Washington and Lee University
Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia. Established in 1749, the university is a colonial-era college and the ninth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Washington and Lee's 325-acre campus sits at the edge of Lexington and abuts the campus of the Virginia Military Institute in the Shenandoah Valley region between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Allegheny Mountains; the campus is 50 miles northeast from Roanoke, 140 miles west from the state capital of Richmond, 180 miles inland southwest from the national capital at Washington, D. C. Washington and Lee was founded as a small classical school named Augusta Academy by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers, though the University has never claimed any sectarian affiliation. In 1796, shortly before the end of his second term as American President, George Washington endowed the struggling academy with a gift of stock, one of the largest gifts to an educational institution at that time.
In gratitude, the school was renamed for the commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, president at the Federal Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia, framer of the American Constitution, the first President of the United States. In 1865, shortly after his April 9 surrender to Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union Armies, former Confederate States Army General-in-Chief Robert E. Lee was called and served as president of the college for five years until his death in 1870, when the college was thereafter renamed the "Washington and Lee University". One of the oldest institutions of higher education in the American South, W&L is the second-oldest in the Commonwealth of Virginia; the University consists of three academic units: The College itself. The University hosts 24 intercollegiate varsity athletic teams which compete as part of the Old Dominion Athletic Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the classical school from which Washington and Lee descended was established in 1749 by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers and soon named Augusta Academy, about 20 miles north of its present location.
In 1776, it was renamed Liberty Hall in a burst of revolutionary fervor. The academy moved to Lexington in 1780, when it was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy, built its first facility near town in 1782; the academy granted its first bachelor's degree in 1785. Liberty Hall is said to have admitted its first African-American student when John Chavis, a free black, enrolled in 1795. Chavis accomplished much in his life including fighting in the American Revolution, studying at both Liberty Hall and the College of New Jersey, becoming an ordained Presbyterian minister, opening a school that instructed white and poor black students in North Carolina, he is believed to be the first black student to enroll in higher education in the United States, although he did not receive a degree. Washington and Lee enrolled its next African-American student in 1966 in the law school. In 1796, George Washington endowed the academy with $20,000 in James River Canal stock, at the time one of the largest gifts given to an educational institution in the United States.
Washington's gift continues to provide nearly $1.87 a year toward every student's tuition. The gift rescued Liberty Hall from near-certain insolvency. In gratitude, the trustees changed the school's name to Washington Academy. An 8-foot tall statue of George Washington, carved by Matthew Kahle and known as Old George, was placed atop Washington Hall on the historic Colonnade in 1844 in memory of Washington's gift; the current statue is made of bronze. The campus took its current architectural form in the 1820s when a local merchant, "Jockey" John Robinson, an uneducated Irish immigrant, donated funds to build a central building. For the dedication celebration in 1824, Robinson supplied a huge barrel of whiskey, which he intended for the dignitaries in attendance, but according to a contemporary history, the rabble broke through the barriers and created pandemonium, which ended only when college officials demolished the whiskey barrel with an axe. A justice of the Virginia State Supreme Court, Alex.
M. Harman, Jr. re-created the episode in 1976 for the dedication of the new law school building by having several barrels of Scotch imported. Robinson left his estate to Washington College; the estate included between 70 and 80 slaves. Until 1852, the institution benefited from their enslaved labor and, in some cases, from their sale. In 2014, Washington and Lee University joined such colleges as Harvard University, Brown University, the University of Virginia, The College of William & Mary in researching and publicly regretting their participation in the institution of slavery. During the Civil War, the students of Washington College raised the Confederate flag in support of Virginia's secession; the students formed the Liberty Hall Volunteers, as part of the Stonewall Brigade under General Stonewall Jackson and marched from Lexington. In the war, during Hunter's Raid, Union Captain Henry A. du Pont refused to destroy the Colonnade due to its support of the statue of George Washington, Old George.
After the Civil War, General Robert E. Lee turned down several financially tantalizing offers of
National Library of Romania
The National Library of Romania is the national library of Romania. It is intended to be the repository of all, published in Romania; the roots of the library can be found at Saint Sava College library. Saint Sava College library was opened in 1859. After 1859 Union, the library has reach the national statute In 1864 the library was named Central Library of the State. In 1901 all the collections were ceased to the Romanian Academy Library; as a result, from 1901 to 1955, the Romanian Academy Library has achieved the national attribute. In 1955, the State Central library was organised. In 1989 after the collapse of the communist regime the State Central Library was once again renamed to Biblioteca Naţională a României. In 1986, a new, larger location began to be built for the library, between Piaţa Unirii and Nerva Traian; the initial lead architect was Cezar Lăzărescu. Shortly after 1989, although some parts of the building were finished or in an advanced state, due to lack of funding, the construction had stalled for several years.
In 2009 the project was reassigned to the Ministry of Culture, which completed the construction in 2011 and set the official opening date to take place in 2012. The National Library is a cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture, its goal is to administer the national patrimony of publications, by purchasing and preserving documents and making them available to the public, for research or personal study. It has several special collections, including: Bibliofilie.
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
National Central Library
The National Central Library is the national library of Taiwan, Republic of China, which it is located at No. 20, Zhongshan S. Rd. Zhongzheng District, Taipei City 10001, Taiwan; the National Central Library is the sole national library of Taiwan. Its mission is to acquire and preserve national publications for government and general public use; the Rare Books Collection is one of the leading collections of Chinese antique books and manuscripts in the world. The library assists research, sponsors educational activities, promotes librarianship, carries out international exchange activities, strengthens cooperation between domestic and foreign libraries; the library supports Sinological research through the affiliated Center for Chinese Studies. As a research library, the NCL encourages staff members to conduct research in specialized fields; the NCL cooperates with publishers and other libraries to develop its role as a leading center for knowledge and information resources and services in Taiwan.
Following a revision to its organic law on 31 January 1996, the NCL was administratively reorganized into the following departments: Director-general's Office, Acquisitions Division, Cataloging Division, Reader Services Division, Reference Services Division, Special Collection Division, Information Division, Guidance Division, Research Division, ISBN Center, Bibliographic Information Center, Sinology Research Center, International Publication Exchange Department, General Affair Division, Accounting Office, Personnel Office, Civil Service Ethics Office. 1933: Founded in Nanjing, First Director Chiang Fu-Tsung 1938: Relocated to Chongqing 1940-41: "Rare Book Preservation Society" acquired 130,000 rare books & manuscripts for Library 1949: Relocated to Taipei, the remained in Nanjing was renamed Nanjing Library 1954: Reopened to the public at the Nanhai Academy 1981: Began sponsorship of the Resource and Information Center for Chinese Studies 1987: Resource and Information Center for Chinese Studies renamed as the Center for Chinese Studies 1988: Opened the Information and Computing Library 1996: The Organic Statute of the National Central Library promulgated 1998: Established Reference Services Division, Research Division, Guidance Division, Information Division 2003: 70th anniversary of the Library Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman List of libraries in Taipei Nanjing Library Official website Official website
North Dakota State University
North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more known as North Dakota State University, is a public research university in Fargo, North Dakota. The institution was founded as North Dakota Agricultural College in 1890 as the research land-grant institution for the state of North Dakota. NDSU is a comprehensive doctoral research university with programs involved in high research activity. NDSU offers 102 undergraduate majors, 170 undergraduate degree programs, 6 undergraduate certificate programs, 79 undergraduate minors, 81 master’s degree programs, 47 doctoral degree programs of study and 10 graduate certificate programs. There were 14,358 students attending NDSU from 47 different states and 79 different countries as of Fall 2017; the university operates the state agricultural research extension centers spread across the state on over 18,488 acres. NDSU is part of the North Dakota University System, it is one of the largest universities in the State of North Dakota. In 2015, NDSU's economic impact on the state and region was estimated to be $1.3 billion a year according to the NDUS Systemwide Economic Study by the School of Economics at North Dakota State University.
It was the fifth-largest employer in the state of North Dakota. The bill founding North Dakota Agricultural College was signed on March 8, 1890, seven years after initial plans to start an agricultural college in the northern portion of the Dakota Territory. NDAC was established as a land-grant university. On October 15, 1890, Horace E. Stockbridge became the first NDAC president and the Board of Trustees was formed. Classes were held in six classrooms rented from Fargo College. A provisional course was held on January 6, 1891, the first regular class of students was admitted on September 8, 1891. College Hall, completed in 1892, was the first building and consisted of offices, a library to serve the four NDAC students. In 1908, the school's alma mater "The Yellow and The Green" was written and a year the school’s official colors and Green, were selected. In 2015 a change was made where only the first verse of the alma mater is recognized by the university. NDAC continued to grow and was renamed North Dakota State University on November 8, 1960 after a statewide referendum.
The name change was to reflect the increasing field of study breadth of the institution. A 36-acre area including 12 historic buildings was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as North Dakota State University District in 1986. Around the start of the 21st century, NDSU began a phase of growth. NDSU surpassed 10,000 students in the fall of 2000 for the first time, by Fall Semester of 2009, NDSU increased enrollment by another 10% to 14,189 students. Enrollment in 2018 stood at 13,650. Research, athletic programs, campus facilities benefited from increases in student enrollment. Between 2000 and 2007, NDSU added a number of 31 graduate programs. Several buildings have been built or expanded and remodeled over the past seven years, including the Wallman Wellness Center, Memorial Union, the College of Business. In 2004, all athletic programs moved to Division I. North Dakota State University is located in Fargo, North Dakota. NDSU consists of several campuses including: the main campus, NDSU Downtown, several agricultural research extension centers.
The main campus consists of over 100 major buildings. The appearance of the main campus is maintained by the university's extensive agricultural programs; the main campus boundaries are 19th Avenue N. to the north, University Drive to the east, 18th St. N. to the west, 12th Avenue N. to the south. Located in the historic Minard–South Engineering quad is the Babbling Brook; the Babbling Brook is a large water feature that offers students a serene location to relax and study. Enhancing the area are trickling waterfalls, various fish and flowers, an amphitheater seating area, "buffalo-rubbed" rocks; this area offers a space for small performances. Over the years, NDSU's main campus has been aesthetically enhanced with many monuments including: the Bjornson Memorial Obelisk, Theatre Passion: Mask Sculpture, We Will Never Forget Memorial, Noble's Golden Marguerite, among many others; the southern area of campus consists of many of NDSU's historic buildings, including Old Main, Minard Hall, Ceres Hall, Putnam Hall, South Engineering, Morrill Hall.
The central area consists of the Engineering Complex, Shepperd Arena, many academic buildings, the Quentin Burdick Building, a technology powerhouse for the entire state. The QBB contains several hundred computers and computer servers for many of the universities in the North Dakota University System as well as many other technologies and communication devices; the NDSU Memorial Union is situated within the central campus and serves student social needs. In the Fall of 2014, NDSU began construction on the Science, Technology and Mathematics building. Since the building has been completed and renamed to A. Glenn Hill Center. Just north of the central area of campus is a large section that consists of many academic buildings, residence halls, dining centers; this part is recognizable as four residential high-rises tower above the landscape. They are surrounded by grassy quads, as well as basketball courts. Between the four identical high-rises a dining center serves their 1000+ residents. Tunnels connect to the towers to ease travel in bad weather.
A large new upper-class student residence, known as the Living Learning Center, is to the west of the high-rises. To the east, another dining
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
National Gallery of Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and most visited art museum; the NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection across two sites: NGV International, located on St Kilda Road in the Melbourne Arts Precinct of Southbank, the Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia, located nearby at Federation Square. The NGV International building, designed by Sir Roy Grounds, opened in 1968, was redeveloped by Mario Bellini before reopening in 2003, it is on the Victorian Heritage Register. Designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the Ian Potter Centre opened in 2002 and houses the gallery's Australian art collection. Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales in 1850, becoming effective on 1 July 1851. In the wake of the Victorian gold rush that began in August 1851, the new colony became Australia's richest, Melbourne, its capital, the largest and wealthiest city in Australia. With Melbourne's rapid growth came calls for the establishment of a public art gallery, in 1859, the Government of Victoria pledged £2000 for the acquisition of plaster casts of sculpture.
These works were displayed in the Museum of Art, opened by Governor Sir Henry Barkly in May 1861 on the lower floor of the south wing of the Public Library on Swanston Street. Further money was set aside in the early 1860s for the purchase of original paintings by British and Victorian artists; these works were first displayed in December 1864 in the newly opened Picture Gallery, which remained under the curatorial administration of the Public Library until 1882. Grand designs for a building fronting Lonsdale and Swanston streets were drawn by Nicholas Chevalier in 1860 and Frederick Grosse in 1865, featuring an enormous and elaborate library and gallery, but the visions were never realised. On 24 May 1874, the first purpose built gallery, known as the McArthur Gallery, opened in the McArthur room of the State Library, the following year, the Museum of Art was renamed the National Gallery of Victoria; the McArthur Gallery was only intended as a temporary home until the much grander vision was to be realised.
However such an edifice did not eventuate and the complex was instead developed incrementally over several decades. The National Gallery of Victoria Art School, associated with the gallery, was founded in 1867 and remained the leading centre for academic art training in Australia until about 1910; the School's graduates went on to become some of Australia's most significant artists. In 1887, the Buvelot Gallery was opened, along with the Painting School studios. In 1892, two more galleries were added: Stawell and La Trobe; the gallery's collection was built from both gifts of works of art and monetary donations. The most significant, the Felton Bequest, was established by the will of Alfred Felton and from 1904, has been used to purchase over 15,000 works of art. Since the Felton Bequest, the gallery had long held plans to build a permanent facility, however it was not until 1943 that the State Government chose a site, Wirth's Park, just south of the Yarra River. £3 million was put forward in February 1960 and Roy Grounds was announced as the architect.
In 1959, the commission to design a new gallery was awarded to the architectural firm Grounds Romberg Boyd. In 1962, Roy Grounds split from his partners Frederick Romberg and Robin Boyd, retained the commission, designed the gallery at 180 St Kilda Road; the new bluestone clad building was completed in December 1967 and Victorian premier Henry Bolte opened it on 20 August 1968. One of the features of the building is the Leonard French stained glass ceiling, one of the world's largest pieces of suspended stained glass, which casts colourful light on the floor below; the water-wall entrance is another well-known feature of the building. In 1999, redevelopment of the building was proposed, with Mario Bellini chosen as architect and an estimated project cost of $161.9 million. The proposal was to leave the original architectural fabric intact including the exterior facade and Leonard French stained glass ceiling, but to modernise the interior. During the redevelopment, many works were moved to a temporary external annex known as NGV on Russell, at the State Library with its entrance on Russell Street.
A major fundraising drive was launched on 10 October 2000 to redevelop the ageing facility and although the state government committed the majority of the funds, private donations were sought in addition to federal funding. The drive achieved its aim and secured $15 million from the Ian Potter Foundation on 11 July 2000, $3 million from Lotti Smorgon, $2 million from the Clemenger Foundation, $1 million each from James Fairfax and the Pratt Foundation. NGV on Russell closed on 30 June 2002 to make way for the staged opening of the new St Kilda Road gallery, it was opened by premier Steve Bracks on 4 December 2003. The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia in Federation Square was designed by Lab Architecture Studio to house the NGV's Australian art collection, it opened in 2002. As such, the NGV's collection is now housed in two separate buildings, with Grounds' building renamed NGV International; the NGV's Asian art collection began in 1862, one year after the gallery's founding, when Frederick Dalgety donated two Chinese plates.
The Asian collection has since grown to include significant works from across the continent. The NGV's Australian art collection encompasses Indigenous art and artefacts, Australian colonial art, Australian Impressionist art, 20th century and contemporary art; the 1880s saw the birth and development of