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Pilkington Group Limited is a multinational glass manufacturing company headquartered in St Helens, United Kingdom and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Japan-based NSG Group. Prior to its acquisition by NSG in 2006 it was an independent company listed on the London Stock Exchange, the company was founded in 1826 as a partnership between members of the Pilkington and Greenall families, based in St Helens, Lancashire. The venture used the name of St Helens Crown Glass Company. On the departure from the partnership of the last Greenall in 1845, in July 1894 the business was incorporated under the Companies Act 1862 as Pilkington Brothers Limited. Pilkington was floated as a company on the London Stock Exchange in 1970. It was for years the biggest employer in the northwest industrial town. The distinctive blue-glass head office tower-block on Alexandra Business Park, off Prescot Road, used as the firms world HQ, Pilkington allowed the Float Process to be used under licence by numerous manufacturers around the world. A rank and file strike in 1970, sparked off by an error in wage packets, anti-union legislation was introduced by central government.
In late 1985, Pilkington was the subject of an unfriendly take-over bid from BTR Industries, pilkingtons efforts to reject the bid were assisted by its employees, the town and some government ministers. Their joint successful work was followed by a withdrawal of BTRs offer in early 1986, Pilkington aggressively protected its patents and trade secrets through a network of licensing agreements with glass manufacturers around the world. The modern float technique became widespread when Alistair Pilkington developed a practical version, patented in the late 1950s. As Pilkington plc owned all but one of the plants around the world employing the float process Pilkington had a monopoly. Although the patents had expired by the early 1980s, Pilkington had licensed their use, the agreement came into force on 22 December 1994, and expired ten years later. In late 2005 the company received a bid from the smaller Japanese company NSG. Pilkington had 19% and NSG around half that, the acquisition was completed in June 2006, after the European Commission stated that it would not be opposed.
Pilkington has developed a self-cleaning coated float glass product, called Pilkington Activ and this self-cleaning glass has a coating which uses a method of photocatalysis to break down organic dirt with sunlight. The dirt is washed away by the rain during a hydrophilic process. Pilkington has developed and launched Pilkington energiKare – Energy Efficient Glazing, notes Bibliography Official website Official UK site Pilkington energiKare – Energy Efficient Glazing
PPG Industries, Inc. is an American Fortune 500 company and global supplier of paints, specialty materials, and fiberglass. With headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, PPG operates in more than 70 countries around the globe, by revenue it is the largest coatings company in the world. It is headquartered in PPG Place, an office and retail complex in downtown Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company was founded in 1883 by Captain John Baptiste Ford and John Pitcairn, Jr. at Creighton, Pennsylvania. Based in Creighton, Pennsylvania, PPG soon became the United States first commercially successful producer of high-quality, PPG was the worlds first plate glass plant to power its furnaces with locally produced natural gas, an innovation which rapidly stimulated widespread industrial use of the cleaner-burning fuel. By 1900, known as the Glass Trust, it included 10 plants, had a 65 percent share of the U. S. plate glass market, and had become the nations second largest producer of paint. Today, known as PPG Industries, the company is a multibillion-dollar and it now produces coatings, glass and chemicals.
Pitcairn served as a director of PPG from its start, its president from 1897 to 1905, on 19 December 1968 the company changed its name to PPG Industries, Inc. to show its diverse offerings. Ditzler Color Company, established in 1902 in Detroit as an automotive color concern, was purchased by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in 1928, in the mid-1980s, Cipisa, a Spanish paint company was acquired and renamed PPG Ibérica. The CEO of Cipisa, Pere Nadal Carres became CEO of PPG Ibérica, in 1990 PPG founded Transitions Optical as a joint venture with Essilor. In October 2000, PPG Industries announced it had agreed to buy Courtaulds Aerospace for $512.5 million, based in Glendale, the aerospace business has annual sales of approximately $US240 million, employs 1,200 people. The business operates 14 application-support centres in North America, Africa, in 2007, the company was involved in a lawsuit on failing to disclose a purchase reduction of its two major auto glass customers. On 2 January 2008, PPG acquired the SigmaKalon Group of companies for $3.2 billion from private investment firm Bain Capital, strongly increasing its paint, in 2008, PPG renamed their automotive glass division PGW and sold a majority of it to Kohlberg & Company.
2013 revenue was US$15.1 billion, while assets were US$15.9 billion, chuck Bunch remains Executive Chairman, while Michael McGarry serves as President & CEO. In July 2016, PPG announced its sale of the glass business to Vitro. In October 2016, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette announced the acquisition of the rights to Consol Energy Center by PPG. Stringent standards were agreed to in a court settlement. PPG has been involved in sports for years, including being the primary. On October 4th,2016, it was announced that The Consol Energy Center would be giving up its naming rights, columbia-Southern Chemical Corporation Dimetcote Self-cleaning glass Transitions Lenses, a joint venture since 1990
Franz Mayer & Co. is a famous German stained glass design and manufacturing company, based in Munich, that has been active throughout most of the world for over 150 years. Franz Mayer and Co. were stained glass artists to the Holy See and, the Mayer Co. is responsible for stained glass in at least ten of Irelands Cathedral churches. The work of Franz Mayer & Co. in Ireland is currently the subject of research at Trinity College Dublin. Patrick’s College, Cathedral of St Patrick and St Colman, Dominican Church, Loreto Convent, Church of the Sacred Heart, Co. Fethlimidh, County Cavan, St. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny, St. Matthews Church, skibbereen, Templeague, St. Peter’s Phibsborough, Park Rd. Dún Laoghaire, Abingdon, St. John’s, Sligo. Marks Church of Ireland, Ligoniel Road, Belfast, St. Nicholas Church of Ireland, Adare, Co. John the Baptist, Charleston, SC Chapel of the Rock, Saint Malo Church, St Johns Church, Acaster Selby, near York, North Yorkshire, England Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire, England - east single lancet in SE transept and east window in NE chapel.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass. Lead glass contains typically 18–40 weight% lead oxide, while modern lead crystal, historically known as flint glass due to the original silica source. Lead glass is desirable owing to its decorative properties, originally discovered by Englishman George Ravenscroft in 1674, the technique of adding lead oxide improved the appearance of the glass and made it easier to melt using sea-coal as a furnace fuel. This technique increased the period making the glass easier to manipulate. The term lead crystal is, by technicality, not a term to describe lead glass, as glass. The use of the lead crystal remains popular for historical and commercial reasons. It is retained from the Venetian word cristallo to describe the rock crystal imitated by Murano glassmakers and this naming convention has been maintained to the present day to describe decorative hollow-ware. Lead crystal glassware was formerly used to store and serve drinks, but due to the health risks of lead.
One alternative material is glass, in which barium oxide, zinc oxide. Lead-free crystal has a refractive index to lead crystal, but it is lighter. In the European Union, labeling of products is regulated by Council Directive 69/493/EEC. Only glass products containing at least 24% of lead oxide may be referred to as lead crystal, products with less lead oxide, or glass products with other metal oxides used in place of lead oxide, must be labeled crystallin or crystal glass. The addition of oxide to glass raises its refractive index and lowers its working temperature. The attractive optical properties of lead glass result from the content of the heavy metal lead. The high atomic number of lead raises the density of the material, since lead has a high atomic weight of 207.2. The density of glass is 2.4 g/cm3 or below, while typical lead crystal has a density of around 3.1 g/cm3. The brilliance of lead crystal relies on the refractive index caused by the lead content. Ordinary glass has a index of n =1.5
Johns Manville is an American corporation based in Denver, Colorado that manufactures insulation, roofing materials, and engineered products. Johns Manville stock was included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average from January 29,1930 to August 27,1982 when it was replaced by American Express, in 1981, Johns-Manville Corporation was renamed simply Manville. In 1982, facing unprecedented liability for injury claims, Johns Manville voluntarily filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the U. S. Bankruptcy Code. Berkshire Hathaway bought the company in 2001, Chairman & CEO Jerry Henry retired in 2004, Steve Hochhauser became Chairman, President & CEO. Todd Raba succeeded him in the summer of 2007, Raba came from MidAmerican Energy Holdings, in November 2012, Mary Rhinehart was named President & CEO. Founded in 1858, the modern Johns-Manville entity was the result of the merger of two early construction products manufacturers, at the age of 21, Henry Ward Johns had already patented roofing and insulation products.
He founded the H. W. Johns Manufacturing Company in New York City, likewise, in 1885, the Manville Covering Company was founded in Wisconsin by C. B. Manvilles grandson was the much-married socialite Tommy Manville, in 1901, H. W. Johns Manufacturing and Manville Covering Co. merged to form H. W. Johns-Manville Company. In 1926, the company was renamed Johns-Manville Corporation, in the 1930s, the industrialist Lewis H. Brown was president of the Johns-Manville Corporation. In 1949, the Canadian branch of the corporation was involved in the Asbestos Strike at its mines in Asbestos, in 1958, Johns Manville bought Glass Fibers, Inc. based in Toledo, OH from Randolph Barnard. This purchase propelled Manvilles insulation division, at the time Dominick Labino was working for Glass Fibers and Labino both joined Johns Manville. Starting as early as 1929, Johns Manville employees began claiming disability from lung diseases, from approximately 1930-1950, attorney Vandiver Brown handled involvement in such lawsuits.
During the 1960s, 70s and 80s, J-M faced thousands of individual and class action lawsuits based on asbestos-related injuries such as asbestosis, lung cancer, many new settlements include offering $600 for asbestosis while the Fait Act calls for $12,000 for this condition level. As a result, Manville voluntarily filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1982, at that time, it was the largest company in United States history to have done so. The filing shocked financial analysts, but a few, such as Gary J. Aguirre, had predicted the filing and had forced Manville to post a bond to guarantee payment to their clients. The bankruptcy was resolved by the formation of the Manville Trust to pay asbestos tort claimants in a fashion by giving the trust the lions share of the equity in the company. The bankruptcy took over 5 years to process and resulted in protracted litigation, the Manville Trust is still in operation today. The company emerged from Chapter 11 in 1988 as Manville Corporation, in 1997, the company changed its name back to Johns Manville without the hyphen, and this is the name under which it does business today
Owens Corning is a global company that develops and produces insulation and fiberglass composites. It was formed in 1935 as a partnership between two major American glassworks, Corning Glass Works and Owens-Illinois, the company employs approximately 15,000 people around the world. Owens Corning has been a Fortune 500 company every year since the list was created in 1955, Owens-Corning Fiberglass Company was formed in 1935 through the merger of Owens-Illinois and Corning Glass Works. It became a company in 1938 with its headquarters established in Toledo. In 1938, the sales reached $2.6 million. The company held its public offering on the New York Stock Exchange in 1952. In 1955, Owens-Corning purchased land for a research and testing facility near Granville, in 1955, Owens-Corning made the first Fortune 500 company list. The company has been on the Fortune 500 list every year since its creation, in 1965, Owens-Corning Fiberglas Europe was formed. In 1966, Owens-Corning established a partnership with Armstrong Rubber Co.
to produce fiberglass-reinforced automobile tires, by 1971, Owens-Cornings annual revenue was over $500 million. In 1974, the opened a temporary plant to produce insulation for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. In 1977, Owens-Corning acquired Frye Roofing and began production of fiberglass mat to replace traditional paper mat used in roofing, Owens-Corning sales surpassed $1 billion in 1976, and sales were over $2 billion by 1979. In 1978, two shipyard workers filed a class action lawsuit against which alleged that Owens Corning and 14 other manufacturers had known about asbestos-containing products, Owens-Corning began using the United Artists cartoon character Pink Panther in its PINK Fiberglas insulation marketing in 1979. In 1985, Owens-Corning acquired Aerospace and Strategic Metals Group in Newport Beach, the color PINK was trademarked through Owens-Corning in 1986, making it the first company to trademark a color. By 1990, Owens Corning was the defendant in about 84,500 asbestos-related lawsuits, the company opened an Asia/Pacific division in 1993.
In May 1994, Owens Corning acquired UC Industries, which produced Foamular polystyrene insulation, in 1996, the company changed its name to Owens Corning. In May 1997, Owens Corning acquired Fibreboard Corporation, a siding and other industrial material manufacturer. The company was ordered to pay $5 million to a victim in 1997. In 1999, a jury in federal court in Florida awarded $1.8 million compensatory damages
OSRAM Licht AG is a multinational lighting manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Germany. OSRAM was founded in 1919 by the merger of the businesses of Auergesellschaft, Siemens & Halske. On 5 July 2013, OSRAM was spun off from Siemens, the Osram name is derived from osmium and Wolfram, as both these elements were commonly used for lighting filaments at the time the company was founded. The brand name of OSRAM was born in 1906 and registered by the Deutsche Gasglühlicht-Anstalt, in 1906 the Osram incandescent lamp was developed by Carl Auer von Welsbach. The British General Electric Company imported Osram filaments for their own production of light bulbs, in 1919 Auergesellschaft, Siemens & Halske and Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft combined their electric-lamp production with the formation of the company Osram. In 1998 Osram acquired the business of ECE Industries India Ltd at a cost of $9.55 million. In 2009 Osram acquired TRAXON Technologies, on 8 July 2013 Siemens spun off Osram, which listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
Osram is a corporation with headquarters in Munich and it employs around 34,000 people throughout the world. Osram has operations in over 120 countries, in the 2014 financial year, revenue of about €5.1 billion was achieved. Osram Opto Semiconductors is an owned subsidiary of Osram which designs. One of the products of this subsidiary is light-emitting diodes. Besides its headquarters in Regensburg, Germany, it has production sites in Penang and Wuxi, China. Osram Sylvania Inc. manufactures and markets a range of lighting products for homes, business. In fiscal year 2006, the company achieved sales of about 2 billion euros and it employs about 11,200 people in North America and is headquartered in Wilmington, north of Boston. Most of the products are marketed in North and South America under the SYLVANIA or OSRAM brand names. Traxon Technologies, together with its brand, e, cue lighting control, is a solid state lighting. In 2009, Traxon Technologies entered into a joint venture with OSRAM, german football manager Jupp Heynckes was nicknamed Osram because his face would sometimes redden under the stress of matches.
Swedes are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden. They mostly inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries, in particular Finland, with a substantial diaspora in other countries, the English term Swede has been attested in English since the late 16th century and is of Middle Dutch or Middle Low German origin. The term is believed to have derived from the Proto-Indo-European reflexive pronominal root, *se. The word must have meant ones own, the same root and original meaning is found in the ethnonym of the Germanic tribe Suebi, preserved to this day in the name Swabia. Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in AD98, in Germania 44,45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow in both ends. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. In the 6th century Jordanes named two tribes, which he calls the Suehans and the Suetidi, who lived in Scandza and these two names are both considered to refer to the same tribe.
The Suehans, he says, has very fine horses just as the Thyringi tribe, the Icelander Snorri Sturluson wrote of the 6th-century Swedish king Adils that he had the finest horses of his days. The Suehans supplied black fox-skins for the Roman market, Jordanes names the Suetidi which is considered to be the Latin form of Svitjod. He writes that the Suetidi are the tallest of men - together with the Dani, he mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of the same height. Originating in semi-legendary Scandza, a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD and they reaching Scythia on the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine, where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths. Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in the Crimea until the late 18th century, the Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly between the 8th and 11th centuries. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and it is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar mainly travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea and further as far as Baghdad.
Their routes passed through the Dnieper down south to Constantinople, on which they did numerous raids, the Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the varangian guard. The Swedish Vikings, called Rus are believed to be the fathers of Kievan Rus. The Arabic traveller Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as following, I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys, each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times. The swords are broad and grooved, of Frankish sort, the adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones
A designer is a person who designs. More formally, a designer is an agent that specifies the properties of a design object. In practice, anyone who creates tangible or intangible objects, processes, games, services, the main area of design was only architecture, which were understood as the major arts. The design of clothing and other artifacts were left mostly to tradition or artisans specializing in hand making them. The classical areas are now subdivided into smaller and more specialized domains of design according to the designed or perhaps its means of production. When designers speak of graphic design they speak of it in terms of simplifying complexity so users do not feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems, more information can lead to a better, simpler solution to whatever problem the designer is trying to solve. Using research methodology to solve problems is one of the most important aspects of design, it enables the designer to properly assess the clients and audience needs.
Part of a job is to get to know the audience they intend on canvassing. The methods of teaching or the program and theories followed vary according to schools, for more complex products, the team will be composed of professionals from other areas like engineers, advertising specialists, and others as required. Different types of designers include, Architect Design Design engineer Design firm Design thinking Visual arts
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Based in Torrington in north Devon, Dartington Crystal manufactures crystal glassware using traditional Swedish glass blowing techniques. Many of their ranges continue to be made in their North Devon factory, the company was founded by the Dartington Hall Trust, a charity which aimed to assist the economic regeneration of rural areas through business and the arts. In the early sixties the trust had become concerned that north Devon was becoming depopulated as a lack of job opportunities forced people to move elsewhere to find work. The glass-making factory was intended to be a solution this problem, to achieve this vision the trust recruited Eskil Vilhemson, a Swedish glass manufacturer, to be the companys Managing Director. A team of Scandinavian glass blowers came with him to Torrington, some of whom are still there to this day, a year in 1969 more glass blowers followed, one Italian and a couple from Denmark. Demand outstripped production in the 1970s and the factory had to be expanded, by the 1980s the modern image of Dartington had attracted the attention of Wedgwood who took up a large stake in the business, allowing for further expansion.
In 1987, Frank Thrower MBE died of cancer, but the business boomed in the late 1980s. In 1989 Dartington Hall Trust sold a controlling interest to the Rockware Group, whose investment in the business allowed a modern batch mixing plant and new retail shop to be built. The business underwent a management buyout in 1994 from BTR, who had acquired the Rockware Group. The business was acquired by US giftware giant Enesco in 2004. Dartington Crystal underwent another Management Buy Out in April 2006, safeguarding many skilled jobs in the area, Dartington Crystal bought Scottish-based Caithness Glass out of receivership in October 2006 and owns Royal Brierley Crystal which is based in the West Midlands. Indeed, this has given Dartington a modern and contemporary image which has kept it ahead of others, todays most popular ranges include Wine Master, Florabundance as well as Sharon and Dimple which are still made today. This replica can be seen in the Visitors Centre at the Torrington site, commissions include Holland & Holland, Rolls Royce Motor, P&O Cruises and Chivas Regal as well as many others.
Dartington are one of just a few remaining large scale producers of crystal and glass in the UK, not all of their crystal is made in Devon while they design and source other glassware from European suppliers. In addition to Dartington crystal and glass products, the Company owns and markets the Caithness Glass and they sell and distribute John Beswick ceramic character sculptures