks. Magicians ask the audience to suspend their belief and allow their imagination to play with the tricks they present. However, many magicians mix mentally-themed performance with magic illusions, for example, a mind-reading stunt might also involve the magical transposition of two different objects. Such hybrid feats of magic are called mental magic by performers. Magicians who routinely mix magic with mental magic include David Copperfield, David Blaine, The Amazing Kreskin, mentalism techniques have, on occasion, been allegedly used outside the entertainment industry to influence the actions of prominent people for personal and/or political gain. Eric Dittelman, a reader, performed on Season 7 of the NBC talent competition Americas Got Talent. He made it to the semifinals, and was the first mentalist to be featured on the show, cristian Gog, a mentalist, won the big prize on Romanias Got Talent. Psych, an American criminal comedy television series in which the character, Shawn Spencer. Though he purports to be a psychic, the truth is that his observational skills, amazing vision

9.
Max Maven
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Max Maven is an American magician and mentalist. He often appears on television shows to perform interactive mind reading tricks that work for the television audience. While his public persona and performances fall squarely within the genre of mentalism and he is respected within the industry for being a prolific author and innovating many of the magical and mentalist effects that are used by other magicians. He has also been the magician at the annual conventions of both the Society of American Magicians and the International Brotherhood of Magicians. He hosted a 12-part series for HTV in Britain, Something Strange with Max Maven, the show set a ratings record, and led to a second series the following year. He also starred as the role in FOXs 1992 Halloween special Count DeClues Mystery Castle. It was shot at The Magic Castle, Maven occasionally plays a magician character on various television series, such as, Magic, The Art of Magic, Something Strange with Max Maven, Fresh Prince of Bel Air, and The MAXimum Dimension. His father, Jack Goldstein, was a professor of Astrophysics, the finance blogger Emma Needleman is his cousin. Having performed often in Japan, he is quite functional in Japanese, Maven also appears as a part of the traveling science exhibit Magic, The Science of Illusion in the Magic of the Mind Illusion, which has toured in science museums such as Los Angeles and Boston. His name has been changed legally to Max Maven but he still uses Phil Goldstein as a pen name for technical writings, in 2007, he won The Magic Woods Award for Best Teaching Video for his mentalism DVD Nothing. He has appeared on the cover of numerous magic-related journals and periodicals, recently he has started his own show on Israels Channel 2, licensed version of Penn & Teller, Fool Us called Mi Yapil Et Ha Master. Maven is well respected amongst magicians for his breadth of knowledge of magic history and he has stated in interviews that he believes it is vital to preserve the history of the art and provide credit to the originators of ideas. The Magic Woods Award for Best Teaching Video,2007 MINDvention Lifetime Achievement Award,2015 Max Mavens Book of Fortunetelling,1992, ISBN 0-13-564121-7 Max Mavens Mindgames VideoMind - Phases 1-3, Mentalism Official website Max Maven at the Internet Movie Database Interview with Max Maven

10.
Math Horizons
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Math Horizons is a magazine aimed at undergraduates interested in mathematics, published by the Mathematical Association of America. It publishes expository articles about beautiful mathematics as well as articles about the culture of mathematics covering mathematical people, institutions, humor, games, cartoons, and book reviews. The MAA gives the Trevor Evans Awards annually to authors of articles that are accessible to undergraduates that are published in Math Horizons. The Edge of the Universe, Celebrating Ten Years of Math Horizons

11.
International Standard Book Number
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The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker