Artists books are works of art that utilize the form of the book. They are often published in editions, though they are sometimes produced as one-of-a-kind objects. Artists books have employed a range of forms, including scrolls, fold-outs. Artists books are books or book-like objects over the appearance of which an artist has had a high degree of control. Artists books are made for a variety of reasons and they are often created to make art that is interactive, portable and easily shared. Many artists books challenge the conventional book format and become sculptural objects and they may be created in order to make art accessible to people outside of the formal contexts of galleries or museums. These works would set the tone for books, connecting self-publishing and self-distribution with the integration of text, image. All of these factors have remained key concepts in books up to the present day. As Europe plunged headlong towards World War I, various groups of artists across the continent started to focus on pamphlets, manifestos.
This move toward radicalism was exemplified by the Italian Futurists, the publication of the Futurist Manifesto,1909, on the front cover of the French daily newspaper Le Figaro was an audacious coup de théâtre that resulted in international notoriety. Marinetti used the fame to tour Europe, kickstarting movements across the continent that all veered towards book-making and pamphleteering. With regards to the creation of Artists books, the most influential offshoot of futurist principles, Marinetti visited in 1914, proselytizing on behalf of Futurist principles of speed and cacophony. Russian futurism gradually evolved into Constructivism after the Russian Revolution, centred on the key figures of Malevich, Artists books from this era include Kurt Schwitters and Kate Steinitzs book The Scarecrow, and Theo van Doesburgs periodical De Stijl. Dada was initially started at the Cabaret Voltaire, by a group of exiled artists in neutral Switzerland during World War I. Whilst concerned mainly with poetry and theory, Surrealism created a number of works that continued in the French tradition of the Livre dArtiste, one important Russian writer/artist who created artist books was Alexei Remizov.
Drawing on medieval Russian literature, he creatively combined dreams, reality, in the fifties artists in Europe developed an interest in the book, under the influence of modernist theory and in the attempt to rebuild positions destroyed by the war. A fine example of the latter is Isidore Isous Le Grand Désordre, two other examples of poet-artists whose work provided models for artists books include Marcel Broodthaers and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Yves Klein in France was similarly challenging Modernist integrity with a series of such as Yves, Peintures
The Dessert: Harmony in Red (The Red Room)
The Dessert, Harmony in Red is a painting by French artist Henri Matisse, from 1909. It is considered by critics to be Matisses masterpiece. This Fauvist painting follows the set by Impressionism with the overall lack of a central focal point. The painting was ordered as Harmony in Blue, but Matisse was dissatisfied with the result and it is in the permanent collection of the Hermitage Museum. All About Henri Matisse- Gallery Henry MyStudios- Matisse, The Dessert, A Harmony in Red
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is a modern art museum located in San Francisco, California. A nonprofit organization, SFMOMA holds an internationally recognized collection of modern and contemporary art, the museum’s current collection includes over 33,000 works of painting, photography, architecture and media arts. They are displayed in 170,000 square feet of space, making the museum one of the largest in the United States overall. SFMOMA reopened on May 14,2016, following a major expansion project. SFMOMA was founded in 1935 under director Grace L. McCann Morley as the San Francisco Museum of Art, for its first sixty years, the museum occupied the fourth floor of the War Memorial Veterans Building on Van Ness Avenue in the Civic Center. A gift of 36 artworks from Albert M. Bender, including The Flower Carrier by Diego Rivera, Bender donated more than 1,100 objects to SFMOMA during his lifetime and endowed the museums first purchase fund. The museum began its second year with an exhibition of works by Henri Matisse, in this same year the museum established its photography collection, becoming one of the first museums to recognize photography as a fine art.
SFMOMA held its first architecture exhibition, entitled Telesis, Space for Living, SFMOMA was obliged to move to a temporary facility on Post Street in March 1945 to make way for the United Nations Conference on International Organization. The museum returned to its original Van Ness location in July, that year SFMOMA hosted Jackson Pollocks first solo museum exhibition. Founding director Grace Morley held film screenings at the beginning in 1937. In 1946 Morley brought in filmmaker Frank Stauffacher to found SFMOMA’s influential Art in Cinema film series, SFMOMA continued its expansion into new media with the 1951 launch of a biweekly television program entitled Art in Your Life. The series, renamed Discovery, ran for three years, Morley ended her 23-year tenure as museum director in 1958 and was succeeded by George D. Culler and Gerald Nordland. The museum rose to prominence under director Henry T. Hopkins. Since 1967, SFMOMA has honored San Francisco Bay Area artists with its biennial SECA Art Award, the positions of director of education and director of photography were elevated to full curatorial roles.
At this time SFMOMA took on a special exhibitions program. Including major presentations of the work of Jeff Koons, Sigmar Polke, in January 1995 the museum opened its current location at 151 Third Street, adjacent to Yerba Buena Gardens in the SOMA district. Mario Botta, a Swiss architect from Canton Ticino, designed the new US$60 million facility, Art patron Phyllis Wattis helped the museum acquire key works by Magritte, Andy Warhol, Eva Hesse and Wayne Thiebaud. SFMOMA made a number of important acquisitions under the direction of David A and those and acquisitions of works by Jasper Johns, Mark Rothko, Francis Bacon, Alexander Calder, Chuck Close and Frank Stella put the institution in the top ranks of American museums of modern art
The Open Window (Matisse)
The Open Window, known as Open Window, Collioure, is a painting by Henri Matisse. The work, an oil on canvas, was painted in 1905 and it was bequeathed in 1998 by the estate of Mrs. John Hay Whitney to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. It is an example of the Fauvist style of painting that Matisse became famous for, the Open Window depicts the view out the window of his apartment in Collioure, on the Southern coast of France. We see sailboats on the water, as viewed from Matisses hotel window overlooking the harbor and he returned frequently to the theme of the open window in Paris and especially during the years in Nice and Etretat, and in his final years, particularly during the late 1940s. Image of Open Window, retrieved December 20,2016
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Le bonheur de vivre
Le bonheur de vivre is a painting by Henri Matisse. Along with Picassos Les Demoiselles dAvignon, Le bonheur de vivre is regarded as one of the pillars of early modernism, the monumental canvas was first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants of 1906, where its cadmium colors and spatial distortions caused a public expression of protest and outrage. In the central background of the piece is a group of figures that is similar to the group depicted in his painting The Dance, in the picture, there are several nude bodies of women and men in a landscape drenched with vivid color. Le bonheur de vivre features a large amount of cadmium sulfide-based yellow, portions of the painting containing cadmium sulfide are turning white or brown, degrading the work. University of Delaware Prof. Robert L, “It is a very disheartening phenomenon, considering the painting’s position in history, ” says Opila, professor of materials science at UD. Also, the presence of chloride in the paint appears to be acting as a catalyst for the deterioration and his research team theorize that the binder, an oil similar to linseed oil, may be turning brown.
Barnes Foundation, Le Bonheur de vivre Photo-oxidative degradation of yellow pigments in Matisse’s Le Bonheur de Vivre, a comparison of XANES, XPS, and FTIR methodologies. Cadmium yellow degradation mechanisms in Henri Matisse’s Le Bonheur de vivre compared to the Munch Museum’s The Scream using chemical speciation as a function of depth, Jennifer L. Mass, et al
Nord (French department)
Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders, Nord is the countrys most populous department. It contains the region of Lille, the fifth-largest urban area in France after Paris, Marseille. Within the department is located the part of France where the French Flemish dialect of Dutch is still spoken as a native language, tribes of the Belgae, such as the Menapii and Nervii were the first peoples recorded in the area known as Nord. In effect, the area known as Nord became an isogloss between the Germanic and Romance languages and this has remained evident in the place names of the region. After the the County of Flanders became part of France in the 9th century, during the 14th Century, much of the area came under the control of the Duchy of Burgundy and in subsequent centuries was therefore part of the Habsburg Netherlands and the Spanish Netherlands.
Areas that constituted Nord were ceded to France by treaties in 1659,1668, and 1678, becoming the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut, on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution, Nord became one of the original 83 departments created to replace the counties. Nord is part of the current Hauts-de-France region and is surrounded by the French departments of Pas-de-Calais and Aisne, as well as by Belgium, situated in the north of the country along the western half of the Belgian frontier, the department is unusually long and narrow. Other important cities are Valenciennes and Dunkirk. The principal rivers are the following, Lys, Scarpe, Sambre Nord is the most heavily populated department, with a population of 2,617,939, the President of the Departmental Council is the unaffiliated right-winger Jean-René Lecerf. The first President of the Fifth Republic, General Charles de Gaulle, was born in Lille in the department on 22 November 1890, until recently, the department was dominated economically by coal mining, which extended through the heart of the department from neighbouring Artois into central Belgium
Marc Zakharovich Chagall was a Russian-French artist. Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century, according to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists. For decades, he had respected as the worlds preeminent Jewish artist. Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN, and he did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra. Before World War I, he travelled between Saint Petersburg and Berlin, during this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture. He had two basic reputations, writes Lewis, as a pioneer of modernism and as a major Jewish artist. He experienced modernisms golden age in Paris, where he synthesized the art forms of Cubism and Fauvism, and the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism.
Yet throughout these phases of his style he remained most emphatically a Jewish artist, when Matisse dies, Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour really is. Marc Chagall was born Moishe Segal in a Lithuanian Jewish family in Liozna, at the time of his birth, Vitebsks population was about 66,000, with half the population being Jewish. A picturesque city of churches and synagogues, it was called Russian Toledo, as the city was built mostly of wood, little of it survived years of occupation and destruction during World War II. Chagall was the eldest of nine children, the family name, Shagal, is a variant of the name Segal, which in a Jewish community was usually borne by a Levitic family. His father, Khatskl Shagal, was employed by a herring merchant and his father worked hard, carrying heavy barrels but earning only 20 roubles each month. Chagall would include fish motifs out of respect for his father, writes Chagall biographer, Chagall wrote of these early years, Day after day and summer, at six oclock in the morning, my father got up and went off to the synagogue.
There he said his prayer for some dead man or other. On his return he made ready the samovar, drank some tea, hellish work, the work of a galley-slave. No word will ever ease my fathers lot, There was always plenty of butter and cheese on our table. Buttered bread, like a symbol, was never out of my childish hands. One of the sources of income of the Jewish population of the town was from the manufacture of clothing that was sold throughout Russia