Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the easternmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands; the capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, they are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to other Austronesian natives of Eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan. Guam has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. In 2016, 162,742 people resided on Guam. Guam has a population density of 775 per square mile. In Oceania, it is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Among its municipalities, Mongmong-Toto-Maite has the highest population density at 3,691 per square mile, whereas Inarajan and Umatac have the lowest density at 119 per square mile; the highest point is Mount Lamlam at 1,332 feet above sea level.
Since the 1960s, the economy has been supported by two industries: tourism and the United States Armed Forces. The indigenous Chamorros settled the island 4,000 years ago. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, while in the service of Spain, was the first European to visit the island, on March 6, 1521. Guam was colonized by Spain in 1668 with settlers, including Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Catholic Jesuit missionary. Between the 16th century and the 18th century, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons. During the Spanish–American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21, 1898. Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded Guam to the United States on December 10, 1898. Guam is among the 17 non-self-governing territories listed by the United Nations. Before World War II, there were five American jurisdictions in the Pacific Ocean: Guam and Wake Island in Micronesia, American Samoa and Hawaii in Polynesia, the Philippines. On December 7, 1941, hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was captured by the Japanese, who occupied the island for two and a half years.
During the occupation, Guamanians were subjected to beheadings, forced labor and torture. American forces recaptured the island on July 21, 1944. An unofficial but used territorial motto is "Where America's Day Begins", which refers to the island's close proximity to the international date line; the original inhabitants of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands were the Chamorro people, who are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC. The ancient Chamorro society had four classes: chamorri, matua and mana'chang; the matua were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds, whereas the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matua and mana'chang communicated with each other, matua used achaot as intermediaries. There were "makåhna" or "kakahna", shamans with magical powers and "Suruhånu" or "Suruhåna" healers who use different kinds of plants and natural materials to make medicine.
Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called "Taotao mo'na" still persists as a remnant of pre-European culture. It is believed that "Suruhånu" or "Suruhåna" are the only ones who can safely harvest plants and other natural materials from their homes or "hålomtåno" without incurring the wrath of the "Taotao mo'na", their society was organized along matrilineal clans. Latte stones are stone pillars; the latte-stone was used as a foundation. Latte stones consist of a base shaped from limestone called the haligi and with a capstone, or tåsa, made either from a large brain coral or limestone, placed on top. A possible source for these stones, the Rota Latte Stone Quarry, was discovered in 1925 on Rota; the first European to travel to Guam was Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, sailing for the King of Spain, when he sighted the island on March 6, 1521, during his fleet's circumnavigation of the globe. When Magellan arrived on Guam, he was greeted by hundreds of small outrigger canoes that appeared to be flying over the water, due to their considerable speed.
These outrigger canoes were called Proas, resulted in Magellan naming Guam Islas de las Velas Latinas. Antonio Pigafetta said that the name was "Island of Sails", but he writes that the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat, fastened to the poop of the flagship." "Those people are poor, but ingenious and thievish, on account of which we called those three islands Islas de los Ladrones." Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not claimed by Spain until January 26, 1565, by General Miguel López de Legazpi. From 1565 to 1815, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, the only Spanish outposts in the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, were an important resting stop for the Manila galleons, a fleet that covered the Pacific trade route between Acapulco and Manila. To protect these Pacific fleets, Spain built several defensive structures that still stand today, such as Fort Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in Umatac. Guam is the biggest single segment of Micronesia, the largest islands between the island of Kyushu, New Guinea, the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands.
Spanish colonization commenced on June 15, 1
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure form, it is a pale blue, clear liquid more viscous than water. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide, it is used as bleaching agent and antiseptic. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry, its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its unstable peroxide bond. Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and decomposes in the presence of light; because of its instability, hydrogen peroxide is stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases; the boiling point of H2O2 has been extrapolated as being 150.2 °C 50 °C higher than water. In practice, hydrogen peroxide will undergo explosive thermal decomposition if heated to this temperature, it may be safely distilled at lower temperatures under reduced pressure.
In aqueous solutions hydrogen peroxide differs from the pure substance due to the effects of hydrogen bonding between water and hydrogen peroxide molecules. Hydrogen peroxide and water form a eutectic mixture; the boiling point of the same mixtures is depressed in relation with the mean of both boiling points. It occurs at 114 °C; this boiling point is 14 °C greater than that of pure water and 36.2 °C less than that of pure hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a nonplanar molecule as shown by Paul-Antoine Giguère in 1950 using infrared spectroscopy, with C2 symmetry. Although the O−O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a high rotational barrier of 2460 cm−1; the increased barrier is ascribed to repulsion between the lone pairs of the adjacent oxygen atoms and results in hydrogen peroxide displaying atropisomerism. The molecular structures of gaseous and crystalline H2O2 are different; this difference is attributed to the effects of hydrogen bonding, absent in the gaseous state. Crystals of H2O2 are tetragonal with the space group D44P4121.
Hydrogen peroxide has several structural analogues with Hm−X−X−Hn bonding arrangements. It has the highest boiling point of this series, its melting point is fairly high, being comparable to that of hydrazine and water, with only hydroxylamine crystallising more indicative of strong hydrogen bonding. Diphosphane and hydrogen disulfide exhibit only weak hydrogen bonding and have little chemical similarity to hydrogen peroxide. All of these analogues are thermodynamically unstable. Structurally, the analogues all adopt similar skewed structures, due to repulsion between adjacent lone pairs. Alexander von Humboldt synthesized one of the first synthetic peroxides, barium peroxide, in 1799 as a by-product of his attempts to decompose air. Nineteen years Louis Jacques Thénard recognized that this compound could be used for the preparation of a unknown compound, which he described as eau oxygénée – subsequently known as hydrogen peroxide. An improved version of Thénard's process used hydrochloric acid, followed by addition of sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct.
This process was used from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century. Thénard and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac synthesized sodium peroxide in 1811; the bleaching effect of peroxides and their salts on natural dyes became known around that time, but early attempts of industrial production of peroxides failed, the first plant producing hydrogen peroxide was built in 1873 in Berlin. The discovery of the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide by electrolysis with sulfuric acid introduced the more efficient electrochemical method, it was first implemented into industry in 1908 in Weißenstein, Austria. The anthraquinone process, still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in Ludwigshafen; the increased demand and improvements in the synthesis methods resulted in the rise of the annual production of hydrogen peroxide from 35,000 tonnes in 1950, to over 100,000 tonnes in 1960, to 300,000 tonnes by 1970. Pure hydrogen peroxide was long believed to be unstable, as early attempts to separate it from the water, present during synthesis, all failed.
This instability was due to traces of impurities, which catalyze the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Pure hydrogen peroxide was first obtained in 1894—almost 80 years after its discovery—by Richard Wolffenstein, who produced it by vacuum distillation. Determination of the molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide proved to be difficult. In 1892 the Italian physical chemist Giacomo Carrara determined its molecular mass by freezing-point depression, which confirmed that its molecular formula is H2O2. At least half a dozen hypothetical molecular structures seemed to be consistent with the available evidence. In 1934, the English mathematical physicist William Penney and the Scottish physicist Gordon Sutherland proposed a molecular structure for hydrogen peroxide, similar to the presently accepted one. Hydrogen peroxide was prepared industrially by hydrolysis of ammonium persulfate, itself obtained by the electrolysis of a solution
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Altadena is an unincorporated area and census-designated place in Los Angeles County, United States 14 miles from the downtown Los Angeles Civic Center, directly north of the city of Pasadena, California. The population was 42,777 at the 2010 census, up from 42,610 at the 2000 census. In the mid-1860s, Benjamin Eaton first developed water sources from the Arroyo Seco and Eaton Canyon to irrigate his vineyard near the edge of Eaton Canyon; this made possible the development of Altadena and South Pasadena. He did the construction for B. D. Wilson and Dr. John Griffin, who jointly owned the Mexican land grant of Rancho San Pascual, about 14,000 acres, the future sites of these three communities, they hoped to sell this land in a real estate plan called the San Pasqual Plantation. Their efforts failed by 1870, despite Eaton's irrigation ditch that drew water from the site of present-day Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Arroyo Seco, they had failed because the land was inaccessible and few believed crops could thrive that close to the mountains.
Eaton tried to sell the land for the partners, in late 1873 he helped broker a deal with Daniel Berry, who represented a group of investors from Indiana, to buy 4,000 acres of the rancho. This included the land of present-day Altadena, but they developed a 2,500 acres section further south as Pasadena. In 1881, the land that would become Altadena was sold to John and Fred Woodbury, brothers who launched the subdivision of Altadena in 1887; the land remained agricultural, though several eastern millionaires built mansions along Mariposa Street, a small community developed through the 1890s and into the next century. In 1880, Capt. Frederick Woodbury, his brother, John Woodbury of Marshalltown, purchased 937 acres known as the Woodbury Ranch. John Woodbury established the Pasadena Improvement Company in 1887, with a plot plan of residential development referred to as the Woodbury Subdivision, they contacted Byron O. Clark, who established a nursery in the foothills in 1875, had since moved away.
He called his nursery "Altadena Nursery", a name he coined from the Spanish "alta" meaning "upper", "dena" from Pasadena. Woodbury asked if he could use the name "Altadena" for his subdivision and Clark agreed; the newly sprouted community of Altadena began to attract millionaires from the East. In 1887 Andrew McNally, the printing magnate from Chicago, his good friend Col. G. G. Green, had built mansions on what was to become Millionaire's Row. Newspaper moguls William Armiger Scripps and William Kellogg built homes side by side just east of Fair Oaks Avenue. A bit farther east, Zane Grey bought a home from Arthur Herbert Woodward, added a second-floor study; the famous Benziger Publishing Company built a mansion on the corner of Santa Rosa Avenue and Mariposa. Mariposa was taken from the Spanish name for a butterfly; the grandson of Andrew McNally, Wallace Neff, became a famous Southern California architect. He started his career in Altadena with the design and construction of St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic Church (parish est.1918, dedicated in October 1926.
Redlining policies prevented African Americans from acquiring land or purchasing property in much of California. One of the areas exempt from these policies was Altadena Meadows which thrived and became one of first middle-class African American neighborhoods in the area. Over the years Altadena has been subject to attempted annexation by Pasadena. Annexation was stopped in 1956 by community campaigns, though it has been resurrected several times since by Pasadena without success. Had the annexation succeeded, Pasadena would be the 108th largest city in the United States. While Altadena long refused wholesale annexation by neighboring Pasadena, the larger community nibbled at its edges in several small annexations of neighborhoods through the 1940s. With early 1960s redevelopment in Pasadena, the routing of extensions of 134 and 210 freeways, lawsuits over the desegregation of Pasadena Unified School District, there was white flight and convulsive racial change in Altadena. In 1960, its black population was under four percent.
The name Altadena derives from the Spanish alta, meaning "upper", dena from Pasadena. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.7 square miles, over 99% of it land. Altadena experiences dry summers that are followed by warm and windy falls. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Altadena has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps; the wettest calendar year was the driest 1947 with 5.37 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 19.70 inches in February 1980. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 7.70 inches on March 2, 1938. Altadena averages 21.09 inches of rain a year, over 6 inches more than nearby Los Angeles due to the orographic effect created by the San Gabriel Mountains. Because of the slope on which the city is built, sewer lines in the city's northern section have been known to overflow significantly; the 2010 United States Census reported that Altadena had a population of 42,777. The population density was 4,900.4 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Altadena was 22,569 White, 10,136 Afri
Hair conditioner is a hair care product used to improve the feel and manageability of hair. Its main purpose of is to reduce friction between strands of hair to allow easier brushing or combing, which might otherwise cause damage to the scalp. Various other benefits are advertised, such as hair repair, strengthening, or a reduction in split-ends. Conditioners are available in a wide range of forms including viscous liquids and creams as well as thinner lotions and sprays. Hair conditioner is used after the hair has been washed with shampoo, it is applied and worked into the hair and may either be washed out a short time or left in. For centuries, natural oils have been used to condition human hair. A conditioner popular with men in the late Victorian era was Macassar oil, but this product was quite greasy and required pinning a small cloth, known as an antimacassar, to chairs and sofas to keep the upholstery from being damaged by the oil. Modern hair conditioner was created at the turn of the 20th century when perfumer Édouard Pinaud presented a product he called Brilliantine at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris.
His product was intended to soften men's hair, including mustaches. Since the invention of Pinaud's early products, modern science has advanced the hair conditioner industry to include those made with silicone, fatty alcohols, quaternary ammonium compounds; these chemical products have the benefits of hair conditioner without feeling heavy. The outermost layer of a hair follicle is called the cuticle and is composed of keratin; this is rich in cysteine groups. When the hair is washed these groups can deprotonate. Positively charged quaternary ammonium species, such as behentrimonium or polyquaternium, can become attached to the hair via electrostatic interactions. Once attached these compounds have several effects, their long hydrocarbon backbone helps to lubricate the surface of each hair follicle, reducing the sensation of roughness and assisting combing. The surface coating of cationic groups means that hair are repelled from each other electrostatically, which reduces clumping; the compounds can act as antistatic agents, which helps to reduce frizzing.
Pack conditioners are heavy and thick, with a high content of surfactants that are able to bind to the hair structure and "glue" the hair surface scales together. These are applied to the hair for a longer time; the surfactants are based on long, straight aliphatic fatty acid chains similar to saturated fatty acids. Their molecules have a tendency to crystallize giving the conditioner higher viscosity, they tend to form thicker layers on the hair surface. Leave-in conditioners are thinner and have different surfactants, which add only a little material to the hair, they are based on unsaturated fatty acid chains. This shape makes them less prone to crystallizing, making a lighter, less viscous mixture and providing a thinner layer on the hair; the difference between pack and leave-in conditioners is similar to the difference between fats and oils, the latter being less viscous. Leave-in conditioner is designed to be used in a similar way to hair oil, preventing the tangling of hair and keeping it smooth.
Its use is prevalent by those with curly or kinky hair. Ordinary conditioners combine some aspects of leave-in conditioners. Ordinary conditioners are applied directly after using shampoo, manufacturers produce a conditioner counterpart for different types of shampoo for this purpose. Hold conditioners, based on cationic polyelectrolyte polymers, hold the hair in a desired shape; these have a composition similar to diluted hair gels. There are several types of hair conditioner ingredients, differing in composition and functionality: Acidifiers, acidity regulators which maintain the conditioner's pH at about 3.5. In contact with acidic environment, the hair's somewhat scaly surface tightens up, as the hydrogen bonds between the keratin molecules are strengthened. Antistatic agents Detanglers, which modify the hair surface by pH as acidifiers, or by coating it with polymers, as glossers. Glossers, light-reflecting chemicals which bind to the hair surface. Polymers silicones, e.g. dimethicone or cyclomethicone.
Lubricants, such as fatty alcohols, dimethicone, etc. Moisturizers, whose role is to hold moisture in the hair; these contain high proportions of humectants. These could be provided by natural oils such as almond oil Oils, which can help dry/porous hair become more soft and pliable; the scalp produces. EFAs are the closest thing to natural sebum. Preservatives Reconstructors containing hydrolyzed protein, their role is to penetrate the hair and strengthen its structure through polymer crosslinking. Sequestrants, for better function in hard water. Sunscreen, for protection against protein degradation and color loss. Benzophenone-4 and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate are the two sunscreens most used in hair products. Cinnamidopyltrimonium chloride and a few others are used to a much lesser degree; the common sunscreens used on skin are used for hair products due to their texture and weight effects. Surfactants – 97% of hair consists of a protein called keratin; the surface of keratin contains negatively charged amino acids.
Hair conditioners therefore contain cationic surfactants, which don't wash out because their hydrophilic ends bind to keratin. The hydrophobic ends of the surfactant molecules act as the new hair surface. Thermal prote
Tracey Jim Walter is an American character actor. He has appeared in over television series. Walter was grew up in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of a truck driver, he played basketball. He has a daughter, he is known for his portrayal of "sidekicks" and "henchmen" such as Bob the Goon in Batman, Cookie in City Slickers, Malak in Conan the Destroyer. He portrayed Frog Rothchild Jr. on the ABC sitcom Best of the West from 1981-82. Walter has acted in six Jonathan Demme films: Something Wild, Married to the Mob, The Silence of the Lambs, Philadelphia and The Manchurian Candidate, he has been directed by Danny DeVito in three films: Matilda, Death to Smoochy, Duplex. He was directed by Jack Nicholson in The Two Jakes, he and Nicholson have appeared in nine films together, beginning with Goin' South in 1978. He appeared in a small role with Clint Eastwood in the 1982 film Honkytonk Man and has coined the phrase "Right Cheer" while playing a service station attendant as well as "Make'Em Bounce" from the movie Raggedy Man.
His portrayal of Miller, the philosopher mechanic of Alex Cox's Repo Man, earned Walter a Saturn Award in 1985 for Best Supporting Actor. In the 2000 film Erin Brockovich, Walter played Charles Embry, the PG&E employee who supplied the memo that tied an executive at the PG&E corporate headquarters to knowledge of the Hinkley station water contamination. Walter's television credits include guest appearances on Taxi, Charlie's Angels, Hill Street Blues, Amazing Stories, David Lynch's On the Air, Melrose Place, The Division, Veronica Mars, Criminal Minds and Cold Case, he appeared on Nash Bridges as Angel from 1996–2001 and on Reno 911! as Sheriff Walter Chechekevitch from 2003–2006. Tracey Walter Online Tracey Walter on IMDb Tracey Walter
Roald Dahl was a British novelist, short story writer, poet and fighter pilot. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. Born in Wales to Norwegian immigrant parents, Dahl served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, he became a flying intelligence officer, rising to the rank of acting wing commander. He rose to prominence as a writer in the 1940s with works for both children and adults, he became one of the world's best-selling authors, he has been referred to as "one of the greatest storytellers for children of the 20th century". His awards for contribution to literature include the 1983 World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the British Book Awards' Children's Author of the Year in 1990. In 2008, The Times placed Dahl 16th on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Dahl's short stories are known for their unexpected endings, his children's books for their unsentimental, macabre darkly comic mood, featuring villainous adult enemies of the child characters.
His books champion the kindhearted, feature an underlying warm sentiment. Dahl's works for children include James and the Giant Peach and the Chocolate Factory, The Witches, Fantastic Mr Fox, The BFG, The Twits and George's Marvellous Medicine, his adult works include Tales of the Unexpected. Roald Dahl was born in 1916 at Villa Marie, Fairwater Road, in Llandaff, Wales, to Norwegian parents, Harald Dahl and Sofie Magdalene Dahl. Dahl's father had emigrated to the UK from Sarpsborg in Norway, settled in Cardiff in the 1880s with his first wife, a Frenchwoman named Marie Beaurin-Gresser, they had two children together, Ellen Marguerite and Louis, before her death in 1907. His mother came over and married his father in 1911. Dahl was named after the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen, his first language was Norwegian, which he spoke at home with his parents and his sisters Astri and Else. Dahl and his sisters were raised in the Lutheran faith, were baptised at the Norwegian Church, where their parents worshipped.
In 1920, when Dahl was three years old, his seven-year-old sister, died from appendicitis. Weeks his father died of pneumonia at the age of 57; that year, his younger sister Asta was born. With the option of returning to Norway to live with relatives, Dahl's mother decided to remain in Wales, her husband Harald had wanted their children to be educated in English schools, which he considered the world's best. Dahl first attended Llandaff. At the age of eight, he and four of his friends were caned by the headmaster after putting a dead mouse in a jar of gobstoppers at the local sweet shop, owned by a "mean and loathsome" old woman called Mrs Pratchett; the five boys named their prank the "Great Mouse Plot of 1924". Gobstoppers were a favourite sweet among British schoolboys between the two World Wars, Dahl would refer to them in his creation, Everlasting Gobstopper, featured in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dahl transferred to a boarding school in England: St Peter's in Weston-super-Mare, his parents had wanted him to be educated at an English public school and, because of the regular ferry link across the Bristol Channel, this proved to be the nearest.
Dahl's time at St Peter's was unpleasant. After her death in 1967, he learned that she had saved every one of his letters, in small bundles held together with green tape. In 2016, to mark the centenary of Dahl's birth, his letters to his mother were abridged and broadcast as BBC Radio 4's Book of the Week. Dahl wrote about his time at St Peter's in his autobiography Boy: Tales of Childhood. From 1929, when he was 13, Dahl attended Repton School in Derbyshire. Dahl disliked the hazing and described an environment of ritual cruelty and status domination, with younger boys having to act as personal servants for older boys subject to terrible beatings, his biographer Donald Sturrock described these violent experiences in Dahl's early life. Dahl expresses some of these darker experiences in his writings, marked by his hatred of cruelty and corporal punishment. According to Boy: Tales of Childhood, a friend named Michael was viciously caned by headmaster Geoffrey Fisher. Writing in that same book, Dahl reflected: “All through my school life I was appalled by the fact that masters and senior boys were allowed to wound other boys, sometimes quite severely...
I couldn’t get over it. I never have got over it.” The master was selected as the Archbishop of Canterbury and crowned Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Dahl said the incident caused him to "have doubts about religion and about God", he was never seen as a talented writer in his school years, with one of his English teachers writing in his school report "I have never met anybody who so persistently writes words meaning the exact opposite of what is intended." Dahl was exceptionally tall. He played sports including cricket and golf, was made captain of the squash team; as well as having a passion for literature, he developed an interest in photography and carried a camera with him. During his years at Repton, the Cadbury chocolate company would send boxes of new chocolates to the school to be tested by the pupils. Dahl would dream of inventing a new chocolate bar.